Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Serving Sex Workers and Promoting Democratic Engagement: Rethinking Nonprofits' Role in American Civic and Political Life

  • Samantha Majic (a1)

Abstract

In debates about promoting civic and political engagement in America, political scientists are often skeptical about the role of nonprofit organizations offering health and social services in the US because they are constrained by the tax code and grant agreements. However, I argue that by focusing on what I term social movement-borne nonprofits, we can see how these organizations may engage (marginalized) communities and participate in political activities. To illustrate, I consider the California Prostitutes Education Project (CAL-PEP) and the St. James Infirmary (SJI), two San Francisco Bay-area nonprofits created by prostitute-rights activists that offer HIV/AIDS and other health services to sex workers. Drawing on multi-method qualitative research on CAL-PEP and the SJI, I argue that social movement-borne nonprofits engage in political activities through a process of radical institutionalization, whereby they incorporate and advance activist goals within their organizational practices. I theorize the properties of radical institutionalization as “oppositional implementation,” “community engagement,” and “claims-making activities.” My hope is that scholars will test for and further define these properties in order to broaden understandings of nonprofits' evolving role in civic and political life, and in processes of social change.

    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Serving Sex Workers and Promoting Democratic Engagement: Rethinking Nonprofits' Role in American Civic and Political Life
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Serving Sex Workers and Promoting Democratic Engagement: Rethinking Nonprofits' Role in American Civic and Political Life
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Serving Sex Workers and Promoting Democratic Engagement: Rethinking Nonprofits' Role in American Civic and Political Life
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

References

Hide All
Abramovitz, Mimi. 2000. Under Attack, Fighting Back: Women and Welfare in the United States. New York: Monthly Review Press.
Alameda County (California). 2003. “State of Emergency: African American Taskforce.” Oakland.
Alexander, Priscilla. 1995a. “Prostitution Is Sex Work: Occupational Safety and Health.” National Taskforce on Prostitution.
Alexander, Priscilla. 1995b. “The St. James Infirmary: A Sex Workers' Occupational Health and Safety Clinic.” San Francisco: North American Task Force on Prostitution.
Alexander, Priscilla. 1998. “Sex Work and Health: A Question of Safety in the Workplace.” Journal of American Medical Women's Association 53 (2): 7782.
Andrew, Merrindahl. 2010. “Women's Movement Institutionalization: The Need for New Approaches.” Politics and Gender 6 (4): 609–16.
Bailey, Marvin. 1991. “Community-based Organizations and CDC as Partners in HIV Education and Prevention.” Public Health Reports 106 (6): 702–8.
Banaszak, Lee Ann, Beckwith, Karen, and Rucht, Dieter. 2003. Women's Movements Facing the Reconfigured State. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Berger, Ben. 2009. “Political Theory, Political Science and the End of Civic Engagement.” Perspectives on Politics 7 (2): 335–50.
Berry, Jeffrey. 2005. “Nonprofits and Civic Engagement.” Public Administration Review 65 (5): 568–78.
Berry, Jeffrey, and Arons, David. 2003. A Voice for Nonprofits. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press.
Block, Stephen. 2001. “Nonprofit Organizations (1998).” In The Nature of the Nonprofit Sector, ed. Ott, S.. Boulder: Westview Press.
Boone, David, Bautista, Elaine, and Green-Ajufo, Barbara. 2005. “AIDS Epidemiology Report Alameda County, California: 1980–2004.” Oakland: Alameda County Health Services Agency, Public Health Department.
Boris, E. 2006. “Nonprofit Organizations in a Democracy: Varied roles and responsibilities.” In Nonprofits and Government: Collaboration and Conflict, ed. Boris, E. and Steuerle, E.. Washington, DC: Urban Institute Press.
Bowser, Ben, Whittle, Deborah, and Rosenbloom, David. 2001. “Fighting Drug and Alcohol Abuse in Communities and Improving Race Relations: Theoretical Lessons Learned.” The Organizational Response to Social Problems 8: 167–94.
Bowser, Ben, Word, Carla, Lockett, Gloria, and Dillard-Smith, Carla. 2001. “How Drug Abusers Organize their Participation in HIV/AIDS Studies: Their Time, Their Place.” Journal of Drug Issues 31 (4): 941–56.
California Prostitutes Education Project (CAL-PEP). 1989. “PEP-TALK: The Newsletter of the Sex Industry's AIDS and Drug Use Education Outreach Project.” San Francisco: California Prostitutes Education Project.
California Prostitutes Education Project (CAL-PEP). 1995. “WORD: The Newsletter of CAL-PEP.” Oakland: California Prostitutes Education Project.
California Prostitutes Education Project (CAL-PEP). 1998. “WORD: CAL-PEP's Newsletter.” Oakland: California Prostitutes Education Project.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (US government). 2007. “A Glance at the HIV/AIDS Epidemic.” Atlanta: Centers for Disease Control.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (US Government). 2008. FY 2007 CDC/ATSDR Functional Table. Available from http://www.cdc.gov/FMO/PDFs/FY07FundFunctAreaTable.pdf.
Chaves, Mark, Galaskiewicz, Joseph, and Stephens, Laura. 2004. “Does Government Funding Suppress Nonprofits' Political Activity?American Sociological Review 69 (2): 292316.
Clarke, Susan. 2001. The Prospects for Local Democratic Governance. The governance rules of nonprofit organizations. Policy Studies Review 18 (4): 129145.
Clemens, Elizabeth. 2006. “The Constitution of Citizens: Political Theories of Nonprofit Organizations.” In The Nonprofit Sector: A Research Handbook, ed. Powell, W. and Steinberg, R.. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Cohan, Deb, Cobaugh, Cynthia, Cloniger, Charles, Breyer, Johanna, and Klausner, Jeffrey. 2002. “Sex Worker Health, San Francisco Style; The St. James Infirmary.” San Francisco: St. James Infirmary, UCSF Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, San Francisco Department of Public Health.
Cohan, Deb, Herlyn, Antje, Breyer, Johanna, Cobaugh, Cynthia, Knutson, Tomi, Lutnick, Alexandra, Wilson, Daniel, and Cloniger, Charles. 2004. “Social Context and the Health of Sex Workers In San Francisco.” In International Conference on AIDS. Bangkok, Thailand.
Cohan, Deb, Lutnick, Alexandra, Davidson, Peter, Cloniger, Charles, Herlyn, Antje, Breyer, Johanna, Cobaugh, Cynthia, Wilson, Daniel, and Klausner, Jeffrey. 2006. “Sex Worker Health: San Francisco Style.” Sexually Transmitted Infections 82 (5): 418–22.
Cohen, Judith, and Alexander, Priscilla. 1995. “Female Sex Workers: Scapegoats in the AIDS Epidemic.” In Women and AIDS: The Emerging Epidemic, ed. O'Leary, A. and Sweet-Johnson, L.. New York: Plenum Press.
Cohen, Judith, Derish, Pamela, and Dorfman, Lori. 1994. “AWARE: A Community Based Research and Peer Intervention Program for Women.” In AIDS Prevention and Services, ed. VanVugt, J.. Westport: Bergin & Garvey.
Coles, Romand. 2010. “Collaborative Governance and Civic Empowerment: A Discussion of Investing in Democracy: Engaging Citizens in Collaborative Governance.” Perspectives on Politics 8 (2): 601–4.
Cress, Daniel. 1997. “Nonprofit Incorporation among Movements of the Poor: Pathways and Consequences for Homeless Social Movement Organizations.” Sociological Quarterly 38 (2): 343–60.
Cruess, Richard, Cruess, Sylvia, and Johnston, Sharon. 2000. “Professionalism: An Ideal to be Sustained.” Lancet 356: 156–69.
de la Dehesa, Rafael. 2011. Review of Moving Politics: Emotion and ACT UP's Fight Against AIDS by Deborah B. Gould. Perspectives on Politics 9 (2): 397–8.
Dobkin-Hall, Peter. 1987. “Abandoning the Rhetoric of Independence: Reflections on the Nonprofit Sector in the Post-liberal Era.” Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly 16 (11): 1128.
Dorfman, Lori. 1992. “Hey Girlfriend! An Evaluation of AIDS Prevention Among Women in the Sex Industry.” Health Education Quarterly 19 (1): 2440.
Dorfman, Lori, Hennessy, Susana, Lev, Jane, and Reilly, Peg. 1988. “GIRLFRENS: A Study of Outreach to Street Prostitutes.” Berkeley and San Francisco, CA: University of California, Berkeley and the California Prostitutes Education Project.
Eisenstein, Zillah. 1994. The Color of Gender. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Epstein, Steven. 2006. “The New Attack on Sexuality Research: Morality and the Politics of Knowledge Production.” Sexuality Research and Social Policy 3 (1): 162.
Fiorina, Morris. 1999. “Extreme Voices: The Dark Side of Civic Engagement.” In Civic Engagement in American Democracy, ed. Skocpol, T. and Fiorina, M.. Washington: Brookings Institutions.
Galston, William. 2001. “Political Knowledge, Political Engagement, and Civic Education.” Annual Review of Political Science 4: 217–34.
Galston, William. 2007. “Civic Knowledge, Civic Education, and Civic Engagement: A summary of recent research.” International Journal of Public Administration 30: 623–42.
Gould, Deborah B. 2009. Moving Politics: Emotion and ACT UP's Fight against AIDS. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Gould, Deborah B. 2011. “Response to Rafael de la Dehesa's review of Moving Politics: Emotion and ACT UP's Fight Against AIDS.” Perspectives on Politics 9 (2): 399.
Gronbjerg, Kristen, and Smith, Steven R.. 2006. “Scope and Theory of Government-Nonprofit Relations.” In The Nonprofit Sector: A Research Handbook, ed. Powell, W. and Steinberg, R.. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Internal Revenue Service (US government). 2007. Life Cycle of a Private Foundation—Political and Lobbying Activities. United States Department of the Treasury 2007 [cited 24 October 2007]. Available from http://www.irs.gov/charities/foundations/article/0,,id=149683,00.html.
Internal Revenue Service (US government). 2008. “Governance and Related Topics-501c3 Organizations.” www.irs.gov/pub/irs-tege/governance_practices.pdf (accessed 1 March 2010).
Internal Revenue Service (US government). 2009. “Form 990 Redesign for Tax Year 2008 (Filed in 2009).” ed. Department of the Treasury. Washington, DC: IRS.
Internal Revenue Service (US government). 2010. Governance and Related Topics-501c3 Organizations. Internal Revenue Service 2008 [cited 1 March 2010]. Available from www.irs.gov/pub/irs-tege/governance_practices.pdf.
Isaac, Jeffrey C. 2003. The Poverty of Progressivism: The Future of American Democracy in a Time of Liberal Decline. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
Jackson-Elmoore, Cynthia, and Hula, Richard. 2001. “Emerging Roles of Nonprofit Organizations: An Introduction.” Policy Studies Review 18 (4): 15.
Jenness, Valerie. 1993. Making it Work: The Prostitutes' Rights Movement in Perspective. New York: Aldine De Gruyter.
Katzenstein, Mary Fainsod. 1998a. Faithful and fearless: moving feminist protest inside the church and military. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Katzenstein, Mary Fainsod. 1998b. “Stepsisters: Feminist Movement Activism in Different Institutional Spaces.” In The Social Movement Society, ed. Meyer, D. and Tarrow, S.. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
Kayal, Philip. 1993. Bearing Witness: Gay Men's Health Crisis and the Politics of AIDS. Boulder: Westview Press.
Lockett, Gloria. 1994. “CAL-PEP: The Struggle to Survive.” In Women Resisting AIDS: Feminist Strategies of Empowerment, ed. Schneider, B. and Stoller, N.. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
Lockett, Gloria, Dillard-Smith, Carla, and Bowser, Ben. 2004. “Preventing AIDS Among Injectors and Sex Workers.” In Preventing AIDS: Community-Science Collaborations, ed. Bowser, B., Shiraz, M., Reiback, C. and Lemp, G.. London: The Haworth Press.
Lunder, Erika. 2006. “Tax-Exempt Organizations: Political Activity Restrictions and Disclosure Requirements.” Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service. Available from http://fpc.state.gov/documents/organization/66481.pdf
Lutnick, Alexandra. 2006. The St. James Infirmary: A History. Sexuality and Culture 10 (2): 5675.
Lutnick, Alexandra, and Cohan, Deb. 2009. “Criminalization, Legalization or Decriminalization of Sex Work: What Female Sex Workers Say.” Reproductive Health Matters 17 (34): 3846.
Macedo, Stephen. 2005. Democracy at Risk :How Political ChoicesUundermine Citizen Participation and What We Can Do about It. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press.
Marwell, Nicole. 2004. “Privatizing the Welfare State: Nonprofit Community-Based Organizations as Political Actors.” American Sociological Review 69 (2): 265–91.
Mathieu, Lilian. 2003. “The Emergence and Uncertain Outcomes of Prostitutes' Social Movements.” The European Journal of Women's Studies 10 (1): 2950.
Meyer, David. 1993. “Institutionalizing Protest: The United States Structure of Political Opportunity and the End of the Nuclear Freeze Movement.” Sociological Forum 8 (2): 157–79.
Meyer, David S. 2005. “Social Movements and Public Policy: Eggs, Chicken and Theory.” In Routing the Opposition : Social Movements, Public Policy, and Democracy. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Minkoff, Debra. 1997. National Social Movements and Civil Society. American Behavioral Scientist 40: 606619.
Minkoff, Debra, and Powell, Walter. 2006. “Nonprofit mission: constancy, responsiveness, or deflection?” In The Nonprofit Sector: A Research Handbook, ed. Powell, W. and Steinberg, R.. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Morgen, Sandra. 1995. “‘It was the best of times, it was the worst of times’: Emotional Discourse in the Work Cultures of Feminist Health Clincs.” In Feminist Organizations: Harvest of the new women's movement, eds. Marx-Ferree, Myra and Yancey-Martin, Patricia. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
Morgen, Sandra. 2002. Into Our Own Hands: The Women's Health Movement in the United States, 1969–1990. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.
Naples, Nancy. 1991a. “Contradictions in the Gender Subtext of the War on Poverty; The Community Work and Resistance of Women From Low Income Communities.” Social Problems 38 (3): 316–32.
Naples, Nancy. 1991b. “‘Just What Needed to Be Done’: The Political Practice of Women Community Workers in Low-Income Neighborhoods.” Gender and Society 5 (4): 478–94.
Naples, Nancy. 1998. Grassroots Warriors : Activist Mothering, Community Work, and the War on Poverty. New York: Routledge.
Nonprofit Action. 2005. “Can 501(c)(3) Nonprofit Organizations Receiving Federal Grants Lobby?”. Washington, DC: Nonprofit Action. Available at http://www.npaction.org/article/articleview/100/1/248
Office of Management and Budget (OMB). 2004. “Circular No. A-122 Revised May 10, 2004.” Washington, DC: Office of Management and Budget.
Oliva, Geraldine, Rienks, Jennifer, Udoh, Ifeoma, and Dillard-Smith, Carla. 2005. “A University and Community-Based Organization Collaboration to Build Capacity to Develop, Implement, and Evaluate an Innovative HIV Prevention Intervention for an Urban African American Population.” AIDS Education and Prevention 17 (4): 300–17.
Piven, Frances Fox. 2011. “Mobilizing the Jobless.” The Nation, January 10 and 17.
Piven, Frances Fox, and Cloward, Richard. 1977. Poor Peoples' Movements: Why They Succeed, How They Fail. New York: Pantheon Books.
Putnam, Robert. 1995. “Tuning in, Tuning out: The Strange Disappearance of Social Capital in America.” Political Science and Politics 28 (4): 664–83.
Putnam, Robert. 2000. Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community. New York: Simon and Schuster.
Rupp, Leila, and Taylor, Verta. 1987. Survival in the Doldrums: The American Women's Rights Movement, 1945 to the 1960s. New York: Oxford University Press.
Salamon, Lester. 2003. The Resilient Sector: The State of Nonprofit America. Washington, DC: Brookings Institute Press.
Sawer, Marian. 2010. “Premature Obituaries: How Can We Tell If the Women's Movement Is Over?Politics and Gender 6 (4): 602–9.
Schechter, Susan. 1982. Women and Male Violence: The Visions and Struggles of the Battered Women's Movement. Boston: South End Press.
Schotten, C. Heike. 2005. “Men, Masculinity, and Male Domination: Reframining Feminist Analyses of Sex Work.” Politics and Gender 1 (2): 211–40.
Schram, Sanford. 2002. Praxis for the Poor : Piven and Cloward and the Future of Social Science in Social Welfare. New York: New York University Press.
Scrivener, Gary. 2001. “A Brief History of Tax Policy Changes Affecting Charitable Organizations.” In The Nature of the Nonprofit Sector, ed. Ott, S.. Boulder: Westview Press.
Sirianni, Carmen. 2009. Investing in Democracy : Engaging Citizens in Collaborative Governance. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press.
Sirianni, Carmen, and Friedland, Lewis A.. 2001. Civic Innovation in America : Community Empowerment, Public Policy, and the Movement for Civic Renewal. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Skocpol, Theda. 1996. “Unraveling from above.” American Prospect 25: 20–6.
Skocpol, Theda, Ganz, Marshall, and Munson, Ziad. 2000. “A Nation of Organizers: The Institutional Origins of Civic Volunteerism in the United States.” American Political Science Review 94: 537546.
Skocpol, Theda, Ganz, Marshall, and Munson, Ziad. 2003. Diminished Democracy: From Membership to Management in American Civic Life. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press.
Skocpol, Theda, Ganz, Marshall, and Munson, Ziad. 2004. “Voice and Equality: The transformation of American civic democracy.” Perspectives on Politics 2 (1): 320.
Skocpol, Theda, and Fiorina, Morris, eds. 1999. Civic Engagement in American Democracy. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press.
Smith, Steven R. 2006. “Government Financing of Nonprofit Activity.” In Nonprofits and Government: Collaboration and Conflict, ed. Boris, E. and Steuerle, E.. Washington, DC: Urban Institute Press.
Sokolowski, Wojciech, and Salamon, Lester. 1999. “The United States.” In Global Civil Society: Dimensions of the Nonprofit Sector, ed. Salamon, L. M., Anheier, H. K., List, R., Toepler, S., Sokolowski, S. W.. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Center for Civil Studies.
St. James Infirmary. 2004. Occupational Health and Safety Handbook. 2nd ed. San Francisco.
St. James Infirmary. 2008. “St. James Infirmary.” San Francisco: SJI.
St. James Infirmary. 2010. Occupational Health and Safety Handbook. 3rd ed.San Francisco: St. James Infirmary.
Stolle, Dietlind, and Howard, Marc. 2008. “Civic Engagement and Civic Attitudes in Cross-National Perspective: Introduction to the Symposium.” Political Studies 56: 111.
Stolle, Dietlind, and Rochon, Thomas. 1998. “Are All Assocations Alike?American Behavioral Scientist 42: 4765.
Stoller, Nancy. 1998. Lessons from the Damned: Queers, Whores, and Junkies Respond to AIDS. New York: Routledge.
Tamir, Yael. 1998. “Revisiting the Civic Sphere.” In Freedom of Association, ed. Gutmann, A.. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Tarrow, Sidney. 1989. Struggle, Politics, and Reform: Collective Action, Social Movements, and Cycles of Protest. Ithaca: Cornell Center for International Studies.
Tarrow, Sidney. 1996. “Social Movements in Contentions Politics: A Review Article.” American Political Science Review 4 (90): 874–83.
Tarrow, Sidney. 1998. Power in Movement: Social Movements and Contentious Politics. 2nd ed.Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Terry, Marth Ann, Liebman, Jon, Person, Bobbie, Bond, Lisa, Dillard-Smith, Carla, and Tunstall, Chrystal. 1999. “The Women and Infants Demonstration Project: An Integrated Approach to AIDS Prevention and Research.” AIDS Education and Prevention 11 (2): 107–21.
Theiss-Morse, Elizabeth, and Hibbing, John. 2005. “Citizenship and Civic Engagement.” Annual Review of Political Science 8: 227–49.
Thomas, Craig, Smith, Bryce, and Wright-DeAguero, Linda. 2006. “The Program Evaluation and Monitoring System: A Key Source of Data for Monitoring Evidence-Based HIV Prevention Program Processes and Outcomes.” AIDS Education and Prevention 18: 7480.
Tilly, Charles. 2004. Social Movements: 1768–2004. Boulder: Paradigm Publishers.
Verba, Sidney, Schlozman, Kay, and Brady, Henry. 1993. Voice and Equality. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Verba, Sidney, Schlozman, Kay, Brady, Henry, and Nie, Norman. 1993. “Citizen Activity: Who Participates? What Do They Say?American Political Science Review 87 (2): 303–18.
Warren, Mark. 1998. “Community Building and Political Power.” American Behavioral Scientist 42 (1): 7892.
Weir. 2010. “Collaborative Governance and Civic Empowerment: A Discussion of Investing in Democracy: Engaging Citizens in Collaborative Governance.” Perspectives on Politics 8: 595–8.
Weitzer, Ronald. 1991. “Prostitutes Rights in the United States: The Failure of a Movement.” The Sociological Quarterly 32 (1): 2341.
West, Jackie. 2000. “Prostitution: Collectives and the Politics of Regulation.” Gender, Work and Organization 7 (2): 106–18.
Williams, Elisa. 2003. “Reaching Out to the High-Risk.” Newsweek, 12 December.
Wing, Kennard, Roeger, Katie, and Pollak, Thomas. 2010. “The Nonprofit Sector in Brief: Public Charities, Giving and Volunteering, 2010.” Washington, DC: Urban Institute: National Center for Charitable Statistics.
Wolitski, RJ et al. 2006. “Evolution of HIV/AIDS Prevention Programs—United States, 1981–2006.” Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 55 (21): 597603.
Young, Iris. 1990. Justice and the Politics of Difference. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Young, Iris. 1992. “Social Groups in Associative Democracy.” Politics and Society 20: 529–34.
Zalduondo, Barbara, Hernandez-Avila, Mauricio, and Uribe-Zuniga, Patricia. 1991. “Intervention Research Needs for AIDS Prevention among Commercial Sex Workers and their Clients.” In AIDS and Women's Reproductive Health, ed. Chen, L. C.. New York: Plenum Press.

Serving Sex Workers and Promoting Democratic Engagement: Rethinking Nonprofits' Role in American Civic and Political Life

  • Samantha Majic (a1)

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed