AbebeTD and LeonJ (2013) Spatial and temporal genetic analyses of Ethiopian barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) landraces reveal the absence of a distinct population structure. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution
AbebeTD, MathewB and LéonJ (2013) Barrier analysis detected genetic discontinuity among Ethiopian barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) landraces due to landscape and human mobility on gene flow. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution
Al-BakriJT, TaylorJC and BrewerTR (2001) Monitoring land use change in the Badia transition zone in Jordan using aerial photography and satellite imagery. The Geographical Journal
Al-BakriJT, AjlouniM and Abu-ZanatM (2008) Incorporating land use mapping and participation in Jordan. Mountain Research and Development
AlerciaA, DiulgheroffS and MackayM (2015) FAO/Bioversity Multi-Crop Passport Descriptors. Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Bioversity International.
AllinneC, MariacC, VigourouxY, BezançonG, CouturonE, MoussaD, TidjaniM, PhamJ-L and RobertT (2008) Role of seed flow on the pattern and dynamics of pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum [L.] R. Br.) genetic diversity assessed by AFLP markers: a study in south-western Niger. Genetica
Al-TabbalJA and Al-FraihatAH (2012) Genetic variation, heritability, phenotypic and genotypic correlation studies for yield and yield components in promising barley genotypes. Journal of Agricultural Science
Al-YassinA (2012) Jordan: in search of new benefit-sharing practices through participatory plant breeding. In: RuizM and VernooyR (eds) The Custodians of Biodiversity. Sharing Access and Benefits to Genetic Resources. Abingdon, UK: Earthscan, pp. 67–78.
AssefaA and LabuschagneMT (2004) Phenotypic variation in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) landraces from north Shewa in Ethiopia. Biodiversity and Conservation
BarryMB, PhamJL, BéavoguiS, GhesquièreA and AhmadiN (2008) Diachronic (1979–2003) analysis of rice genetic diversity in Guinea did not reveal genetic erosion. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution
BekeleE (1983) Some measures of gene diversity analysis on land race populations of Ethiopian barley. Hereditas
BertoldoJG, Meirelles CoimbraJL, GuidolinAF, Braatz de AndradeLR and NodariRO (2014) Agronomic potential of genebank landrace elite accessions for common bean. Sci. Agric. 71: 120–125.
BezançonG, PhamJL, DeuM, VigourouxY, SagnardF, MariacC, KapranI, MamadouA, GérardB, NdjeungaJ and ChantereauJ (2009) Changes in the diversity and geographic distribution of cultivated millet (Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.) and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) varieties in Niger between 1976 and 2003. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution
BrownAHD (1999) The genetic structure of crop landraces and the challenge to conserve them in situ on farms. In: BrushSB (ed.) Genes in the Field: On-Farm Conservation of Crop Diversity. Ottawa, Canada: IDRC, pp. 29–48.
BrownAHD and MarshallDR (1995) A basic sampling strategy: theory and practice. In GuarinoL, Ramanat ha RaoV and ReidR (eds) Collecting Plant Genetic Diversity: Technical Guidelines. Rome, Italy: International Plant Genetic Resources Institute (IPGRI), Plant Production and Protection Division. Rome, Italy: FAO, World Conservation Union (IUCN). Gland, Switzerland: CABI Publishing, Wallingford, UK, pp 75–91.
BrownAHD and MundayJ (1982) Population-genetic structure and optimal sampling of land races of barley from Iran. Genetica
BrushSB (2004) Farmers’ Bounty: Locating Crop Diversity in the Contemporary World. New Haven, USA: Yale University Press.
Camacho VillaTC, MaxtedN, ScholtenM and Ford-LloydB (2005) Defining and identifying crop landraces. Plant Genetic Resources: Characterization and Utilization
CeccarelliS (1996) Adaptation to low/high input cultivation. Euphytica
CeccarelliS and GrandoS (1999) Barley landraces from the Fertile Crescent: a lesson for plant breeders. In: BrushSB (ed.) Genes in the Field: On-Farm Conservation of Crop Diversity. Ottawa, Canada: IDRC, pp. 51–76.
CeccarelliS and GrandoS (2007) Decentralized-participatory plant breeding: an example of demand driven research. Euphytica
CeccarelliS and GrandoS (2009) Participatory plant breeding in cereals. In: CarenaMJ (ed.) Cereals. US: Springer, pp. 395–414.
CeccarelliS, GrandoS and van LeurJAG (1987) Genetic diversity in barley landraces from Syria and Jordan. Euphytica
CuiD, LiJ, TangC, AX, YuT, MaX, ZhangE, CaoG, XuF, QiaoY, DaiL and HanL (2016) Diachronic analysis of genetic diversity in rice landraces under on-farm conservation in Yunnan, China. Theoretical and Applied Genetics
DamaniaAB, JackksonMT and PorcedduE (1985) Variation in wheat and barley landraces from Nepal and the Yemen Arab Republic. Z. Pflanzenzüchtungg
DavisMB, ShawRG and EttersonJR (2005) Evolutionary responses to changing climate. Ecology
Del RioAH, BambergJB, HuamanZ, SalasA and VegaSE (1997) Assessing changes in the genetic diversity of potato genebanks. 2. In situ vs ex situ. Theoretical and Applied Genetics
DemissieA and BjornstadA (1996) Phenotypic diversity of Ethiopian barleys in relation to geographic regions, altitudinal range, and agro-ecological zones: as an aid to germplasm collection and conservation strategy. Hereditas
DeuM, SagnardF, ChantereauJ, CalatayudC, VigourouxY, PhamJL, MariacC, KapranI, MamadouA, GérardB, NdjeungaJ and BezançonG (2010) Spatio–temporal dynamics of genetic diversity in Sorghum bicolor in Niger. Theoretical and Applied Genetics
DornelasM, MagurranAE, BucklandST, ChaoA, ChazdonRL, ColwellRK, CurtisT, GastonKJ, GotelliNJ, KosnikMA, McGillB, McCuneJL, MorlonH, MumbyPJ, ØvreasL, StudenyA and VellendM (2013) Quantifying temporal change in biodiversity: challenges and opportunities. Proceedings of the Royal Society B
DullooME, HansonJ, JorgeMA and ThormannI (2008) Regeneration guidelines: general guiding principles. In: DullooME, ThormannI, JorgeMA and HansonJ (eds) Crop Specific Regeneration Guidelines [CD-ROM]. Rome, Italy: CGIAR System-wide Genetic Resource Programme (SGRP), 6 pp.
DwivediSL, CeccarelliS, BlairMW, UpadhyayaHD, AreAK and OrtizR (2016) Landrace germplasm for improving yield and abiotic stress adaptation. Trends in Plant Science
EvannoG, RegnautS and GoudetJ (2005) Detecting the number of clusters of individuals using the software STRUCTURE: a simulation study. Molecular Ecology
FAO (2006) Country Pasture/Forage Resource Profiles. Rome, Jordan, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
FAO (2010) The Second Report on the State of the World's Plant Genetic Re-Sources for Food and Agriculture. Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
FAO (2012) Second Global Plan of Action for Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture. Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
FranksSJ, AviseJC, BradshawWE, ConnerJK, EttersonJR, MazerSJ, ShawRG and WeisAE (2008) The Resurrection Initiative: storing ancestral genotypes to capture evolution in action. BioScience
FriedtW, HorsleyRD, HarveyBL, PoulsenDME, LanceRCM, CeccarelliS, GrandoS and CapettiniF (2011) Barley breeding history, progress, objectives and technology. In: UllrichSE (ed.) Barley: Production, Improvement and Uses. Ames, USA: Blackwell Publishing Ltd., pp. 160–220.
GaoH, WilliamsonS and BustamanteCD (2007) A Markov chain Monte Carlo approach for joint inference of population structure and inbreeding rates from multilocus genotype data. Genetics
GomezOJ, BlairMW, Frankow-LindbergBE and GullbergU (2005) Comparative study of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) landraces conserved ex situ in genebanks and in situ by farmers. Genetic Resources and Cop Evolution
GuoY, LiY, HuangY, JarvisD, SatoK, KatoK, TsuyuzakiH, ChenL and LongC (2012) Genetic diversity analysis of hulless barley from Shangri-la region revealed by SSR and AFLP markers. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution
HaseneyerG, StrackeS, PaulC, EinfeldtC, BrodaA, PiephoH-P, GranerA and GeigerHH (2010) Population structure and phenotypic variation of a spring barley world collection set up for association studies. Plant Breeding
HenryJP, PontisC, DavidJ and GouyonPH (1991) An experiment on dynamic conservation of genetic resources with metapopulations. In: SeitzA, LoeschckeV (eds) Species Conservation: A Population-Biological Approach. Basel, Switzerland: Birkhäuser Verlag Basel, pp. 185–198.
HobanS and SchlarbaumS (2014) Optimal sampling of seeds from plant populations for ex-situ conservation of genetic biodiversity, considering realistic population structure. Biological Conservation
HobanS, ArntzenJA, BrufordMW, GodoyJA, HoelzelR, SegelbacherG, VilaC and BertorelleG (2014) Comparative evaluation of potential indicators and temporal sampling protocols for monitoring genetic erosion. Evolutionary Applications
HolmS (1979) A simple sequentially rejective multiple test procedure. Scandinavian Journal of Statistics
ICARDA (2003) From formal to participatory plant breeding: improving barley production in the rainfed areas of Jordan. Final technical report. International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas. Available at https://idl-bnc.idrc.ca/dspace/handle/10625/35287. accessed 22 April 2016.
JakobssonM and RosenbergNA (2007) CLUMPP: a cluster matching and permutation program for dealing with label switching and multimodality in analysis of population structure. Bioinformatics
JanaS and PietrzakLN (1988) Comparative assessment of genetic diversity in wild and primitive cultivated barley in a center of diversity. Genetics
JaradatAA (1989a) Diversity within and between populations of two sympatrically distributed Hordeum species in Jordan. Theoretical and Applied Genetics
JaradatAA (1989b) Ecotypes and genetic divergence among sympatrically distributed populations of Hordeum vulgare and Hordeum spontaneum from the xeric region of Jordan. Theoretical and Applied Genetics
JarvisDI, MyerL, KlemickH, GuarinoL, SmaleM, BrownAHD, SadikiM, SthapitB and HodgkinT (2000) A Training Guide for In Situ Conservation On-farm. Version 1. Rome, Italy: International Plant Genetic Resources Institute.
JarvisDI, HodgkinT, SthapitBR, FaddaC and Lopez-NoriegaI (2011) An heuristic framework for identifying multiple ways of supporting the conservation and use of traditional crop varieties within the agricultural production system. Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences
ST and its relatives do not measure differentiation. Molecular Ecology
KeenanK, McGinnityP, CrossTF, CrozierWW and ProdöhlPA (2013) diveRsity: an R package for the estimation of population genetics parameters and their associated errors. Methods in Ecology and Evolution
KhlestkinaEK, HuangXQ, QuenumFJ-B, ChebotarS, RoederMS and BörnerA (2004) Genetic diversity in cultivated plants – loss or stability?
Theoretical and Applied Genetics
KhlestkinaEK, VarshneyRK, RöderMS, GranerA and BörnerA (2006) A comparative assessment of genetic diversity in cultivated barley collected in different decades of the last century in Austria, Albania and India by using genomic and genic simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. Plant Genetic Resources: Characterization and Utilization
KhresatSA, RawajfihZ and MohammadM (1998) Land degradation in north-western Jordan: causes and processes. Journal of Arid Environments
KirkpatrickM and LandeR (1989) The evolution of maternal characters. Evolution
LasaJM, IgartuaE, CiudadFJ, CodesalP, GarcíaEV, GraciaMP, MedinaB, RomagosaI, Molina-CanoJL and MontoyaJL (2001) Morphological and agronomical diversity patterns in the Spanish barley core collection. Hereditas
Malysheva-OttoLV, GanalMW and RöderMS (2006) Analysis of molecular diversity, population structure and linkage disequilibrium in a worldwide survey of cultivated barley germplasm (Hordeum vulgare L.). BMC Genetics
7: 6. DOI: 10.1186/1471-2156-7-6.
MaxtedM and GuarinoL (2006) Genetic erosion and genetic pollution of crop wild relatives. In: Ford-LloydBV, DiasSR and BettencourtE (eds) Genetic Erosion and Pollution Assessment Methodologies. Proceedings of PGR Forum Workshop 5, Terceira Island, Autonomous Region of the Azores, Portugal, 8–11 September 2004. Rome: Published on behalf of the European Crop Wild Relative Diversity Assessment and Conservation Forum, Bioversity International, pp. 35–46.
MegersaG (2014) Genetic erosion of barley in North Shewa Zone of Oromiya Region, Ethiopia. International Journal of Biodiversity and Conservation
MeirmansPG and HedrickPW (2011) Assessing population structure: FST and related measures. Molecular Ecology
MekbibF (2008) Genetic erosion of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) in the centre of diversity, Ethiopia. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution
MercerKL and PeralesHR (2010) Evolutionary response of landraces to climate change in centers of crop diversity. Evolutionary Applications
MousseauTA and FoxCW (1998) The adaptive significance of maternal effects. Trends in Ecology & Evolution
NagelM, VogelH, LandjevaS, Buck-SorlinG, LohwasserU, ScholzU and BörnerA (2009) Seed conservation in ex-situ genebanks - genetic studies on longevity in barley. Euphytica
NCARTT (2007) The Second Country Report on the State of the Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture. The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan. Amman, Jordan: National Center for Agricultural Research and Technology Transfer NCARTT.
Ould Med MahmoudMA and HamzaS (2009) Genetic diversity in local barley accessions collected from different geographical regions of Tunisia. Plant Genetic Resources: Characterization and Utilization
PandeyM, WagnerC, FriedtW and OrdonF (2006) Genetic relatedness and population differentiation of Himalayan hulless barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) landraces inferred with SSRs. Theoretical and Applied Genetics
ParziesHK, SpoorW, EnnosAR (2000) Outcrossing rates of barley landraces from Syria. Plant Breeding
ParziesHK, SpoorW and EnnosAR (2004) Inferring seed exchange between farmers from population genetic structure of barley landrace Arabi Aswad from Northern Syria. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution
PeakallR and SmousePE (2006) GENALEX 6: genetic analysis in Excel. Population genetic software for teaching and research. Molecular Ecology Notes
PeakallR and SmousePE (2012) GenAlEx 6.5: genetic analysis in Excel. Population genetic software for teaching and research-an update. Bioinformatics
Pérez de la VegaM and GarciaP (1997) Genetic structure of self-pollinating species: the case of wild Avena
PetrovicS and DimitrijevicM (2012) Genetic erosion of diversity in cereals. Genetika
PritchardJK, StephensM and DonnellyP (2000) Inference of population structure using multilocus genotype data. Genetics
RaoNK, HansonJ, DullooME, GhoshK, NowellD and LarindeM (2006) Manual of Seed Handling in Genebanks. Handbooks for Genebanks No. 8. Rome, Italy: Bioversity International.
RosenbergNA (2004) Distruct: a program for the graphical display of population structure. Molecular Ecology Notes
RoussetF (1997) Genetic differentiation and estimation of gene flow from F-statistics under isolation by distance. Genetics
RussellJR, BoothA, FullerJD, BaumM, CeccarelliS, GrandoS and PowellW (2003) Patterns of polymorphism detected in the chloroplast and nuclear genomes of barley landraces sampled from Syria and Jordan. Theoretical and Applied Genetics
RussellJ, DawsonIK, FlavellAJ, SteffensonB, WeltzienE, BoothA, CeccarelliS, GrandoS and WaughR (2011) Analysis of 1000 single nucleotide polymorphisms in geographically matched samples of landrace and wild barley indicates secondary contact and chromosome-level differences in diversity around domestication genes. New Phytologist
SambergLH, FishmanL and AllendorfFW (2013) Population genetic structure in a social landscape: barley in a traditional Ethiopian agricultural system. Evolutionary Applications
SteeleKA, GyawaliS, JoshiKD, ShresthaP, SthapitBR and WitcombeJR (2009) Has the introduction of modern rice varieties changed rice genetic diversity in a high-altitude region of Nepal?. Field Crops Research
SteinN, PrasadM, ScholzU, ThielT, ZhangH, WolfM, KotaR, VarshneyRK, PerovicD, GrosseI and GranerA (2007) A 1000-loci transcript map of the barley genome: new anchoring points for integrative grass genomics. Theoretical and Applied Genetics
ThielT, MichalekW, VarshneyRK and GranerA (2003) Exploiting EST databases for the development and characterization of gene-derived SSR-markers in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Theoretical and Applied Genetics
ThomasM, DawsonJC, GoldringerI and BonneuilC (2011) Seed exchanges, a key to analyze crop diversity dynamics in farmer-led on-farm conservation. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution
ThormannI and EngelsJMM (2015) Genetic diversity and erosion – a global perspective. Chapter 10. In: AhujaMR and JainSM (eds) Genetic Diversity and Erosion – Indicators and Prevention, vol. 1. Switzerland: Springer International Publishing, pp. 263–294.
ThormannI, FiorinoE, HalewoodM and EngelsJMM (2015) Plant genetic resources collections and associated information as baseline resource for genetic diversity studies – an assessment of the IBPGR supported collections. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution
Van de WouwM, KikC, van HintumT, van TreurenR and VisserB (2010) Genetic erosion in crops: concept, research, results and challenges. Plant Genetic Resources: Characterization and Utilization
Van HintumT and MentingF (2003) Diversity in ex situ genebank collections of barley. In: von BothmerR, van HintumT and KnüpfferH (eds) Diversity in Barley (Hordeum vulgare). Developments in Plant Genetics and Breeding, vol. 7. Amsterdam: Elsevier, pp. 247–257.
VarshneyRK, MarcelTC, RamsayL, RussellJ, RöderM, SteinN, WaughR, LangridgeP, NiksRE and GranerA (2007) A high density barley microsatellite map with 775 SSR loci. Theoretical and Applied Genetics
VarshneyRK, SalemKFM, BaumM, RöderMS, GranerA and BörnerA (2008) SSR and SNP diversity in a barley germplasm collection. Plant Genetic Resources: Characterization and Utilization
VigourouxY, MariacC, De MitaS, PhamJ-L, GérardB, KapranI, SagnardF, DeuM, ChantereauJ, AliA, NdjeungaJ, LuongV, ThuilletAC, SaidouAA and BezanconG (2011) Selection for Earlier Flowering Crop Associated with Climatic Variations in the Sahel. PLoS ONE
WagnerDB and AllardRW (1991) Pollen migration in predominantly self-fertilizing plants: barley. Journal of Heredity
WeltzienE (1982) Barley collection and evaluation in Syria and Jordan. Plant Genetic Resources Newsletter
WeltzienE (1988) Evaluation of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) landrace populations originating from different growing regions in the Near East. Plant Breeding
WestengenOT, OkongoMA, OnekL, BergT, Hai UpadhyayaH, BirkelandS, KhalsaSDK, RingKH, NilsC, StensethNC and BrystingAK (2014) Ethnolinguistic structuring of sorghum genetic diversity in Africa and the role of local seed systems. PNAS
WitcombeJR, BourgoisJJ and RifaieR (1982) Germplasm collections from Syria & Jordan. Plant Genetic Resources Newsletter
YahiaouiS, IgartuaE, MoralejoM, RamsayL, Molina-CanoJL, CiudadFJ, LasaJM, GraciaMP and CasasAM (2008) Patterns of genetic and eco-geographical diversity in Spanish barleys. Theoretical and Applied Genetics