Abebe TD and Leon J (2013) Spatial and temporal genetic analyses of Ethiopian barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) landraces reveal the absence of a distinct population structure. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution
Abebe TD, Mathew B and Léon J (2013) Barrier analysis detected genetic discontinuity among Ethiopian barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) landraces due to landscape and human mobility on gene flow. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution
Al-Bakri JT, Taylor JC and Brewer TR (2001) Monitoring land use change in the Badia transition zone in Jordan using aerial photography and satellite imagery. The Geographical Journal
Al-Bakri JT, Ajlouni M and Abu-Zanat M (2008) Incorporating land use mapping and participation in Jordan. Mountain Research and Development
Alercia A, Diulgheroff S and Mackay M (2015) FAO/Bioversity Multi-Crop Passport Descriptors. Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Bioversity International.
Allinne C, Mariac C, Vigouroux Y, Bezançon G, Couturon E, Moussa D, Tidjani M, Pham J-L and Robert T (2008) Role of seed flow on the pattern and dynamics of pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum [L.] R. Br.) genetic diversity assessed by AFLP markers: a study in south-western Niger. Genetica
Al-Tabbal JA and Al-Fraihat AH (2012) Genetic variation, heritability, phenotypic and genotypic correlation studies for yield and yield components in promising barley genotypes. Journal of Agricultural Science
Al-Yassin A (2012) Jordan: in search of new benefit-sharing practices through participatory plant breeding. In: Ruiz M and Vernooy R (eds) The Custodians of Biodiversity. Sharing Access and Benefits to Genetic Resources. Abingdon, UK: Earthscan, pp. 67–78.
Assefa A and Labuschagne MT (2004) Phenotypic variation in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) landraces from north Shewa in Ethiopia. Biodiversity and Conservation
Barry MB, Pham JL, Béavogui S, Ghesquière A and Ahmadi N (2008) Diachronic (1979–2003) analysis of rice genetic diversity in Guinea did not reveal genetic erosion. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution
Bekele E (1983) Some measures of gene diversity analysis on land race populations of Ethiopian barley. Hereditas
Bertoldo JG, Meirelles Coimbra JL, Guidolin AF, Braatz de Andrade LR and Nodari RO (2014) Agronomic potential of genebank landrace elite accessions for common bean. Sci. Agric. 71: 120–125.
Bezançon G, Pham JL, Deu M, Vigouroux Y, Sagnard F, Mariac C, Kapran I, Mamadou A, Gérard B, Ndjeunga J and Chantereau J (2009) Changes in the diversity and geographic distribution of cultivated millet (Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.) and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) varieties in Niger between 1976 and 2003. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution
Brown AHD (1999) The genetic structure of crop landraces and the challenge to conserve them in situ on farms. In: Brush SB (ed.) Genes in the Field: On-Farm Conservation of Crop Diversity. Ottawa, Canada: IDRC, pp. 29–48.
Brown AHD and Marshall DR (1995) A basic sampling strategy: theory and practice. In Guarino L, Ramanat ha Rao V and Reid R (eds) Collecting Plant Genetic Diversity: Technical Guidelines. Rome, Italy: International Plant Genetic Resources Institute (IPGRI), Plant Production and Protection Division. Rome, Italy: FAO, World Conservation Union (IUCN). Gland, Switzerland: CABI Publishing, Wallingford, UK, pp 75–91.
Brown AHD and Munday J (1982) Population-genetic structure and optimal sampling of land races of barley from Iran. Genetica
Brush SB (2004) Farmers’ Bounty: Locating Crop Diversity in the Contemporary World. New Haven, USA: Yale University Press.
Camacho Villa TC, Maxted N, Scholten M and Ford-Lloyd B (2005) Defining and identifying crop landraces. Plant Genetic Resources: Characterization and Utilization
Ceccarelli S (1996) Adaptation to low/high input cultivation. Euphytica
Ceccarelli S and Grando S (1999) Barley landraces from the Fertile Crescent: a lesson for plant breeders. In: Brush SB (ed.) Genes in the Field: On-Farm Conservation of Crop Diversity. Ottawa, Canada: IDRC, pp. 51–76.
Ceccarelli S and Grando S (2007) Decentralized-participatory plant breeding: an example of demand driven research. Euphytica
Ceccarelli S and Grando S (2009) Participatory plant breeding in cereals. In: Carena MJ (ed.) Cereals. US: Springer, pp. 395–414.
Ceccarelli S, Grando S and van Leur JAG (1987) Genetic diversity in barley landraces from Syria and Jordan. Euphytica
Cui D, Li J, Tang C, A X, Yu T, Ma X, Zhang E, Cao G, Xu F, Qiao Y, Dai L and Han L (2016) Diachronic analysis of genetic diversity in rice landraces under on-farm conservation in Yunnan, China. Theoretical and Applied Genetics
Damania AB, Jackkson MT and Porceddu E (1985) Variation in wheat and barley landraces from Nepal and the Yemen Arab Republic. Z. Pflanzenzüchtungg
Davis MB, Shaw RG and Etterson JR (2005) Evolutionary responses to changing climate. Ecology
Del Rio AH, Bamberg JB, Huaman Z, Salas A and Vega SE (1997) Assessing changes in the genetic diversity of potato genebanks. 2. In situ vs ex situ. Theoretical and Applied Genetics
Demissie A and Bjornstad A (1996) Phenotypic diversity of Ethiopian barleys in relation to geographic regions, altitudinal range, and agro-ecological zones: as an aid to germplasm collection and conservation strategy. Hereditas
Deu M, Sagnard F, Chantereau J, Calatayud C, Vigouroux Y, Pham JL, Mariac C, Kapran I, Mamadou A, Gérard B, Ndjeunga J and Bezançon G (2010) Spatio–temporal dynamics of genetic diversity in Sorghum bicolor in Niger. Theoretical and Applied Genetics
Dornelas M, Magurran AE, Buckland ST, Chao A, Chazdon RL, Colwell RK, Curtis T, Gaston KJ, Gotelli NJ, Kosnik MA, McGill B, McCune JL, Morlon H, Mumby PJ, Øvreas L, Studeny A and Vellend M (2013) Quantifying temporal change in biodiversity: challenges and opportunities. Proceedings of the Royal Society B
Dulloo ME, Hanson J, Jorge MA and Thormann I (2008) Regeneration guidelines: general guiding principles. In: Dulloo ME, Thormann I, Jorge MA and Hanson J (eds) Crop Specific Regeneration Guidelines [CD-ROM]. Rome, Italy: CGIAR System-wide Genetic Resource Programme (SGRP), 6 pp.
Dwivedi SL, Ceccarelli S, Blair MW, Upadhyaya HD, Are AK and Ortiz R (2016) Landrace germplasm for improving yield and abiotic stress adaptation. Trends in Plant Science
Evanno G, Regnaut S and Goudet J (2005) Detecting the number of clusters of individuals using the software STRUCTURE: a simulation study. Molecular Ecology
FAO (2006) Country Pasture/Forage Resource Profiles. Rome, Jordan, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
FAO (2010) The Second Report on the State of the World's Plant Genetic Re-Sources for Food and Agriculture. Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
FAO (2012) Second Global Plan of Action for Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture. Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
Franks SJ, Avise JC, Bradshaw WE, Conner JK, Etterson JR, Mazer SJ, Shaw RG and Weis AE (2008) The Resurrection Initiative: storing ancestral genotypes to capture evolution in action. BioScience
Friedt W, Horsley RD, Harvey BL, Poulsen DME, Lance RCM, Ceccarelli S, Grando S and Capettini F (2011) Barley breeding history, progress, objectives and technology. In: Ullrich SE (ed.) Barley: Production, Improvement and Uses. Ames, USA: Blackwell Publishing Ltd., pp. 160–220.
Gao H, Williamson S and Bustamante CD (2007) A Markov chain Monte Carlo approach for joint inference of population structure and inbreeding rates from multilocus genotype data. Genetics
Gomez OJ, Blair MW, Frankow-Lindberg BE and Gullberg U (2005) Comparative study of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) landraces conserved ex situ in genebanks and in situ by farmers. Genetic Resources and Cop Evolution
Guo Y, Li Y, Huang Y, Jarvis D, Sato K, Kato K, Tsuyuzaki H, Chen L and Long C (2012) Genetic diversity analysis of hulless barley from Shangri-la region revealed by SSR and AFLP markers. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution
Haseneyer G, Stracke S, Paul C, Einfeldt C, Broda A, Piepho H-P, Graner A and Geiger HH (2010) Population structure and phenotypic variation of a spring barley world collection set up for association studies. Plant Breeding
Henry JP, Pontis C, David J and Gouyon PH (1991) An experiment on dynamic conservation of genetic resources with metapopulations. In: Seitz A, Loeschcke V (eds) Species Conservation: A Population-Biological Approach. Basel, Switzerland: Birkhäuser Verlag Basel, pp. 185–198.
Hoban S and Schlarbaum S (2014) Optimal sampling of seeds from plant populations for ex-situ conservation of genetic biodiversity, considering realistic population structure. Biological Conservation
Hoban S, Arntzen JA, Bruford MW, Godoy JA, Hoelzel R, Segelbacher G, Vila C and Bertorelle G (2014) Comparative evaluation of potential indicators and temporal sampling protocols for monitoring genetic erosion. Evolutionary Applications
Holm S (1979) A simple sequentially rejective multiple test procedure. Scandinavian Journal of Statistics
ICARDA (2003) From formal to participatory plant breeding: improving barley production in the rainfed areas of Jordan. Final technical report. International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas. Available at https://idl-bnc.idrc.ca/dspace/handle/10625/35287. accessed 22 April 2016.
Jakobsson M and Rosenberg NA (2007) CLUMPP: a cluster matching and permutation program for dealing with label switching and multimodality in analysis of population structure. Bioinformatics
Jana S and Pietrzak LN (1988) Comparative assessment of genetic diversity in wild and primitive cultivated barley in a center of diversity. Genetics
Jaradat AA (1989a) Diversity within and between populations of two sympatrically distributed Hordeum species in Jordan. Theoretical and Applied Genetics
Jaradat AA (1989b) Ecotypes and genetic divergence among sympatrically distributed populations of Hordeum vulgare and Hordeum spontaneum from the xeric region of Jordan. Theoretical and Applied Genetics
Jarvis DI, Myer L, Klemick H, Guarino L, Smale M, Brown AHD, Sadiki M, Sthapit B and Hodgkin T (2000) A Training Guide for In Situ Conservation On-farm. Version 1. Rome, Italy: International Plant Genetic Resources Institute.
Jarvis DI, Hodgkin T, Sthapit BR, Fadda C and Lopez-Noriega I (2011) An heuristic framework for identifying multiple ways of supporting the conservation and use of traditional crop varieties within the agricultural production system. Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences
Jost L (2008)
ST and its relatives do not measure differentiation. Molecular Ecology
Keenan K, McGinnity P, Cross TF, Crozier WW and Prodöhl PA (2013) diveRsity: an R package for the estimation of population genetics parameters and their associated errors. Methods in Ecology and Evolution
Khlestkina EK, Huang XQ, Quenum FJ-B, Chebotar S, Roeder MS and Börner A (2004) Genetic diversity in cultivated plants – loss or stability?
Theoretical and Applied Genetics
Khlestkina EK, Varshney RK, Röder MS, Graner A and Börner A (2006) A comparative assessment of genetic diversity in cultivated barley collected in different decades of the last century in Austria, Albania and India by using genomic and genic simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. Plant Genetic Resources: Characterization and Utilization
Khresat SA, Rawajfih Z and Mohammad M (1998) Land degradation in north-western Jordan: causes and processes. Journal of Arid Environments
Kirkpatrick M and Lande R (1989) The evolution of maternal characters. Evolution
Lasa JM, Igartua E, Ciudad FJ, Codesal P, García EV, Gracia MP, Medina B, Romagosa I, Molina-Cano JL and Montoya JL (2001) Morphological and agronomical diversity patterns in the Spanish barley core collection. Hereditas
Malysheva-Otto LV, Ganal MW and Röder MS (2006) Analysis of molecular diversity, population structure and linkage disequilibrium in a worldwide survey of cultivated barley germplasm (Hordeum vulgare L.). BMC Genetics
7: 6. DOI: 10.1186/1471-2156-7-6.
Maxted M and Guarino L (2006) Genetic erosion and genetic pollution of crop wild relatives. In: Ford-Lloyd BV, Dias SR and Bettencourt E (eds) Genetic Erosion and Pollution Assessment Methodologies. Proceedings of PGR Forum Workshop 5, Terceira Island, Autonomous Region of the Azores, Portugal, 8–11 September 2004. Rome: Published on behalf of the European Crop Wild Relative Diversity Assessment and Conservation Forum, Bioversity International, pp. 35–46.
Megersa G (2014) Genetic erosion of barley in North Shewa Zone of Oromiya Region, Ethiopia. International Journal of Biodiversity and Conservation
Meirmans PG and Hedrick PW (2011) Assessing population structure: FST and related measures. Molecular Ecology
Mekbib F (2008) Genetic erosion of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) in the centre of diversity, Ethiopia. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution
Mercer KL and Perales HR (2010) Evolutionary response of landraces to climate change in centers of crop diversity. Evolutionary Applications
Mousseau TA and Fox CW (1998) The adaptive significance of maternal effects. Trends in Ecology & Evolution
Nagel M, Vogel H, Landjeva S, Buck-Sorlin G, Lohwasser U, Scholz U and Börner A (2009) Seed conservation in ex-situ genebanks - genetic studies on longevity in barley. Euphytica
NCARTT (2007) The Second Country Report on the State of the Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture. The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan. Amman, Jordan: National Center for Agricultural Research and Technology Transfer NCARTT.
Ould Med Mahmoud MA and Hamza S (2009) Genetic diversity in local barley accessions collected from different geographical regions of Tunisia. Plant Genetic Resources: Characterization and Utilization
Pandey M, Wagner C, Friedt W and Ordon F (2006) Genetic relatedness and population differentiation of Himalayan hulless barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) landraces inferred with SSRs. Theoretical and Applied Genetics
Parzies HK, Spoor W, Ennos AR (2000) Outcrossing rates of barley landraces from Syria. Plant Breeding
Parzies HK, Spoor W and Ennos AR (2004) Inferring seed exchange between farmers from population genetic structure of barley landrace Arabi Aswad from Northern Syria. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution
Peakall R and Smouse PE (2006) GENALEX 6: genetic analysis in Excel. Population genetic software for teaching and research. Molecular Ecology Notes
Peakall R and Smouse PE (2012) GenAlEx 6.5: genetic analysis in Excel. Population genetic software for teaching and research-an update. Bioinformatics
Pérez de la Vega M and Garcia P (1997) Genetic structure of self-pollinating species: the case of wild Avena
Petrovic S and Dimitrijevic M (2012) Genetic erosion of diversity in cereals. Genetika
Pritchard JK, Stephens M and Donnelly P (2000) Inference of population structure using multilocus genotype data. Genetics
Rao NK, Hanson J, Dulloo ME, Ghosh K, Nowell D and Larinde M (2006) Manual of Seed Handling in Genebanks. Handbooks for Genebanks No. 8. Rome, Italy: Bioversity International.
Rosenberg NA (2004) Distruct: a program for the graphical display of population structure. Molecular Ecology Notes
Rousset F (1997) Genetic differentiation and estimation of gene flow from F-statistics under isolation by distance. Genetics
Russell JR, Booth A, Fuller JD, Baum M, Ceccarelli S, Grando S and Powell W (2003) Patterns of polymorphism detected in the chloroplast and nuclear genomes of barley landraces sampled from Syria and Jordan. Theoretical and Applied Genetics
Russell J, Dawson IK, Flavell AJ, Steffenson B, Weltzien E, Booth A, Ceccarelli S, Grando S and Waugh R (2011) Analysis of 1000 single nucleotide polymorphisms in geographically matched samples of landrace and wild barley indicates secondary contact and chromosome-level differences in diversity around domestication genes. New Phytologist
Samberg LH, Fishman L and Allendorf FW (2013) Population genetic structure in a social landscape: barley in a traditional Ethiopian agricultural system. Evolutionary Applications
Steele KA, Gyawali S, Joshi KD, Shrestha P, Sthapit BR and Witcombe JR (2009) Has the introduction of modern rice varieties changed rice genetic diversity in a high-altitude region of Nepal?. Field Crops Research
Stein N, Prasad M, Scholz U, Thiel T, Zhang H, Wolf M, Kota R, Varshney RK, Perovic D, Grosse I and Graner A (2007) A 1000-loci transcript map of the barley genome: new anchoring points for integrative grass genomics. Theoretical and Applied Genetics
Thiel T, Michalek W, Varshney RK and Graner A (2003) Exploiting EST databases for the development and characterization of gene-derived SSR-markers in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Theoretical and Applied Genetics
Thomas M, Dawson JC, Goldringer I and Bonneuil C (2011) Seed exchanges, a key to analyze crop diversity dynamics in farmer-led on-farm conservation. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution
Thormann I and Engels JMM (2015) Genetic diversity and erosion – a global perspective. Chapter 10. In: Ahuja MR and Jain SM (eds) Genetic Diversity and Erosion – Indicators and Prevention, vol. 1. Switzerland: Springer International Publishing, pp. 263–294.
Thormann I, Fiorino E, Halewood M and Engels JMM (2015) Plant genetic resources collections and associated information as baseline resource for genetic diversity studies – an assessment of the IBPGR supported collections. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution
Van de Wouw M, Kik C, van Hintum T, van Treuren R and Visser B (2010) Genetic erosion in crops: concept, research, results and challenges. Plant Genetic Resources: Characterization and Utilization
Van Hintum T and Menting F (2003) Diversity in ex situ genebank collections of barley. In: von Bothmer R, van Hintum T and Knüpffer H (eds) Diversity in Barley (Hordeum vulgare). Developments in Plant Genetics and Breeding, vol. 7. Amsterdam: Elsevier, pp. 247–257.
Varshney RK, Marcel TC, Ramsay L, Russell J, Röder M, Stein N, Waugh R, Langridge P, Niks RE and Graner A (2007) A high density barley microsatellite map with 775 SSR loci. Theoretical and Applied Genetics
Varshney RK, Salem KFM, Baum M, Röder MS, Graner A and Börner A (2008) SSR and SNP diversity in a barley germplasm collection. Plant Genetic Resources: Characterization and Utilization
Vigouroux Y, Mariac C, De Mita S, Pham J-L, Gérard B, Kapran I, Sagnard F, Deu M, Chantereau J, Ali A, Ndjeunga J, Luong V, Thuillet AC, Saidou AA and Bezancon G (2011) Selection for Earlier Flowering Crop Associated with Climatic Variations in the Sahel. PLoS ONE
Wagner DB and Allard RW (1991) Pollen migration in predominantly self-fertilizing plants: barley. Journal of Heredity
Weltzien E (1982) Barley collection and evaluation in Syria and Jordan. Plant Genetic Resources Newsletter
Weltzien E (1988) Evaluation of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) landrace populations originating from different growing regions in the Near East. Plant Breeding
Westengen OT, Okongo MA, Onek L, Berg T, Hai Upadhyaya H, Birkeland S, Khalsa SDK, Ring KH, Nils C, Stenseth NC and Brysting AK (2014) Ethnolinguistic structuring of sorghum genetic diversity in Africa and the role of local seed systems. PNAS
Witcombe JR, Bourgois JJ and Rifaie R (1982) Germplasm collections from Syria & Jordan. Plant Genetic Resources Newsletter
Yahiaoui S, Igartua E, Moralejo M, Ramsay L, Molina-Cano JL, Ciudad FJ, Lasa JM, Gracia MP and Casas AM (2008) Patterns of genetic and eco-geographical diversity in Spanish barleys. Theoretical and Applied Genetics