Skip to main content
×
Home

Jim Crow 2.0? Why States Consider and Adopt Restrictive Voter Access Policies

  • Keith G. Bentele (a1) and Erin E. O'Brien (a1)
Abstract

Recent years have seen a dramatic increase in state legislation likely to reduce access for some voters, including photo identification and proof of citizenship requirements, registration restrictions, absentee ballot voting restrictions, and reductions in early voting. Political operatives often ascribe malicious motives when their opponents either endorse or oppose such legislation. In an effort to bring empirical clarity and epistemological standards to what has been a deeply-charged, partisan, and frequently anecdotal debate, we use multiple specialized regression approaches to examine factors associated with both the proposal and adoption of restrictive voter access legislation from 2006–2011. Our results indicate that proposal and passage are highly partisan, strategic, and racialized affairs. These findings are consistent with a scenario in which the targeted demobilization of minority voters and African Americans is a central driver of recent legislative developments. We discuss the implications of these results for current partisan and legal debates regarding voter restrictions and our understanding of the conditions incentivizing modern suppression efforts. Further, we situate these policies within developments in social welfare and criminal justice policy that collectively reduce electoral access among the socially marginalized.

Copyright
References
Hide All
AARP. 2012. “Help Stop Voter Suppression in Virginia.” (https://action.aarp.org/site/Advocacy?cmd=display&page=UserAction&id=1836), accessed March 23, 2012.
American Center for Voting Rights, Legislative Fund. August 2005. “Vote Fraud, Intimidation and Suppression in the 2004 Presidential Election.” Washington, DC: American Center for Voting Rights.
Avery James M., and Peffley Mark. 2005. “Voter Registration Requirements, Voter Turnout, and Welfare Eligibility Policy.” State Politics and Policy Quarterly 5(1): 4767.
Bartels Larry. 2012. Unequal Democracy: The Political Economy of the New Gilded Age. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Battista James Coleman. 2011. “Formal and Perceived Leadership Power in U.S. States.” State Politics and Policy Quarterly 11(1): 102118.
Battista James Coleman, and Richman Jesse T.. 2011. “Party Pressure in the U.S. State Legislatures.” Legislative Studies Quarterly 36(3): 397422.
Beckett Katherine, and Western Bruce. 2001. “Governing Social Marginality: Welfare, Incarceration, and the Transformation of State Policy.” Punishment & Society 31(1): 4359.
Bentele Keith, and Nicoli Lisa. 2012. “Ending Access As We Know It: State Welfare Benefit Coverage in the TANF Era.” Social Service Review 64(1): 223–68.
Berkowitz Daniel, and Clay Karen B.. 2011. The Evolution of a Nation: How Geography and Law Shaped the American States. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Berman Ari. August 30, 2011. “The GOP War on Voting.” Rolling Stone. (http://www.rollingstone.com/politics/news/the-gop-war-on-voting-20110830), accessed November 12, 2011.
Berry Frances Stokes, and Berry William D.. 1990. “State Lottery Adoptions as Policy Innovations: An Event History Analysis.” American Political Science Review 84(2): 395415.
Berry William, Ringquist Evan, Fording Richard, and Hanson Russell. 1998. “Measuring Citizen and Government Ideology in the American States, 1960–93. American Journal of Politics 42: 327348.
Bloom Jordan. 2012. “This Week in Voter ID: AG Holder Challenges Texas, Judge Nixes Wisconsin Law.” American Conservative. (http://www.theamericanconservative.com/this-week-in-voter-id-ag-holder-challenges-texas-judge-nixes-wisc-law/), accessed April 7, 2012.
Boehmke Frederick, and Winter Richard. 2004. “Disentangling Diffusion: The Effects of Social Learning and Economic Competition on State Policy Innovation and Expansion.” Political Research Quarterly 57(1): 3951.
Brady Henry, and McNulty John. 2011. “Turning Out to Vote: The Costs of Finding and Getting to the Polling Place.” American Political Science Review 105(1): 115–34.
Brooks Sarah M. 2007. “When Does Diffusion Matter? Explaining the Spread of Structural Pension Reforms across Nations.” Journal of Politics 69(3): 701–15.
Brown Susan. May 13, 2012. “Voter ID Laws Protect Electoral Process.” (http://townhall.com/columnists/susanbrown/2012/03/13/voter_id_laws_protect_electoralprocess/page/full/), accessed April 7, 2012.
Bullock Charles S. III, and Gaddie Ronald K.. 2009. The Triumph of Voting Rights in the South. University of Oklahoma Press: Norman.
Burden Barry, Canon David, Mayer Kenneth, and Moynihan Donald. 2009. “The Effects and Costs of Early Voting, Election Day Registration, and Same Day Registration in the 2008 Elections.” Report Presented to Pew Charitable Trust. Washington, DC.
Burke Lauren Victoria. March 12, 2012. “Sharpton, CBC Join Forces on Voter Suppression.” Politic365. (http://politic365.com/2012/02/17/sharpton-cbc-join-forces-on-voter-suppression/), accessed December 3, 2013.
Cain Bruce, Donovan Todd, and Tolbert Caroline. 2008. Democracy in the States: Experiments in Election Reform. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press.
Campbell Don. 2008. “Why Ga. Should Be On GOP's Mind; Tour Atlanta's Suburbs to Get a Sense of Where this Country is Headed. The Minority Population is Booming, and the Math is Decidedly Against the GOP.” USA Today. November 18, 11A.
Campbell Tracy. 2006. Deliver the Vote: A History of Election Fraud, an American Political Tradition, 1742–2004. New York, NY: Basic Books.
Cohen Adam. 2009. “Foreword.” In Keeping Down the Black Vote: Race and the Demobilization of American Voters, ed. Piven Frances Fox, Minnite Lorraine, and Groarke Margaret. New York, NY: The New Press.
Conservative Hideout 2.0. “Rolling Stone Unleashed Voter Disenfranchisement Propaganda.” September 2, 2011. (http://conservativehideout.com/2011/09/02/rolling-stone-unleashes-voter-disenfranchisement-propaganda/), accessed April 7, 2012.
Cooper Michael. 2011. “New State Rules Raising Hurdles at Voting Booth.” New York Times, October 2, A1.
C-Span Video Library. November 2, 2011. “CBC Hour Voter Identification Laws.” House Session, Part 3. (http://www.c-spanvideo.org/appearance/600750999), accessed March 24, 2012.
Davenport Jim. 2011. “Voter ID Law Hits Black Areas: 1,977 Nonwhite Voters Lack State-Issued Photo.” Associated Press, October 19.
Dilday Kay. 2011. “The NAACP Exposes Voter Suppression Schemes.” The Guardian. December 6. (http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/cifamerica/2011/dec/06/naacp-exposes-voter-suppression-scheme), accessed April 7, 2012.
Dougherty Conor. 2009. “Minority Turnout Was Critical to Obama's Election, Data Show.” Wall Street Journal, July 21 (accessed February 13, 2013).
Dreier Pater, and Martin Christopher. 2010. “How ACORN Was Framed: Political Controversy and Media Agenda Setting.” Perspectives on Politics 8(3): 761–92.
Edelman Murray. 1964. The Symbolic Uses of Politics. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.
Edelman Murray. 1988. Constructing the Political Spectacle. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Fenton John. 1979. “Turnout and the Two-Party Vote.” Journal of Politics 41(1): 229–34.
Fording Richard. 2001. “The Political Response to Black Insurgency: A Critical Test of Competing Theories of the State.” American Political Science Review 95(1): 115–31.
Fortier John. 2006. Absentee and Early Voting: Trends, Promises, and Perils. Washington, DC: American Enterprise Institute Press.
Frey William H. May 2012. “Why Minorities Will Decide the 2012 U.S. Election.” Brookings Institution. (http://www.brookings.edu/research/opinions/2012/05/01-race-elections-frey), accessed February 13, 2013.
Frymer Paul. 1999. Uneasy Alliances: Race and Party Competition in America. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Fund John. 2008. Stealing Elections: How Voter Fraud Threatens Our Democracy. San Francisco, CA: Encounter Books.
Fund John, and von Spakovsky Hans. 2012. Who's Counting? How Fraudsters and Bureaucrats Put Your Vote at Risk. New York, NY: Encounter Books.
Gimpel James. February 2010. “Immigration, Political Realignment, and the Demise of Republican Political Prospects.” Center for Immigration Studies. (http://www.cis.org/republican-demise), accessed April 7, 2012.
Glassner Barry. 1999. The Culture of Fear: Why Americans Are Afraid of the Wrong Things. New York: Basic Books.
Green Donald, Palmquist Bradley, and Schickler Eric. 2002. Partisan Hearts and Minds: Political Parties and the Social Identities of Voters. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Greenberg Mark, Levin-Epstein Jodie, Hutson Rutledge, Ooms Theodora. 2002. “The1996 Welfare Law: Key Elements and Reauthorization Issues Affecting Children.” The Future of Children 12(1): 2640.
Greenwald Robert. 2011. “Help NAACP End Voter Suppression.” Huffington Post, December 16. (http://www.huffingtonpost.com/robert-greenwald/help-naacp-end-voter-supp_b_1154815.html), accessed June 3, 2012.
Gronke Paul, Galanes-Rosenbaum Eva, and Miller Peter A.. 2008. “Early Voting and Voter Turnout.” In Democracy in the States: Experiments in Election Reform, ed. Cain Bruce E., Donovan Todd, and Tolbert Caroline J.. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press.
Gumbel Andrew. 2005. Steal This Vote: Dirty Elections and the Rotten History of Democracy in America. New York, NY: National Books.
Hacker Jacob, and Pierson Paul. 2011. Winner-Take-All Politics: How Washington Made the Rich Richer—and Turned Its Back on the Middle Class. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster.
Hasen Richard. 2012. The Voting Wars: From Florida 2000 to the Next Election Meltdown. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Hauser Jeff. 2013. “A Temporary Victory: Looking Ahead to 2014 and Beyond.” Democracy 28(Spring): 3237.
Hawkins Matt. 2012. “The NC Coastal Conservative Conference: Voter-Fraud-O-Rama.” (http://rightwingnews.com/uncategorized/the-nc-coastal-conservative-conference-voterfraudorama-pics/), accessed April 7, 2012.
Herron Michael C., and Smith Daniel A.. 2012. “Souls to the Polls: Early Voting in Florida in the Shadow of House Bill 1355.” Election Law Journal 11(3): 331–47.
Herron Michael C., and Smith Daniel A.. 2013. “Early Voting in Florida in the Aftermath of House Bill 1355.” State Politics & Policy Quarterly published online before print June 5, 2013, doi: 10.1177/1532440013487387.
Isaac Jeffrey, ed. 2012. “Review Symposium: Neoliberalism, Race, and the American Welfare State—A Discussion of Joe Soss, Richard C. Fording, and Sanford F. Schram's Disciplining the Poor: Neoliberal Paternalism and the Persistent Power of Race.” Perspectives on Politics 10(4): 979–92.
Isreal John. 2012. “DOJ Opposes New Florida Restriction, Citing Possible Discriminatory Purpose or Effect.” Think Progress. March 21. (http://thinkprogress.org/justice/2012/03/21/449068/doj-opposes-new-florida-voting-restrictions/?mobile=nc), accessed March 24, 2012.
Jacobs Lawrence R. 1992. “Institutions and Culture: Health Policy and Public Opinion in the U.S. and Britain.” World Politics 44(2): 179209
Jacobs Lawrence R., and King Desmond, eds. 2009. The Unsustainable American State. New York: Oxford University Press.
Jealous Benjamin Todd. December 14, 2011. NAACAP. “We're Turning the Tide.” (http://www.naacp.org/blog/entry/were-turning-the-tide), accessed March 25, 2012.
Jenkins Shannon. 2008. “Party Influence on Roll Call Voting: A View from the U.S. States.” State Politics and Policy Quarterly 8(3): 239–62.
Judis John B., and Teixeira Ruy. 2002. The Emerging Democratic Majority. New York: Simon and Schuster.
Karch Andrew. 2007. Democratic Laboratories: Policy Diffusion among the American States. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Katzenstein Mary Fainsod, Ibrahim Leila Mohsen, and Rubin Katherine. 2007. “Emerging Issues and Future Directions in State Policy Diffusion Research.” State Politics and Policy Quarterly 7(1): 5480.
Katzenstein Mary Fainsod, Ibrahim Leila Mohsen, and Rubin Katherine. 2010. “The Dark Side of American Liberalism and Felony Disenfranchisement.” Perspectives on Politics 8(4): 1035–54.
Kellogg Sarah. 2012. “Voter ID Laws: Partisan Electioneering or Good Government?” Washington Lawyer. September 2012. (http://www.dcbar.org/for_lawyers/resources/publications/washington_lawyer/september_2012/vote.cfm), accessed May 25, 2013.
Key V.O. Jr. 1949. Southern Politics in State and Nation. New York: Knopf.
Keyssar Alexander. (2000) 2009. The Right to Vote: The Contested History of Democracy in the United States. New York: Basic Books.
Keyssar Alexander. (2000) 2011. “How Americans Vote.” Election Law Journal: Rules, Politics, and Policy 10(4): 471–73.
Keyssar Alexander. (2000) 2012. “The Strange Career of Voter Suppression”. New York Times, February 12.
King Desmond S., and Smith Rogers M.. 2005. “Racial Orders in American Political Development.” American Political Science Review 99(1): 7592.
King Desmond S., and Smith Rogers M.. 2011. Still a House Divided: Race and Politics in Obama's America. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
King Desmond, Lieberman Robert C., Ritter Gretchen, and Whitehead Laurence, eds. 2009. Democratization in America: A Comparative-Historical Analysis. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Kingdon John W. 2002. Agendas, Alternatives and Public Policies. 2nd ed. Boston, MA: Addison-Wesley.
Levitsky Steven, and Way Lucan. 2010. Competitive Authoritarianism: Hybrid Regimes after the Cold War. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
Levitt Justin. 2007. “The Truth about Voter Fraud.” The Brennan Center for Justice. New York, NY. (http://www.brennancenter.org/publication/truth-about-voter-fraud), accessed March 24, 2012.
Lindberg Staffan. 2009. Democratization by Elections: A New Mode of Transition. Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press.
Maddow Rachel. 2011a. “Age Against the Machine.” October 19. (http://video.msnbc.msn.com/the-rachel-maddow-show/45663037#45663037), accessed March 24, 2012.
Maddow Rachel. 2011b. “American Democracy a Casualty of Republican War on Voting.” October 27. (http://fuckconservatives.wordpress.com/2011/10/27/rachel-maddow-american-democracy-a-casualty-of-republican-war-on-voting/), accessed March 24, 2012.
Maddow Rachel. 2011c. “GOP War on Voting Encounters Rising Defense.” October 12. (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rMpkUsTz8N4), accessed March 24, 2012.
Maddow Rachel. 2011d. “Republicans Try to Suppress Minority Vote.” October 5. (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6Vlf6F3fOK0&feature=related), accessed March 24, 2012.
Mahanta Siddharta. 2011. “South Carolina Voter ID Law: Yep, Pretty Discriminating.” Mother Jones, October 19.
Manza Jeff, and Uggen Christopher. 2004. “Punishment and Democracy: Disenfranchisement of Nonincarcerated Felons in the United States.” Perspectives on Politics 2(3): 491505.
Martin Gordon. 2012. “Democracy Under Attack in Voter Suppression Scheme.” Boston Herald, February 5.
Mayhew David. 1974. The Electoral Connection. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
McCarty Nolan, Poole Keith, and Rosenthal Howard. 2008. Polarized America: The Dance of Ideology and Unequal Riches. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Mettler Suzanne, and Soss Joe. 2004. “The Consequences of Public Policy for Democratic Citizenship: Bridging Policy Studies and Mass Politics.” Perspectives on Politics 2(1): 5573.
Meyers Jim, and Walter Kathleen. 2011. “Ken Blackwell: Holder's ‘All-Out War’ on Voter IDs Is Obama Re-election Tool.” NewMax, March 22. (http://www.newsmax.com/Headline/Blackwell-Holder-Voter-ID/2012/03/22/id/433560), accessed March 24, 2012.
Minnite Lorraine. 2010. The Myth of Voter Fraud. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Mintrom Michael. 1997. “Policy Entrepreneurs and the Diffusion of Innovation.” American Journal of Political Science 42: 738–70.
Mooney Christopher. 2011. “Modeling Regional Effects on State Policy Diffusion.” Political Research Quarterly 54(1): 103–24.
Mooney Christopher Z., and Lee Mei-Hsien. 1995. “Legislating Morality in the American States: The Case of Pre-Roe Abortion Regulation Reform.” American Journal of Political Science 39: 599627.
Moreno Ivan, and Riccardi Nicolas. 2013. “Democrats Strike Back at GOP Voting Measures.” Associated Press, May 20. (http://hosted.ap.org/dynamic/stories/U/US_DEMOCRATS_VOTING?SITE=AP&SECTION=HOME&TEMPLATE=DEFAULT), accessed May 25, 2013.
Mundlak Yair. 1978. “On the Pooling of Times Series and Cross Section Data.” Econometrica 46(1): 6985.
Musgrove George. 2012. Rumor, Repression, and Racial Politics: How the Harassment of Black Elected Officials Shaped Post-Civil Rights America. Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press.
National Conference of State Legislatures. 2012a. Legislatures & Elections. Elections & Campaigns. Voter ID: State Requirements. (http://www.ncsl.org/legislatures-elections/elections/voter-id-state-requirements.aspx), accessed December 12, 2011.
National Conference of State Legislatures. 2012b. Election Reform Legislation Database 2001–2010. (http://www.ncsl.org/research/elections-and-campaigns/2001-2010-database-of-election-reform-legislation.aspx), accessed December 12, 2011.
Nice David. 1994. Policy Innovation in State Government. Ames: Iowa State Press.
Noble Charles. 1997. Welfare as We Knew It: A Political History of the American Welfare State. New York: Oxford University Press.
O'Brien Erin. 2009. The Politics of Identity: Solidarity Building among America's Working Poor. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.
Overton Spencer. 2007. Stealing Democracy: The New Politics of Voter Suppression. New York: W.W. Norton.
Peters Guy. 1999. American Public Policy: Promise and Performance. New York: Chatham House.
Piven Frances Fox, and Cloward Richard. 1988. Why Americans Don't Vote. New York, NY: Pantheon.
Piven Frances Fox, and Cloward Richard. 2000. Why Americans Still Don't Vote: And Why Politicians Want It That Way. Boston: Beacon Press.
Piven Frances Fox, Minnite Lorainne, and Groarke Margaret. 2009. Keeping Down the Black Vote: Race and the Demobilization of American Voters. New York: NYU Press.
Powers Scott, and Damron David. 2013. “Analysis: More than 200,000 would-be voters gave up.” Orlando Sentinel, January 19.
Rosenstone Steven, and Wolfinger Raymond. 1978. “The Effect of Registration Laws on Voter Turnout.” American Political Science Review 72(1): 2245.
Rosenstone Steven, and Hansen John Mark. 1993. Mobilization, Participation, and Democracy in America. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company.
Sabato Larry, and Simpson Glenn. 1996. Dirty Little Secrets: The Persistence of Corruption in American Politics. New York: Times Books.
Schattschneider E.E. 1942. “Party Government.” National Municipal Review 31(4): 220–42.
Schattschneider E.E. 1960. The Semi-Sovereign People: A Realist's View of Democracy in America. Boston, MA: Cengage Learning.
Schedler Andreas. 2002. “The Nested Game of Democratization by Elections.” International Political Science Review 23(1): 103–22.
Schedler Andreas. 2006. Electoral Authoritarianism: The Dynamics of Unfree Competition. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner.
Schneider Helen, and Ingram Anne. 1993. “Social Construction of Target Populations: Implications for Politics and Policy.” American Political Science Review 87(2): 334–47.
Schultz David A. 2008. “Less than Fundamental: The Myth of Voter Fraud and the Coming of the Second Great Disenfranchisement.” William Mitchell Law Review 34: 484.
Secrest Barry. April 3, 2012. “The Real Reason Why Liberals Hate Voter ID.” (http://www.conservativerefocus.com/blog5.php/2012/04/03/the-real-reason-why-liberals-hate-voter-id-four-indiana-democrats-charged-with-2008-election-fraud), accessed April 7, 2012.
Seitz-Wald Alex. 2012. “Penn. Republican: Voter ID will help Romney Win.” Salon, June 25. (http://www.salon.com/2012/06/25/penn_republican_voter_id_will_help_romney_win/), accessed February 7, 2013.
Senate Judiciary Committee. Subcommittee on the Constitution, “Civil Rights and Human Rights: New State Voting Laws: Barriers to the Ballot?” September 8, 2011. (http://www.judiciary.senate.gov/hearings/hearing.cfm?id=2072649339b2bb3b19d320ce62f6c1b8), accessed March 24, 2012.
Sharpton Al. 2011a. Politics Nation MSNBC, December 28. (http://video.msnbc.msn.com/politicsnation/45800286#45800286), accessed March 24, 2012).
Sharpton Al. 2011b. “Voter Suppression Laws Appear Across the Country.” Politics Nation MSNBC, October 11. (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9dJTfATg14I), accessed March 24, 2012.
Sharpton Al. 2012. “Voter Suppression Laws 2012.” Politics Nation MSNBC, December 7. (http://vimeo.com/33262597), accessed March 24, 2012.
Shefter Martin. 1994. Political Parties and the State: The American Historical Experience. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Shields Todd. 2012. “Shifting Support for Democratic Party among American Elderly.” Blair Center–Clinton School Poll. (http://blairrockefellerpoll.uark.edu/5292.php), accessed February 8, 2013.
Smith Rogers. 1999. Civic Ideals: Conflicting Visions of Citizenship in U.S. History. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Soss Joe. 2000. Unwanted Claims: The Politics of Participation in the US Welfare System. Ann Arbor,: University of Michigan Press.
Soss Joe, Schram Sanford, Vartanian Thomas, and O'Brien Erin. 2001. “Setting the Terms of Relief: Explaining State Policy Choices in the Devolution Revolution.” American Journal of Political Science 45(2): 378–95.
Soss Joe, Fording Richard, and Schram Sanford. 2011. Disciplining the Poor: Neoliberalism and the Persistent Power of Race. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Spakovsky Hans von. 2011. “Voter ID is a Sensible Precaution.” Heritage Foundation, August 6. (http://www.heritage.org/research/commentary/2011/08/voter-id-is-a-sensible-precaution?query=Voter+ID+is+a+Sensible+Precaution), accessed September 11, 2013.
Stepan Alfred, and Linz Juan. 2011. “Comparative Perspectives on Inequality and the Quality of Democracy in the United States.” Perspectives on Politics 9(4): 841–56.
Stewart Charles. 2011. “Adding Up the Costs and Benefits of Voting by Mail.” Election Law Journal 10(3): 297301.
Stone Deborah. 2002. Policy Paradox: The Art of Political Decision Making. New York: W.W. Norton & Company.
Stream Christopher. 1999. “Health Reform in the States: A Model of State Small Group Health Insurance Market Reforms.” Political Research Quarterly 52(3): 499526.
Streb Matthew J. 2012. Law and Election Politics: The Rules of the Game. New York, NY: Routledge.
Teixeira Mark. 1987. Why Americans Don't Vote: Turnout Decline in the United States. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
Timberg Craig, and Parker Lonnae O'Neal. 2012. “Black Electorate Responds Mightily to Perceived Voter-Intimidation Efforts.” Washington Post, November 7. (http://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/decision2012/black-electorate-responds-mightily-to-perceived-voter-intimidation-efforts/2012/11/07/d7596304-2900-11e2-b4e0-346287b7e56c_story.html), accessed February 5, 2013.
True James, Jones Bryan, and Baumgartner Frank. 2007. “Punctuated-Equilibrium Theory: Explaining Stability and Change in Policy Making.” In Theories of the Policy Process, ed. Sabatier Paul. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Tuck Stephen. 2009. “Reversal of Black Voting Rights after Reconstruction.” In Democratization in America: A Comparative-Historical Analysis, ed. King Desmond, Lieberman Robert C., Ritter Gretchen, and Whitehead Laurence. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Uggen Christopher, Shannon Sarah, and Manza Jeff. 2012. “State Level Estimates of Felon Disenfranchisement in the United States, 2010.” Washington, DC: The Sentencing Project.
Underwood Julie, and Mead Julie. 2012. “A Smart ALEC Threatens Public Education.” Kappan Magazine 93(6): 5155.
Valelly Richard M. 2004. The Two Reconstructions: The Struggle for Black Enfranchisement. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Verba Sidney, and Nie Norman. 1972. Participation in America. New York: Harper and Row.
Verba Sidney, Schlozman Kay Lehman, and Brady Henry. 1995. Voice and Equality: Civic Voluntarism in American Politics. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Waldman Michael, and Levitt Justin. 2007. “The Myth of Voter Fraud.” Washington Post, March 29.
Wang Tova A. 2012. The Politics of Voter Suppression: Defending and Expanding Americans' Right to Vote. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Weaver Velsa M. 2007. “Frontlash: Race and the Development of Punitive Crime Policy.” Studies in American Political Development 21: 230–65.
Weimer David, and Vining Aidan. 2004. Policy Analysis: Concepts and Practice. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Weiser Wendy, and Norden Lawrence. 2011. “Voting Law Changes in 2012.” Brennan Center for Justice. New York: NYU School of Law. 1–58.
Weiser Wendy, and Norden Lawrence. 2011. “Appendix: Summary of State Laws and Bills.” Brennan Center for Justice. New York: NYU School of Law. 59.
Weiser Wendy, and Kasdan Diana. 2012. “Voting Law Changes: Election Update.” Brennan Center for Justice. New York: NYU School of Law. 1–41.
Wirzbicki Alan. 2012. “Restrictive Voting Laws Inspire Minority Backlash.” Boston Globe, September 29. (http://www.bostonglobe.com/news/nation/2012/09/28/ohio-voter-suppression-efforts-may-galvanizing-african-american-voters/wEaaMnxD2fFhm87Pkp5t4M/story.html), accessed February 5, 2013.
Wooldridge Jeffrey M. 2001. Econometric Analysis of Cross Section and Panel Data. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Wright Gerald C., and Schaffner Brian F.. 2002. “The Influence of Party: Evidence from the State Legislatures.” American Political Science Review 96(2): 367–79.
Yost Pete. 2012. “Texas Voter ID Law Blocked by Justice Department.” The Huffington Post, March 12. (http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/03/12/texas-voter-id-justice-department_n_1339004.html), accessed March 24, 2012.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Perspectives on Politics
  • ISSN: 1537-5927
  • EISSN: 1541-0986
  • URL: /core/journals/perspectives-on-politics
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 88
Total number of PDF views: 547 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 2698 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 25th November 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.