Avritzer, Leonardo. 2009. Participatory Institutions in Democratic Brazil. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Baiocchi, Gianpaolo. 2005. Militants and Citizens: The Politics of Participation in Porto Alegre. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
Birdsall, Nancy, Lustig, Nora, and McLeod, Darryl. 2011.
Coppedge, Michael. 1994. Strong Parties and Lame Ducks: Presidential Partyarchy and Factionalism in Venezuela. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
Coppedge, Michael. 2005. “Explaining Democratic Deterioration in Venezuela through Nested Inference.” In The Third Wave of Democratization in Latin America: Advances and Setbacks, ed. Hagopian, Frances and Mainwaring, Scott. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 289–320.
Coppedge, M., and Herring, J., Altman, with D., Bernhard, M., Fish, S., Hicken, A., Kroenig, M., Lindbergh, S., McMann, K., Paxton, P., Semetko, H., Skanning, Ñ-E., Staton, J., and Teorell, J.. 2011. “Conceptualizing and Measuring Democracy: A New Approach.” Perspective on Politics 9(2): 247–67.
Corrales, Javier. 2002. Presidents without Parties: The Politics of Economic Reform in Argentina and Venezuela in the 1990s. University Park: The Pennsylvania State University Press.
Crisp, Brian, Levine, Daniel H., and Molina, José E.. 2003. “The Rise and Decline of COPEI in Venezuela.” In Christian Democracy in Latin America: Electoral Competition and Regime Conflicts, ed. Mainwaring, Scott and Scully, Timothy R.. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 275–300.
Dahl, Robert. 1971. Polyarchy: Participation and Opposition. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Dietz, Henry, and Myers, David. 2007. “From Thaw to Deluge: Party System Collapse in Venezuela and Peru.” Latin American Politics and Society 49(2): 61.
Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean. 2010. Social Panorama of Latin America 2010. Santiago, Chile.
Fung, Archon. 2011. “Reinventing Democracy in Latin America.” Perspectives on Politics 9(4): 857–71.
Gates, Leslie C. 2010. Electing Chávez: The Business of Anti-Neoliberal Politics in Venezuela. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press.
Goldfrank, Benjamin. 2011. “The Left and Participatory Democracy: Brazil, Uruguay, and Venezuela.” In The Resurgence of the Latin American Left, ed. Levitsky, Steven and Roberts, Kenneth M.. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 162–83.
Handlin, Samuel, and Collier, Ruth Berins. 2011. “The Diversity of Left Party Linkages and Competitive Advantage.” In The Resurgence of the Latin American Left, ed. Levitsky, Steven and Roberts, Kenneth M.. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 139–61.
Hawkins, Kirk A. 2010a. Venezuela's Chavismo and Populism in Comparative Perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Hawkins, Kirk A. 2010b. “Who Mobilizes? Participatory Democracy in Chávez's Bolivarian Revolution.” Latin American Politics and Society 52(3): 31–66.
Huber, Evelyn, and Stephens, John. 2012. Democracy and the Left. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
Huntington, Samuel P. 1968. Political Order in Changing Societies. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Karl, Terry Lynn. 1997. The Paradox of Plenty: Oil Booms and Petro-States. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Kaufman, Robert R. 2011. “The Political Left, The Export Boom, and the Populist Temptation.” In The Resurgence of the Latin American Left, ed. Levitsky, Steven and Roberts, Kenneth M.. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 93–116.
Kornblith, Miriam. 2005. “Elections versus Democracy.” Journal of Democracy 16(1): 124–37.
Kornblith, Miriam, and Levine, Daniel H.. 1995. “Venezuela: The Life and Times of the Party System.” In Building Democratic Institutions: Parties and Party Systems in Latin America, ed. Mainwaring, Scott and Scully, Timothy. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 37–71.
Kuran, Timur. 1991. “Now out of Never: The Element of Surprise in the East European Revolution of 1989.” World Politics 44(1): 7–48.
Levine, Daniel H. 1973. Conflict and Political Change in Venezuela. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Levitsky, Steven, and Way, Lucan. 2010. Competitive Authoritarianism: Hybrid Regimes after the Cold War. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Linz, Juan J. 1978. The Breakdown of Democratic Regimes: Crisis, Breakdown and Reequilibration. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press.
Lopez Maya, Margarita. 2011. “Venezuela: Hugo Chávez and the Populist Left.” In The Resurgence of the Latin American Left, ed. Levitsky, Steven and Roberts, Kenneth M.. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 213–38.
Lupu, Noam. 2012.
Mahoney, James, and Snyder, Richard. 1999. “Rethinking Agency and Structure in the Study of Regime Change.” Studies in Comparative International Development 34(2): 3–32.
Mainwaring, Scott, Brinks, Daniel, and Pérez-Liñán, Aníbal. 2007. “Classifying Political Regimes in Latin America, 1945–2004.” In Regimes and Democracy in Latin America: Theories and Methods, ed. Munck, Gerardo. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 123–60.
Mayorga, René. “.”
Murillo, María Victoria, Oliveros, Virginia, and Vaishnav, Milan. 2011. “Economic Constraints and Presidential Agency.” In The Resurgence of the Latin American Left, ed. Levitsky, Steven and Roberts, Kenneth M.. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 52–70.
O'Donnell, Guillermo. 1993. “On the State, Democratization, and Some Conceptual Problems: A Latin American View with Glances at some Postcommunist Countries.” World Development 21(8): 1355–69.
O'Donnell, Guillermo. 1994. “Delegative Democracy.” Journal of Demoracy 5(1): 56–69.
O'Donnell, Guillermo, and Schmitter, Philippe. 1986. Transitions from Authoritarian Rule: Tentative Conclusions. Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press.
Pateman, Carole. 2012. “Participatory Democracy Revisited.” Perspectives on Politics 10(1): 7–19.
Pérez-Liñán, Aníbal. 2007. Presidential Impeachment and the New Political Instability in Latin America. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Pérez-Liñán, Aníbal, and Mainwaring, Scott. “Regime Legacies and Levels of Democracy: Evidence from Latin America.” Comparative Politics.
Przeworski, Adam, Alvarez, Michael E., Cheibub, José Antonio, and Limongi, Fernando. 2000. Democracy and Development: Political Institutions and Well-Being in the World, 1050–1990. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Rodríguez, Francisco. 2008. “An Empty Revolution: The Unfulfilled Promises of Hugo Chávez.” Foreign Affairs, : 49–62.
Stepan, Alfred. 1978. “Political Leadership and Regime Breakdown: Brazil.” In The Breakdown of Democratic Regimes: Latin America, ed. Linz, Juan J. and Stepan, Alfred. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 110–37.
Tanaka, Martín. 1998. Los espejismos de la democracia: El colapso del sistema de partidos en el Perú. Lima: Instituto de Estudios Peruanos.
Tanaka, Martín. 2006. “From Crisis to Collapse of the Party System and Dilemmas of Democratic Representation: Peru and Venezuela.” In The Crisis of Democratic Representation in the Andes, ed. Mainwaring, Scott et al. Standford: Standford University Press, 47–77.
Trinkunas, Harold, and McCoy, Jennifer. 1999. Observation of the 1998 Venezuelan Elections: A Report of the Council of Freely Elected Heads of Government. Atlanta: Latin American and Caribbean Program, The Carter Center.
Wampler, Brian. 2007. Participatory Budgeting in Brazil: Contestation, Cooperation, and Accountability. University Park: The Pennsylvania State University Press.
Weyland, Kurt. 2009. “The Rise of Latin America's Two Lefts: Insights from Rentier State Theory.” Comparative Politics 41(2): 145–64.
Weyland, Kurt. 2011. “The Left: Destroyer or Savior of the Market Model.” In The Resurgence of the Latin American Left, ed. Levitsky, Steven and Roberts, Kenneth M.. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 71–92.
Weyland, Kurt, Madrid, Raúl L., and Hunter, Wendy, eds. 2010. Leftist Governments in Latin America: Successes and Shortcomings. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.