Hostname: page-component-7d684dbfc8-8ckrc Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2023-09-30T08:11:37.111Z Has data issue: false Feature Flags: { "corePageComponentGetUserInfoFromSharedSession": true, "coreDisableEcommerce": false, "coreDisableSocialShare": false, "coreDisableEcommerceForArticlePurchase": false, "coreDisableEcommerceForBookPurchase": false, "coreDisableEcommerceForElementPurchase": false, "coreUseNewShare": true, "useRatesEcommerce": true } hasContentIssue false

Changes in barley (Hordeum vulgare L. subsp. vulgare) genetic diversity and structure in Jordan over a period of 31 years

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  15 May 2017

I. Thormann*
Bioversity International, Via dei Tre Denari 472/A, 00057 Maccarese Rome, Italy
P. Reeves
United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service, National Center for Genetic Resources Preservation, 1111 South Mason Street, Fort Collins, CO 80521, USA
S. Thumm
Genebank Department, Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research, Corrensstr. 3, D-06466 Stadt Seeland, OT Gatersleben, Germany
A. Reilley
United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service, National Center for Genetic Resources Preservation, 1111 South Mason Street, Fort Collins, CO 80521, USA
J. M. M. Engels
Bioversity International, Via dei Tre Denari 472/A, 00057 Maccarese Rome, Italy
C. M. Biradar
International Center for Agricultural Research in Dry Areas (ICARDA), P.O. Box 950764, Amman 11195, Jordan
U. Lohwasser
Genebank Department, Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research, Corrensstr. 3, D-06466 Stadt Seeland, OT Gatersleben, Germany
A. Börner
Genebank Department, Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research, Corrensstr. 3, D-06466 Stadt Seeland, OT Gatersleben, Germany
K. Pillen
Plant Breeding, Institute for Agricultural and Nutritional Science, Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Betty-Heimann-Str. 3, 06120 Halle/Saale, Germany
C. M. Richards
United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service, National Center for Genetic Resources Preservation, 1111 South Mason Street, Fort Collins, CO 80521, USA
* Corresponding author. E-mail:


In many regions of the world, the cultivation of landraces is still common, in particular in centres of crop diversity. Significant effort has been put into ex situ conservation of landraces but limited data exist on the changes in genetic diversity that occur over time in farmers’ fields. We assessed temporal changes in barley landrace diversity in Jordan using seed samples collected in 1981 and 2012 from the same locations. We did not observe significant changes in the amount of genetic diversity, but samples collected in 2012 were more homogenous and less locally distinct. In two sites, we observed replacement of the old material. We observed a change in phenotype, and phenotypes were found to be more homogeneous among sites in 2012. Climate changed significantly over the study period, becoming hotter and dryer, but we did not identify any correlation between the changes in climate and genetic and phenotypic variations. While the amount of genetic diversity in terms of allelic richness and number of multi-locus genotypes has been maintained, local distinctiveness among landrace barley populations in Jordan was reduced.

Research Article
Copyright © NIAB 2017 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


Abebe, TD and Leon, J (2013) Spatial and temporal genetic analyses of Ethiopian barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) landraces reveal the absence of a distinct population structure. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 60: 15471558.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Abebe, TD, Mathew, B and Léon, J (2013) Barrier analysis detected genetic discontinuity among Ethiopian barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) landraces due to landscape and human mobility on gene flow. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 60: 297309.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Al-Bakri, JT, Taylor, JC and Brewer, TR (2001) Monitoring land use change in the Badia transition zone in Jordan using aerial photography and satellite imagery. The Geographical Journal 167: 248262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Al-Bakri, JT, Ajlouni, M and Abu-Zanat, M (2008) Incorporating land use mapping and participation in Jordan. Mountain Research and Development 28: 4957.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Alercia, A, Diulgheroff, S and Mackay, M (2015) FAO/Bioversity Multi-Crop Passport Descriptors. Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Bioversity International.Google Scholar
Allinne, C, Mariac, C, Vigouroux, Y, Bezançon, G, Couturon, E, Moussa, D, Tidjani, M, Pham, J-L and Robert, T (2008) Role of seed flow on the pattern and dynamics of pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum [L.] R. Br.) genetic diversity assessed by AFLP markers: a study in south-western Niger. Genetica 133: 167178.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Al-Tabbal, JA and Al-Fraihat, AH (2012) Genetic variation, heritability, phenotypic and genotypic correlation studies for yield and yield components in promising barley genotypes. Journal of Agricultural Science 4: 193201.Google Scholar
Al-Yassin, A (2012) Jordan: in search of new benefit-sharing practices through participatory plant breeding. In: Ruiz, M and Vernooy, R (eds) The Custodians of Biodiversity. Sharing Access and Benefits to Genetic Resources. Abingdon, UK: Earthscan, pp. 6778.Google Scholar
Assefa, A and Labuschagne, MT (2004) Phenotypic variation in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) landraces from north Shewa in Ethiopia. Biodiversity and Conservation 13: 14411451.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Barry, MB, Pham, JL, Béavogui, S, Ghesquière, A and Ahmadi, N (2008) Diachronic (1979–2003) analysis of rice genetic diversity in Guinea did not reveal genetic erosion. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 55: 723733.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bekele, E (1983) Some measures of gene diversity analysis on land race populations of Ethiopian barley. Hereditas 98: 127143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bertoldo, JG, Meirelles Coimbra, JL, Guidolin, AF, Braatz de Andrade, LR and Nodari, RO (2014) Agronomic potential of genebank landrace elite accessions for common bean. Sci. Agric. 71: 120125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bezançon, G, Pham, JL, Deu, M, Vigouroux, Y, Sagnard, F, Mariac, C, Kapran, I, Mamadou, A, Gérard, B, Ndjeunga, J and Chantereau, J (2009) Changes in the diversity and geographic distribution of cultivated millet (Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.) and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) varieties in Niger between 1976 and 2003. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 56: 223236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brown, AHD (1999) The genetic structure of crop landraces and the challenge to conserve them in situ on farms. In: Brush, SB (ed.) Genes in the Field: On-Farm Conservation of Crop Diversity. Ottawa, Canada: IDRC, pp. 2948.Google Scholar
Brown, AHD and Marshall, DR (1995) A basic sampling strategy: theory and practice. In Guarino, L, Ramanat ha Rao, V and Reid, R (eds) Collecting Plant Genetic Diversity: Technical Guidelines. Rome, Italy: International Plant Genetic Resources Institute (IPGRI), Plant Production and Protection Division. Rome, Italy: FAO, World Conservation Union (IUCN). Gland, Switzerland: CABI Publishing, Wallingford, UK, pp 7591.Google Scholar
Brown, AHD and Munday, J (1982) Population-genetic structure and optimal sampling of land races of barley from Iran. Genetica 58: 8596.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brush, SB (2004) Farmers’ Bounty: Locating Crop Diversity in the Contemporary World. New Haven, USA: Yale University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Camacho Villa, TC, Maxted, N, Scholten, M and Ford-Lloyd, B (2005) Defining and identifying crop landraces. Plant Genetic Resources: Characterization and Utilization 3: 373384.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ceccarelli, S (1996) Adaptation to low/high input cultivation. Euphytica 92: 203214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ceccarelli, S and Grando, S (1999) Barley landraces from the Fertile Crescent: a lesson for plant breeders. In: Brush, SB (ed.) Genes in the Field: On-Farm Conservation of Crop Diversity. Ottawa, Canada: IDRC, pp. 5176.Google Scholar
Ceccarelli, S and Grando, S (2007) Decentralized-participatory plant breeding: an example of demand driven research. Euphytica 155: 349360.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ceccarelli, S and Grando, S (2009) Participatory plant breeding in cereals. In: Carena, MJ (ed.) Cereals. US: Springer, pp. 395414.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ceccarelli, S, Grando, S and van Leur, JAG (1987) Genetic diversity in barley landraces from Syria and Jordan. Euphytica 36: 389405.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cui, D, Li, J, Tang, C, A, X, Yu, T, Ma, X, Zhang, E, Cao, G, Xu, F, Qiao, Y, Dai, L and Han, L (2016) Diachronic analysis of genetic diversity in rice landraces under on-farm conservation in Yunnan, China. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 129: 155168.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Damania, AB, Jackkson, MT and Porceddu, E (1985) Variation in wheat and barley landraces from Nepal and the Yemen Arab Republic. Z. Pflanzenzüchtungg 94: 1324.Google Scholar
Davis, MB, Shaw, RG and Etterson, JR (2005) Evolutionary responses to changing climate. Ecology 86: 17041714.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Del Rio, AH, Bamberg, JB, Huaman, Z, Salas, A and Vega, SE (1997) Assessing changes in the genetic diversity of potato genebanks. 2. In situ vs ex situ. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 95: 199204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Demissie, A and Bjornstad, A (1996) Phenotypic diversity of Ethiopian barleys in relation to geographic regions, altitudinal range, and agro-ecological zones: as an aid to germplasm collection and conservation strategy. Hereditas 124: 1729.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Deu, M, Sagnard, F, Chantereau, J, Calatayud, C, Vigouroux, Y, Pham, JL, Mariac, C, Kapran, I, Mamadou, A, Gérard, B, Ndjeunga, J and Bezançon, G (2010) Spatio–temporal dynamics of genetic diversity in Sorghum bicolor in Niger. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 120: 13011313.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dornelas, M, Magurran, AE, Buckland, ST, Chao, A, Chazdon, RL, Colwell, RK, Curtis, T, Gaston, KJ, Gotelli, NJ, Kosnik, MA, McGill, B, McCune, JL, Morlon, H, Mumby, PJ, Øvreas, L, Studeny, A and Vellend, M (2013) Quantifying temporal change in biodiversity: challenges and opportunities. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 280: 20121931.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dulloo, ME, Hanson, J, Jorge, MA and Thormann, I (2008) Regeneration guidelines: general guiding principles. In: Dulloo, ME, Thormann, I, Jorge, MA and Hanson, J (eds) Crop Specific Regeneration Guidelines [CD-ROM]. Rome, Italy: CGIAR System-wide Genetic Resource Programme (SGRP), 6 pp.Google Scholar
Dwivedi, SL, Ceccarelli, S, Blair, MW, Upadhyaya, HD, Are, AK and Ortiz, R (2016) Landrace germplasm for improving yield and abiotic stress adaptation. Trends in Plant Science 21: 3142.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ersts, PJ [Internet] Geographic Distance Matrix Generator (version 1.2.3). American Museum of Natural History, Center for Biodiversity and Conservation. Available at Accessed 4 February 2016.Google Scholar
Evanno, G, Regnaut, S and Goudet, J (2005) Detecting the number of clusters of individuals using the software STRUCTURE: a simulation study. Molecular Ecology 14: 26112620.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
FAO (2006) Country Pasture/Forage Resource Profiles. Rome, Jordan, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.Google Scholar
FAO (2010) The Second Report on the State of the World's Plant Genetic Re-Sources for Food and Agriculture. Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.Google Scholar
FAO (2012) Second Global Plan of Action for Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture. Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.Google Scholar
Franks, SJ, Avise, JC, Bradshaw, WE, Conner, JK, Etterson, JR, Mazer, SJ, Shaw, RG and Weis, AE (2008) The Resurrection Initiative: storing ancestral genotypes to capture evolution in action. BioScience 58: 870873.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Friedt, W, Horsley, RD, Harvey, BL, Poulsen, DME, Lance, RCM, Ceccarelli, S, Grando, S and Capettini, F (2011) Barley breeding history, progress, objectives and technology. In: Ullrich, SE (ed.) Barley: Production, Improvement and Uses. Ames, USA: Blackwell Publishing Ltd., pp. 160220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gao, H, Williamson, S and Bustamante, CD (2007) A Markov chain Monte Carlo approach for joint inference of population structure and inbreeding rates from multilocus genotype data. Genetics 176: 16351651.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gomez, OJ, Blair, MW, Frankow-Lindberg, BE and Gullberg, U (2005) Comparative study of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) landraces conserved ex situ in genebanks and in situ by farmers. Genetic Resources and Cop Evolution 52: 371380.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Goudet, J (2001) FSTAT, a program to estimate and test gene diversities and fixation indices (Version 2.9.3). Available at Google Scholar
Guo, Y, Li, Y, Huang, Y, Jarvis, D, Sato, K, Kato, K, Tsuyuzaki, H, Chen, L and Long, C (2012) Genetic diversity analysis of hulless barley from Shangri-la region revealed by SSR and AFLP markers. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 59: 15431552.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Haseneyer, G, Stracke, S, Paul, C, Einfeldt, C, Broda, A, Piepho, H-P, Graner, A and Geiger, HH (2010) Population structure and phenotypic variation of a spring barley world collection set up for association studies. Plant Breeding 129: 271279.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Henry, JP, Pontis, C, David, J and Gouyon, PH (1991) An experiment on dynamic conservation of genetic resources with metapopulations. In: Seitz, A, Loeschcke, V (eds) Species Conservation: A Population-Biological Approach. Basel, Switzerland: Birkhäuser Verlag Basel, pp. 185198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hoban, S and Schlarbaum, S (2014) Optimal sampling of seeds from plant populations for ex-situ conservation of genetic biodiversity, considering realistic population structure. Biological Conservation 177: 9099.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hoban, S, Arntzen, JA, Bruford, MW, Godoy, JA, Hoelzel, R, Segelbacher, G, Vila, C and Bertorelle, G (2014) Comparative evaluation of potential indicators and temporal sampling protocols for monitoring genetic erosion. Evolutionary Applications 7: 984998.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Holm, S (1979) A simple sequentially rejective multiple test procedure. Scandinavian Journal of Statistics 6: 6570.Google Scholar
ICARDA (2003) From formal to participatory plant breeding: improving barley production in the rainfed areas of Jordan. Final technical report. International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas. Available at accessed 22 April 2016.Google Scholar
Jakobsson, M and Rosenberg, NA (2007) CLUMPP: a cluster matching and permutation program for dealing with label switching and multimodality in analysis of population structure. Bioinformatics 23: 18011806.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Jana, S and Pietrzak, LN (1988) Comparative assessment of genetic diversity in wild and primitive cultivated barley in a center of diversity. Genetics 119: 981990.Google Scholar
Jaradat, AA (1989a) Diversity within and between populations of two sympatrically distributed Hordeum species in Jordan. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 78: 653656.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Jaradat, AA (1989b) Ecotypes and genetic divergence among sympatrically distributed populations of Hordeum vulgare and Hordeum spontaneum from the xeric region of Jordan. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 78: 857862.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Jarvis, DI, Myer, L, Klemick, H, Guarino, L, Smale, M, Brown, AHD, Sadiki, M, Sthapit, B and Hodgkin, T (2000) A Training Guide for In Situ Conservation On-farm. Version 1. Rome, Italy: International Plant Genetic Resources Institute.Google Scholar
Jarvis, DI, Hodgkin, T, Sthapit, BR, Fadda, C and Lopez-Noriega, I (2011) An heuristic framework for identifying multiple ways of supporting the conservation and use of traditional crop varieties within the agricultural production system. Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences 30: 125176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jost, L (2008) G ST and its relatives do not measure differentiation. Molecular Ecology 17: 40154026.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Keenan, K, McGinnity, P, Cross, TF, Crozier, WW and Prodöhl, PA (2013) diveRsity: an R package for the estimation of population genetics parameters and their associated errors. Methods in Ecology and Evolution 4: 782788.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Khlestkina, EK, Huang, XQ, Quenum, FJ-B, Chebotar, S, Roeder, MS and Börner, A (2004) Genetic diversity in cultivated plants – loss or stability? Theoretical and Applied Genetics 108: 14661472.Google ScholarPubMed
Khlestkina, EK, Varshney, RK, Röder, MS, Graner, A and Börner, A (2006) A comparative assessment of genetic diversity in cultivated barley collected in different decades of the last century in Austria, Albania and India by using genomic and genic simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. Plant Genetic Resources: Characterization and Utilization 4: 125133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Khresat, SA, Rawajfih, Z and Mohammad, M (1998) Land degradation in north-western Jordan: causes and processes. Journal of Arid Environments 39: 623629.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kirkpatrick, M and Lande, R (1989) The evolution of maternal characters. Evolution 43: 485503.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lasa, JM, Igartua, E, Ciudad, FJ, Codesal, P, García, EV, Gracia, MP, Medina, B, Romagosa, I, Molina-Cano, JL and Montoya, JL (2001) Morphological and agronomical diversity patterns in the Spanish barley core collection. Hereditas 135: 217225.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lewis, PO and Zaykin, D (2001) Genetic Data Analysis: Computer program for the analysis of allelic data (version 1.1). Available at Google Scholar
Malysheva-Otto, LV, Ganal, MW and Röder, MS (2006) Analysis of molecular diversity, population structure and linkage disequilibrium in a worldwide survey of cultivated barley germplasm (Hordeum vulgare L.). BMC Genetics 7: 6. DOI: 10.1186/1471-2156-7-6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Maxted, M and Guarino, L (2006) Genetic erosion and genetic pollution of crop wild relatives. In: Ford-Lloyd, BV, Dias, SR and Bettencourt, E (eds) Genetic Erosion and Pollution Assessment Methodologies. Proceedings of PGR Forum Workshop 5, Terceira Island, Autonomous Region of the Azores, Portugal, 8–11 September 2004. Rome: Published on behalf of the European Crop Wild Relative Diversity Assessment and Conservation Forum, Bioversity International, pp. 3546.Google Scholar
Megersa, G (2014) Genetic erosion of barley in North Shewa Zone of Oromiya Region, Ethiopia. International Journal of Biodiversity and Conservation 6: 280289.Google Scholar
Meirmans, PG and Hedrick, PW (2011) Assessing population structure: FST and related measures. Molecular Ecology 11: 518.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mekbib, F (2008) Genetic erosion of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) in the centre of diversity, Ethiopia. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 55: 351364.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mercer, KL and Perales, HR (2010) Evolutionary response of landraces to climate change in centers of crop diversity. Evolutionary Applications 3: 480493.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mousseau, TA and Fox, CW (1998) The adaptive significance of maternal effects. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 13: 403407.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Nagel, M, Vogel, H, Landjeva, S, Buck-Sorlin, G, Lohwasser, U, Scholz, U and Börner, A (2009) Seed conservation in ex-situ genebanks - genetic studies on longevity in barley. Euphytica 170: 110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
NCARTT (2007) The Second Country Report on the State of the Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture. The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan. Amman, Jordan: National Center for Agricultural Research and Technology Transfer NCARTT.Google Scholar
Ould Med Mahmoud, MA and Hamza, S (2009) Genetic diversity in local barley accessions collected from different geographical regions of Tunisia. Plant Genetic Resources: Characterization and Utilization 7: 169176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pandey, M, Wagner, C, Friedt, W and Ordon, F (2006) Genetic relatedness and population differentiation of Himalayan hulless barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) landraces inferred with SSRs. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 113: 715729.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Parzies, HK, Spoor, W, Ennos, AR (2000) Outcrossing rates of barley landraces from Syria. Plant Breeding 119: 520522.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Parzies, HK, Spoor, W and Ennos, AR (2004) Inferring seed exchange between farmers from population genetic structure of barley landrace Arabi Aswad from Northern Syria. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 51: 471478.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Peakall, R and Smouse, PE (2006) GENALEX 6: genetic analysis in Excel. Population genetic software for teaching and research. Molecular Ecology Notes 6: 288295.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Peakall, R and Smouse, PE (2012) GenAlEx 6.5: genetic analysis in Excel. Population genetic software for teaching and research-an update. Bioinformatics 28: 25372539.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pérez de la Vega, M and Garcia, P (1997) Genetic structure of self-pollinating species: the case of wild Avena . Bocconea 7: 141152.Google Scholar
Petrovic, S and Dimitrijevic, M (2012) Genetic erosion of diversity in cereals. Genetika 44: 217226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pritchard, JK, Stephens, M and Donnelly, P (2000) Inference of population structure using multilocus genotype data. Genetics 155: 945959.Google ScholarPubMed
Rao, NK, Hanson, J, Dulloo, ME, Ghosh, K, Nowell, D and Larinde, M (2006) Manual of Seed Handling in Genebanks. Handbooks for Genebanks No. 8. Rome, Italy: Bioversity International.Google Scholar
Rosenberg, NA (2004) Distruct: a program for the graphical display of population structure. Molecular Ecology Notes 4: 137138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rousset, F (1997) Genetic differentiation and estimation of gene flow from F-statistics under isolation by distance. Genetics 145: 12191228.Google ScholarPubMed
Russell, JR, Booth, A, Fuller, JD, Baum, M, Ceccarelli, S, Grando, S and Powell, W (2003) Patterns of polymorphism detected in the chloroplast and nuclear genomes of barley landraces sampled from Syria and Jordan. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 107: 413421.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Russell, J, Dawson, IK, Flavell, AJ, Steffenson, B, Weltzien, E, Booth, A, Ceccarelli, S, Grando, S and Waugh, R (2011) Analysis of 1000 single nucleotide polymorphisms in geographically matched samples of landrace and wild barley indicates secondary contact and chromosome-level differences in diversity around domestication genes. New Phytologist 191: 564578.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Samberg, LH, Fishman, L and Allendorf, FW (2013) Population genetic structure in a social landscape: barley in a traditional Ethiopian agricultural system. Evolutionary Applications 6: 11331145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Steele, KA, Gyawali, S, Joshi, KD, Shrestha, P, Sthapit, BR and Witcombe, JR (2009) Has the introduction of modern rice varieties changed rice genetic diversity in a high-altitude region of Nepal?. Field Crops Research 113: 2430.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stein, N, Prasad, M, Scholz, U, Thiel, T, Zhang, H, Wolf, M, Kota, R, Varshney, RK, Perovic, D, Grosse, I and Graner, A (2007) A 1000-loci transcript map of the barley genome: new anchoring points for integrative grass genomics. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 114: 823839.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Thiel, T, Michalek, W, Varshney, RK and Graner, A (2003) Exploiting EST databases for the development and characterization of gene-derived SSR-markers in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Theoretical and Applied Genetics 106: 411422.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Thomas, M, Dawson, JC, Goldringer, I and Bonneuil, C (2011) Seed exchanges, a key to analyze crop diversity dynamics in farmer-led on-farm conservation. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 58: 321338.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Thormann, I and Engels, JMM (2015) Genetic diversity and erosion – a global perspective. Chapter 10. In: Ahuja, MR and Jain, SM (eds) Genetic Diversity and Erosion – Indicators and Prevention, vol. 1. Switzerland: Springer International Publishing, pp. 263294.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Thormann, I, Fiorino, E, Halewood, M and Engels, JMM (2015) Plant genetic resources collections and associated information as baseline resource for genetic diversity studies – an assessment of the IBPGR supported collections. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 62: 12791293.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Van de Wouw, M, Kik, C, van Hintum, T, van Treuren, R and Visser, B (2010) Genetic erosion in crops: concept, research, results and challenges. Plant Genetic Resources: Characterization and Utilization 8: 115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Van Hintum, T and Menting, F (2003) Diversity in ex situ genebank collections of barley. In: von Bothmer, R, van Hintum, T and Knüpffer, H (eds) Diversity in Barley (Hordeum vulgare). Developments in Plant Genetics and Breeding, vol. 7. Amsterdam: Elsevier, pp. 247257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Varshney, RK, Marcel, TC, Ramsay, L, Russell, J, Röder, M, Stein, N, Waugh, R, Langridge, P, Niks, RE and Graner, A (2007) A high density barley microsatellite map with 775 SSR loci. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 114: 10911103.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Varshney, RK, Salem, KFM, Baum, M, Röder, MS, Graner, A and Börner, A (2008) SSR and SNP diversity in a barley germplasm collection. Plant Genetic Resources: Characterization and Utilization 6: 167174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Vigouroux, Y, Mariac, C, De Mita, S, Pham, J-L, Gérard, B, Kapran, I, Sagnard, F, Deu, M, Chantereau, J, Ali, A, Ndjeunga, J, Luong, V, Thuillet, AC, Saidou, AA and Bezancon, G (2011) Selection for Earlier Flowering Crop Associated with Climatic Variations in the Sahel. PLoS ONE 6: e19563.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wagner, DB and Allard, RW (1991) Pollen migration in predominantly self-fertilizing plants: barley. Journal of Heredity 82: 302304.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Weltzien, E (1982) Barley collection and evaluation in Syria and Jordan. Plant Genetic Resources Newsletter 52: 56.Google Scholar
Weltzien, E (1988) Evaluation of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) landrace populations originating from different growing regions in the Near East. Plant Breeding 101: 95106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Westengen, OT, Okongo, MA, Onek, L, Berg, T, Hai Upadhyaya, H, Birkeland, S, Khalsa, SDK, Ring, KH, Nils, C, Stenseth, NC and Brysting, AK (2014) Ethnolinguistic structuring of sorghum genetic diversity in Africa and the role of local seed systems. PNAS 111: 1410014105.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Witcombe, JR, Bourgois, JJ and Rifaie, R (1982) Germplasm collections from Syria & Jordan. Plant Genetic Resources Newsletter 50: 28.Google Scholar
Yahiaoui, S, Igartua, E, Moralejo, M, Ramsay, L, Molina-Cano, JL, Ciudad, FJ, Lasa, JM, Gracia, MP and Casas, AM (2008) Patterns of genetic and eco-geographical diversity in Spanish barleys. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 116: 271282.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Supplementary material: File

Thormann supplementary material

Thormann supplementary material

Download Thormann supplementary material(File)
File 251 KB