Skip to main content

How ACORN Was Framed: Political Controversy and Media Agenda Setting

  • Peter Dreier (a1) and Christopher R. Martin (a2)

Using the news controversy over the community group ACORN, we illustrate the way that the media help set the agenda for public debate and frame the way that debate is shaped. Opinion entrepreneurs (primarily business and conservative groups and individuals, often working through web sites) set the story in motion as early as 2006, the conservative echo chamber orchestrated an anti-ACORN campaign in 2008, the Republican presidential campaign repeated the allegations with a more prominent platform, and the mainstream media reported the allegations without investigating their veracity. As a result, the little-known community organization became the subject of great controversy in the 2008 US presidential campaign, and was recognizable by 82 percent of respondents in a national survey. We analyze 2007–2008 coverage of ACORN by 15 major news media organizations and the narrative frames of their 647 stories during that period. Voter fraud was the dominant story frame, with 55 percent of the stories analyzed using it. We demonstrate that the national news media agenda is easily permeated by a persistent media campaign by opinion entrepreneurs alleging controversy, even when there is little or no truth to the story. Conversely, local news media, working outside of elite national news media sources to verify the most essential facts of the story, were the least likely to latch onto the “voter fraud” bandwagon.

Hide All
ACORN. 2009. “Who is ACORN?, accessed January 3, 2009.
Activist Groups Pickets Citigroup in 20 Cities.” 1999. American Banker. October 29.
Alinsky, Saul. 1946. Reveille for Radicals. New York: Vintage.
Alinsky, Saul. 1971. Rules for Radicals. New York: Vintage.
Althaus, Scott L., and Tewksbury, David. 2002. “Agenda Setting and the ‘New’ News: Of Issue Importance among Readers of thePaper and Online Versions of The New York Times.” Communication Research 29: 180207.
Associated Press. 2009a. “New Director of Census Bureau Is Approved.” New York Times, July 13., accessed January 8, 2010.
Associated Press. 2009b. “ACORN inquiry finds no illegal acts.” Washington Post. December 8, A09.
Atlas, John. 2007. “Mock the Vote.” Shelterforce Online. Summer, No. 150,, accessed January 6, 2010.
Atlas, John. 2010. Seeds of Change: The Story of ACORN, America's Most Controversial Antipoverty Community Organizing Group. Nashville: Vanderbilt University Press.
Avila, Jim. 2008. “A Closer Look; Voter Fraud Charges Fly.” ABC World News Sunday. October 19.
Beck, Glenn. 2009a. Glenn Beck Show. Fox News Channel. December 8.
Beck, Glenn. 2009b. Glenn Beck Show. Fox News Channel. September 18.
Bedard, Paul. 2009. “Top 10 Political Scandals of 2009.” U.S. News & World Report., accessed December 31, 2009.
Bennett, W. Lance, Lawrence, Regina G., and Livingston, Steven. 2007. When The Press Fails: Political Power and the News Media from Iraq to Katrina. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Blazina, Ed. 2008. “Elections Bureau Prepares for a Crush.” Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, November 3, A1.
Boehner, John. 2009. “ACORN Could Get Billions from Democrats' Trillion Dollar Spending Plan: ‘Job Creation’ Bill Offers Taxpayer-Funded Bonanza for Organization Reportedly Under Federal Investigation.” January 23,, accessed April 10, 2009.
Boyte, Harry. 1980. The Backyard Revolution. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
Brock, David. 2004. The Republican Noise Machine. New York: Crown.
Callahan, David, and Minnite, Lorraine. 2007. Securing the Vote: An Analysis of Election Fraud. New York: Demos.
Campbell, Richard, Martin, Christopher R., and Fabos, Bettina. 2010. Media & Culture: An Introduction to Mass Communication, 7th ed. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's.
Carlson, Nicholas. 2009. “23 of Top 25 Newspapers Post Circulation Declines,” Business Insider, April 27., accessed Aug. 23, 2009.
Chaffee, Steven H., and Metzger, Miriam J.. 2001. “The End of Mass Communication?Mass Communication & Society 4(4): 365–79.
Chetry, Kiran. 2008. American Morning. CNN, October 15.
Chong, Dennis, and Druckman, James N.. 2007. “Framing Theory.” Annual Review of Political Science 10: 103–26.
Clawson, Daniel. 2003. The Next Upsurge: Labor and the New Social Movements. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Cloward, Richard A., and Piven, Frances Fox. 1966. “The Weight of the Poor: A Strategy to End Poverty.” The Nation, May 2. Republished, accessed April 17, 2010.
Congressional Research Service. 2009. “Memorandum to House Judiciary Committee.” December 22., accessed December 31, 2009.
Connell, Rich. 2000. “Safeguards Sought for Inner City Borrowers.” Los Angeles Times. March 12, B6.
Correal, Annie. 2007. “Hempstead Redevelopment Plan Scuttled.” New York Times. October 7, sec. 14LI, 9.
Crowley, Monica. 2009. “Factor Flashback: ACORN Answers Charges.” The O'Reilly Factor. Fox News, December 23.
Day, Kathleen, 2000. “Greenspan Targets Unfair Lending,” Washington Post, March 23, E01.
Delgado, Gary. 1986. Organizing the Movement: Roots and Growth of ACORN. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
Diaz, Kevin. 2008. “Voter Sign-Up Sets Off a Furor.” Minneapolis Star Tribune. October 24, 1A.
Discover The A Guide to the Political Left. 2009. “Association of Community Organizations for Reform Now.”, accessed June 14, 2009.
Dolny, Michael. 2007. “Think Tank Sources Fall, but Left Gains Slightly; Progressive groups still a small slice,” Extra!, March/April,, accessed December 20, 2009.
Doyle, Charles, Jefferson, Julius, Peterson, Meredith, Taylor, Julia, and Thomas, Kenneth. 2009. “Association of Community Organizations for Reform Now (ACORN)” Memo to the House Judiciary Committee, Congressional Research Service, Washington, DC. December 22., accessed December 23, 2009.
Dreier, Peter. 2005. “How the Media Compounds Urban Problems,Journal of Urban Affairs 27(2): 193201.
Dreier, Peter. 2009. “Organizing in the Obama Era: A Progressive Moment or a New Progressive Era?John Marshall Law Review 42(3): 685722.
Dreier, Peter. 2010. “The Right's Conspiracy Theory Attack on Frances Fox Piven,” Huffington Post, March 23.
Dreier, Peter, and Atlas, John. 2008. “The GOP's Blame-ACORN Game.” The Nation, October 22,
Dreier, Peter, and Gitlin, Todd. 2009. “Demonstrations at CEO Mansions? Ho Hum.” Columbia Journalism Review. October 5., accessed March 30, 2010.
Dreier, Peter, and Moberg, David. 2008. “Community Organizers: Thank You, Sarah Palin.” Huffington Post, September 26.
Drew, Christopher, and Lipton, Eric. 2007. “G.O.P. Anger in Swing State Eased Attorney's Exit.” New York Times, March 18., accessed March 17, 2009.
Employment Policies Institute. 2009., accessed March 29, 2009.
Entman, Robert M. 2003. “Cascading Activation: Contesting the White House's Frame After 9/11.” Political Communication 20: 415–32.
Entman, Robert M. 2004. Projections of Power: Framing News, Public Opinion, and U.S. Foreign Policy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Entman, Robert M. 2007. “Framing Bias: Media in the Distribution of Power.” Journal of Communication 57: 163–73.
Ervin, Keith. 2007. “Felony Charges Filed against 7 in State's Biggest Case of Voter-Registration Fraud.” Seattle Times, July 26., accessed December 29, 2009.
Farah, Joseph. 2010. “Obama's Strategy Exposed by WND Editor Joseph Farah—Tea Party Conv, Nashville Feb 05, 2010.”, accessed April 17, 2010.
Fessler, Pam. 2008. “Republicans, ACORN Spar Over Voter Registration.” All Things Considered. NPR, October 14.
Fields, Reginald. 2008. “Republicans, Strickland Stoke Registration Issue.” Cleveland Plain Dealer, October 21.
Final Vote Results for Roll Call 718.” 2009. September 17., accessed April 16, 2010.
Fisher, Robert. 1994. Let the People Decide: Neighborhood Organizing in America. Updated ed. New York: Twayne Publishers.
Fisher, Robert, ed. 2009. The People Shall Rule: ACORN, Community Organizing, and the Struggle for Economic Justice. Nashville: Vanderbilt University Press.
Fitzgerald, Thomas. 2008. “Edwards in N. Phila. to Help Fight Poverty; The Former Candidate for President Helped Launch a Nationwide Bid to Aid the Poor.” Philadelphia Inquirer, May 14.
Flaherty, Mary Pat. 2008. “In Ohio, Charges Fly in Fight Over Absentee Ballots.” Washington Post, October 21, A05.
Flyvbjerg, Bent. 2001. Making Social Science Matter: Why Social Inquiry Fails and How It Can Succeed Again. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Freedman, Samuel. 1993. Upon This Rock: The Miracles of a Black Church. New York: Harper Collins.
Friedman, Brad. 2010. “Breitbart Lied About ACORN ‘Pimp’ Videos When Selling Story in His Own Washington Times Column.” BradBlog, February 17., accessed February 19, 2010.
Fritch, John, Palczewski, Catherine Helen, Farrell, Jennifer, and Short, Eric. 2006. “Disingenuous Controversy: Responses to Ward Churchill's 9/11 Essay.” Argumentation and Advocacy 42: 190205.
Fund, John. 2004. Stealing Elections: How Voter Fraud Threatens Our Democracy. San Francisco: Encounter Books.
Fund, John. 2008. Stealing Elections: How Voter Fraud Threatens Our Democracy. Rev. and updated. New York: Encounter Books.
Gans, Herbert. 1980. Deciding What's News. New York: Vintage.
Ganz, Marshall. 2009. Why David Sometimes Wins: Leadership, Organization, and Strategy in the California Farmworker Movement. New York: Oxford University Press.
George Soros: The Man, The Mind And The Money Behind MoveOn.” 2007. Editorial. Investor's Business Daily, September 20., accessed May 23, 2009.
Ghanem, Salma. 1997. “Filling in the Tapestry: The Second Level of Agenda Setting.” In Communication and Democracy: Exploring the Intellectual Frontiers in Agenda-Setting Theory, eds. McCombs, Maxwell, Shaw, Donald L., Mahwah, David Weaver.. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Gitlin, Todd. 1980. The Whole World Is Watching. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Gold, Scott. 2009. “A Good Move for South L.A. Neighborhood,” Los Angeles Times, December 22.,0,1313156,full.story, accessed December 22, 2009.
Goldberg, Bernard. 2002. Bias: A CBS Insider Exposes How the Media Distort the News. New York: Regnery Publishing.
Goodman, Peter S. 2009. “Philadelphia Gives Homeowners a Way to Stay Put.” New York Times, November 17., accessed November 17, 2009.
GOP: Stimulus Bill Railroaded'.” 2009. UPI, February 21,, accessed February 25, 2009.
Gottlieb, Robert, Vallianatos, Mark, Freer, Regina, and Dreier, Peter. 2006. The Next Los Angeles: The Struggle for a Livable City, 2d ed. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Green, Donald, and Michelson, Melissa R.. 2009. “ACORN Experiments in Minority Voter Mobilization.” In The People Shall Rule: ACORN, Community Organizing, and the Struggle for Economic Justice, ed. Fisher, Robert. Nashville: Vanderbilt University Press.
Gross, Terry. 2008. “David Iglesias On U.S. Attorney Firings.” Fresh Air. NPR, October 9.
Guillen, Joe. 2008. “Registration Fraud Won't Affect Vote, Officials Say.” Cleveland Plain Dealer. October 12, 1A.
Hacker, Jacob, and Pierson, Paul. 2005. Off Center: The Republican Revolution and the Erosion of American Democracy. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Harshbarger, Scott, and Crafts, Amy. 2009. “An Independent Governance Assessment of ACORN: The Path To Meaningful Reform.” December 7., accessed January 9, 2010.
Hart, Stephen. 2001. Cultural Dilemmas of Progressive Politics: Styles of Engagement Among Grassroots Activists. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Henig, Jess, Lampard, with Ronald. 2008. “ACORN Accusations.” October 18., accessed January 8, 2010.
Henriques, Diana B. 2000. “Taking on High-Cost Home Loans,” New York Times. March 19, A31.
Hertz, Judy. 2002. Organizing for Change: Stories of Success. Chicago: Wieboldt Foundation, and others. March.
Hofstadter, Richard. 1964. “The Paranoid Style in American Politics,” Harper's, November.
Horwitt, Sanford. 1992. Let Them Call Me Rebel: Saul Alinsky, His Life and Legacy. New York: Random House.
Hoyt, Clark. 2010. “The Acorn Sting Revisited.” New York Times. March 20., accessed March 20, 2010.
Hurd, Maude. 2007. “Edwards on Poverty.” New York Times, June 28.
Jacobson, Bret. 2007. “Prosecutors Eye Union-Backed ACORN (Again).” March 19., accessed December 30, 2009.
Jamieson, Kathleen Hall, and Cappella, Joseph N.. 2008. Echo Chamber: Rush Limbaugh and the Conservative Media Establishment. New York: Oxford University Press.
Johns, Joe. 2009. American Morning. CNN. December 8.
Johnson, Alan. 2006. “Edwards Stumps for Higher Wages; Former Senator Revs Up Meeting of Activists.” Columbus Dispatch. July 10.
Kelley, Matt. 2008. “Campaigns Take Aim as New Voter-Fraud Allegations Emerge.” USA Today. October 15, 6A.
Kim, Richard. 2010. “The Mad Tea Party,” The Nation, April 12.
Kinder, Donald R. 2007. “Curmudgeonly Advice.” Journal of Communication 57: 155–62.
Kohut, Andrew, and Parker, Kim. 2008. “Most Voters Say News Media Wants Obama to Win.” Pew Research Center for the People & the Press, October 22,, accessed December 31, 2009.
Kosterlitz, Julie. 2009. “PR For Pariahs: ACORN's Long Road Back.” National Journal. November 7.
Kovach, Bill, and Rosenstiel, Tom. 2007. The Elements of Journalism: What Newspeople Should Know and the Public Should Expect. New York: Three Rivers Press.
Krauthammer, Charles. 2008. “McCain Has Been Scrupulous in Eschewing the Race Card.” Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, October 18, B6.
Kurtz, Stanley. 2008a. “Inside Obama's ACORN.” National Review. May 29,, accessed April 27, 2009.
Kurtz, Stanley. 2008b. “No Liberation: Obama May have left Trinity, but He's Still on the Left.” National Review, June 2,, accessed April 27, 2009.
Kurtz, Stanley. 2008c. “Planting Seeds of Disaster: ACORN, Barack Obama, and the Democratic Party.” National Review, October 7,, accessed April 27, 2009.
Kurtz, Stanley. 2008d. “O's Dangerous Pals.” New York Post, September 28,, accessed June 3, 2009.
Kurtz, Stanley. 2008e. “Spreading the Virus: How ACORN & Its Dem Allies Built the Mortgage Disaster.” New York Post. October 13,, accessed June 3, 2009.
Kurtz, Stanley. 2008f. “Obama and Ayers Pushed Radicalism on Schools.” Wall Street Journal. September 23,, accessed June 3, 2009.
Lakoff, George. 2004. Don't Think of An Elephant: Know Your Values and Frame the Debate. White River Junction, VT: Chelsea Green.
Lee, Jae Kook. 2007. “The Effect of the Internet on Homogeneity of the Media Agenda: A Test of the Fragmentation Thesis.” Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly 84(4): 745–60.
Levine, Art. 2008. “The Republican War on Voting.” The American Prospect, April 1., accessed July 1, 2009.
Lezon, Dale. 2008. “Edwards Touts Anti-Poverty Plan Here: He's Urging Lawmakers to Help Halve the Number of Poor over Next 10 Years.” Houston Chronicle. July 24.
Lieberman, Trudy. 2000. Slanting the Story: The Forces that Shape the News. New York: The New Press.
Limbaugh, Rush. 2008. “Rush Limbaugh on ACORN/Obama's 30 year hate,” October 14,, accessed December 27, 2009.
Lochhead, Carolyn. 2009. “GOP, Dems Gamble on Effect of a Stimulus Bill.” San Francisco Chronicle. January 27,, accessed February 1, 2009.
Luntz, Frank. 2007. Words That Work: It's Not What You Say, It's What People Hear. New York: Hyperion.
Luscombe, Belinda. 2009. “Top 10 Scandals.” Time.,28804,1945379_1944973_1945001,00.html, accessed December 31, 2009.
Maher, T. Michael. 2001. “Framing: An Emerging Paradigm or a Phase of Agenda Setting?” In Framing Public Life, eds. Reese, Stephen D., Gandy, Oscar H., and Grant, August E.. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Malkin, Michelle. 2007. “ACORN Falls Again: The Worst Case of Voter-Registration Fraud in Washington State History; Plus: John Edwards & ACORN, Perfect Together.” July 26,, accessed July 30, 2009.
Marciano, Rob. 2009. “Senate Passes Health Care Bill.” American Morning. CNN, December 24.
Martin, Christopher R. 2003. Framed! Labor and the Corporate Media. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Martin, Christopher R. 2008a. “Writing Off Workers; The Decline of the U.S. and Canadian Labor Beats.” In Knowledge Workers in the Information Age, eds. McKercher, Catherine and Mosco, Vincent. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books.
Martin, Christopher R. 2008b. “'Upscale' News Audiences and the Transformation of Labour News.” Journalism Studies 9(2): 178–94.
McCain, John. 2008. “Debate Transcript, The Third McCain-Obama Presidential Debate, Commission on Presidential Debates.” October 15, 2008,, accessed December 30, 2009.
McCombs, Maxwell. 2004. Setting the Agenda: The Mass Media and Public Opinion. Cambridge: Polity Press.
McCombs, Maxwell, and Shaw, Donald. 1972. “The Agenda-Setting Function of Mass Media.” Public Opinion Quarterly 36: 176–87.
McCombs, Maxwell E., and Shaw, Donald L.. 1993. “The Evolution of Agenda-Setting Research: Twenty-Five Years in the Marketplace of Ideas.” Journal of Communication 43(2): 5867.
Miller, Joe. 2009. “The Stimulus Bill and ACORN.” February 6., accessed November 7, 2009.
Miller, Sean. 2009. “Is ACORN Done?” National Journal, December 18.
Minnite, Lorraine. 2008a. U.S. Senate Committee on Rules and Administration, Hearing on In-Person Voter Fraud: Myth and Trigger for Voter Disenfranchisement? March 12. (written testimony)
Minnite, Lorraine. 2008b. U.S. House Committee on the Judiciary, Subcommittee on the Constitution, Civil Liberties, Oversight Hearing on Voter Suppression, February 26. (oral and written testimony)
Minnite, Lorraine. 2010. The Myth of Voter Fraud. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Mixed Reviews for Obama.” 2009. Public Policy Polling. November 19,, accessed November 20, 2009.
Nine Big Stories the Mainstream Media Missed in 2009.” 2009. Fox News., accessed December 31, 2009.
Niquette, Mark, and Torry, Jack. 2009. “Could StimulusPut Cops on Street?” Columbus Dispatch, February 19., accessed November 12, 2009.
NYT, and the ACORN Hoax: Why Can't Paper Admit Its Mistakes?2010. Fairness and Accuracy in Reporting, March 11., accessed March 12, 2010.
Obama and Acorn.” 2008. Editorial. Wall Street Journal, October 14, A20.
O'Donnell, Kelly. 2008. “Presidential Candidates Campaign on the Economy.” NBC Nightly News, October 10.
O'Donnell, Sandra, Jeffries, Yvonne, Sanchez, Frank, and Selmi, Pat. 1995. Evaluation of the Funds Community Organizing Grant Program. Chicago: Woods Fund of Chicago.
Oney, Steve. 2010. “Citizen Breitbart: The Web's New Right-Wing Impresario.” Time, March 25.
Orr, Marion, ed. 2007. Transforming the City: Community Organizing and the Challenge of Political Change. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas.
Osterman, Paul. 2002. Gathering Power: The Future of Progressive Politics in America, Boston: Beacon Press.
Outfoxed: Rupert Murdoch's War on Journalism. 2004. Greenwald, Robert, dir. Culver City, CA: Brave New Films.
Paletta, Damian. 2007. “Politics & Economics: Fed Feels Pressure to Protect Consumers; Tighter Scrutiny of Lenders Seen Likely as Congress Blasts Regulator Over Subprime Failures.” Wall Street Journal, July 17, A8.
Pastor, Manuel, Brenner, Chris, and Matsuoka, Martha. 2009. This Could Be the Start of Something Big: How Social Movements for Regional Equity are Reshaping Metropolitan America. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Priebus, Reince. 2008. “Get the Process Right; Unless Voter Lists Are Cleaned Up, Ballot Fraud Might Run Rampant.” USA Today, October 22, 8A.
Program on International Policy Attitudes (PIPA). 2003. Misperceptions, the Media and the Iraq War. October 2,, accessed March 28, 2009.
Putnam, Robert. 2000. Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community. New York: Simon and Schuster.
Raban, Jonathan. 2010. “At the Tea Party.” New York Review of Books, Vol. 57, No. 5, March 25., accessed March 25, 2010.
Remnick, David. 2010. The Bridge: The Life and Rise of Barack Obama. New York: Alfred. A. Knopf.
Re-Seeding the Housing Mess.” 2008. Editorial. Wall Street Journal, September 27, A18.
“Review Finds Zero ACORN Wrongdoing,” USA Today, December 24, 8A.
Reynolds, David, ed. 2004. Partnering for Change: Unions and Community Groups Build Coalitions for Economic Justice. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe.
Ritholz, Barry. 2009. “CRA Thought Experiment.” The Big Picture. June 26,, accessed July 2, 2009.
Roberts, Marilyn, Wanta, Wayne, and Dzwo, Tzong-Horng (Dustin). 2002. “Agenda Setting and Issue Salience Online.” Communication Research 29(4): 452–65.
Rosenstone, Steven, and Hansen, John M.. 1993. Mobilization, Participation, and Democracy in America. New York: MacMillan.
Roth, Zachary. 2008. “Iglesias: ‘I'm Astounded’ By DOJ's ACORN Probe.” Talking Points Memo, October 16., accessed September 5, 2009.
Rudin, Ken. 2008. “Candidates Meet for Final Presidential Debate.” Talk of the Nation, NPR, October 15.
Santos, Fernanda. 2008. “Willets Point Project Foes Reach Deal With the City.” New York Times, November 13, A32.
Schalch, Kathleen. 2000. “Predatory Lending,” Morning Edition. NPR. March 22,, accessed December 31, 2009.
Schram, Sanford F., and Neisser, Philip T.. 1997. Tales of the State: Narrative in Contemporary U.S. Politics and Public Policy. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.
Schwartz, John. 2009. “Report Uncovers No Voting Fraud by Acorn.” New York Times. December 24, A15.
Seelye, Katherine. 2008. “McCain's Warning About Voter Fraud Stokes a Fiery Campaign Even Further.” New York Times. October 28,, accessed March 22, 2009.
Shachtman, Noah. 2010. “How Andrew Breitbart Hacks the Media.” Wired. March 11,, accessed March 11, 2010.
Sigal, Leon. 1973. Reporters and Officials. Lexington, MA: D.C. Heath Co.
Sigal, Leon. 1986. “Sources Make the News.” In Reading the News, eds. Manoff, Robert and Shudson, Michael. New York: Pantheon.
Simmons, Louise. 1994. Organizing in Hard Times: Labor and Neighborhoods in Hartford. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
Skocpol, Theda. 1999. “Advocates Without Members: The Recent Transformation of American Civic Life.” In Civic Engagement in American Politics, eds. Skocpol, Theda and Fiorina, Morris. Washington, DC and New York: Brookings Institution and Russell Sage Foundation.
Skocpol, Theda. 2003. Diminished Democracy: From Membership to Management in American Civic Life. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press.
Slayton, Robert. 1986. Back of the Yards: The Making of Local Democracy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Smith, Ben. 2009. “The War on Beck.” October 14., accessed January 3, 2010.
Smock, Kristina. 2004. Democracy in Action: Community Organizing and Urban Change. New York: Columbia University Press. 2009. “Employment Policies Institute.”, accessed March 29, 2009.
Squires, Gregory, ed. 2003. Organizing Access to Capital: Advocacy and the Democratization of Financial Institutions. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
States move to erect dubious barriers to voting.” 2008. USA Today. Editorial. October 22, 8A.
Strom, Stephanie. 2008a. “Funds Misappropriated at 2 Nonprofit Groups.” New York Times. July 9,, accessed January 3, 2010.
Strom, Stephanie. 2008b. “On Obama, Acorn and Voter Registration.” New York Times. October 10,, accessed March 22, 2009.
Strom, Stephanie. 2008c. “Acorn Working on Deal to Sever Ties with Founder.” New York Times. October 16, 28.
Swarts, Heidi J. 2008. Organizing Urban America: Secular and Faith-based Progressive Movements. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Sweetser, Kaye D., Golan, Guy J., and Wanta, Wayne. 2008. “Intermedia Agenda Setting in Television, Advertising, and Blogs During the 2004 Election.” Mass Communication & Society 11: 197216.
Toplines, ACORN.” 2008. Rasmussen Reports. October 19,, accessed January 9, 2010.
Tuchman, Gaye. 1978. Making News: A Study in the Construction of Reality. New York: The Free Press.
Turner, Lowell, and Cornfield, Daniel, eds. 2007. Labor in the New Urban Battlegrounds: Local Solidarity in a Global Economy. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Urbina, Ian. 2010a. “Acorn on Brink of Bankruptcy, Officials Say.” New York Times, March 19., accessed March 19, 2010.
Urbina, Ian. 2010b. “Acorn to Shut All Its Offices by April 1.” New York Times. March 22., accessed March 22, 2010.
U.S. Department of Justice Office of the Inspector General. 2008. “An Investigation into the Removal of Nine U.S. Attorneys in 2006.” September.
Van Susteren, Greta. 2008. Fox on the Record with Greta Van Susteren, Fox News Channel, October 14.
Vogel, Kenneth. 2010. “The Right loves to hate—and imitate—Saul Alinsky.” Politico. March 22.
Warren, Mark. 2001. Dry Bones Rattling: Community Building to Revitalize American Democracy. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Warren, Mark, and Wood, Richard L.. 2001. Faith-Based Community Organizing: The State of the Field. Jericho, NY: Interfaith Funders.
Weigel, David. 2010. “Hannah Giles Explains Those Pimp and Prostitute Outfits,” Washington Independent, February 19., accessed February 19, 2010.
West, Heather L. 1998. Community Organizing in Ohio: A Need for Networking, Assistance and Support. Lorain, OH: Grassroots Leadership Development Program.
Williams, Wenmouth Jr., Shapiro, Mitchell, and Cutbirth, Craig. 1983. “The Impact of Campaign Agendas on Perceptions of Issues in the 1980 Campaign.” Journalism Quarterly 60: 226–31.
Wilson, William Julius. 2001. The Bridge Over the Racial Divide: Rising Inequality and Coalition Politics. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Wood, Richard. 2002. Faith in Action: Religion, Race, and Democratic Organizing in America. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Zaitchick, Alexander. 2010. Common Nonsense: Glenn Beck and the Triumph of Ignorance. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Perspectives on Politics
  • ISSN: 1537-5927
  • EISSN: 1541-0986
  • URL: /core/journals/perspectives-on-politics
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *


Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 20
Total number of PDF views: 107 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 617 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 18th March 2018. This data will be updated every 24 hours.