Skip to main content
×
Home

Enhancement of the use and impact of germplasm in crop improvement

  • H. D. Upadhyaya (a1), S. L. Dwivedi (a1), S. Sharma (a1), N. Lalitha (a1), S. Singh (a1), R. K. Varshney (a1) and C. L. L. Gowda (a1)...
Abstract

Plant genetic resources are raw materials and their use in breeding is one of the most sustainable ways to conserve biodiversity. The ICRISAT has over 120,000 accessions of its five mandate crops and six small millets. The management and utilization of such large diversity are greatest challenges to germplasm curators and crop breeders. New sources of variations have been discovered using core and minicore collections developed at the ICRISAT. About 1.4 million seed samples have been distributed; some accessions with specific attributes have been requested more frequently. The advances in genomics have led researchers to dissect population structure and diversity and mine allelic variations associated with agronomically beneficial traits. Genome-wide association mapping in sorghum has revealed significant marker–trait associations for many agronomically beneficial traits. Wild relatives harbour genes for resistance to diseases and insect pests. Resistance to pod borer in chickpea and pigeonpea and resistance to rust and late leaf spot in groundnut have been successfully introgressed into a cultivated genetic background. Synthetics in groundnut are available to broaden the cultigen's gene pool. ICRISAT has notified the release of 266 varieties/cultivars, germplasm, and elite genetic stocks with unique traits, with some having a significant impact on breeding programs. Seventy-five germplasm lines have been directly released for cultivation in 39 countries.

Copyright
Corresponding author
* Corresponding author. E-mail: h.upadhyaya@cgiar.org
References
Hide All
Andrews DJ and Kumar KA (1996) Use of the West African pearl millet landrace Iniadi in cultivar development. Plant Genetic Resources Newsletter 105: 1522.
Billot C, Ramu P, Bouchet S, Chantereau J, Deu M, Gardes L, Noyer J-L, Rami J-F, Rivallan R, Li Y, Lu P, Wang T, Folkertsma RT, Arnaud E, Upadhyaya HD, Glaszmann J-C and Hash CT (2013) Massive sorghum collection genotyped with SSR markers to enhance use of global genetic resources. PLoS One 8: e59714.
Deom CM, Kapewa T, Busolo-Bulafu CM, Naidu RA, Chiyembekeza AJ, Kimmins FM, Subrahmanyam P and Van der Merwe PJA (2006) Registration of ICG 12 991 peanut germplasm line. Crop Science 46: 481.
Duvick DN (1995) Security and long-term prospects for conservation of genetic resources. Research in Domestic and International Agribusiness Management 11: 3345.
Dwivedi SL, Upadhyaya HD, Stalker HT, Blair MW, Bertioli DJ, Nielen S and Ortiz R (2008) Enhancing crop gene pools with beneficial traits using wild relatives. Plant Breeding Reviews 30: 179230.
Dwivedi SL, Upadhyaya HD and Gowda CLL (2009) Approaches to enhance the value of genetic resources in crop improvement. The FAO Regional Project “Capacity building and enhanced regional collaboration for the conservation and sustainable use of plant genetic resources in Asia”. Available at http://www.fao.org/docrep/014/am265e00.pdf.
Fonceka D, Tossim H-A, Rivallan R, Vignes H, Lacut E, de Bellis F, Faye I, Ndoye O, Leal-Bertioli SCM, Valls JSM, Bertioli DJ, Glaszmann C, Courtois B and Rami J-F (2012) Construction of chromosome segment substitution lines in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) using a wild synthetic and QTL mapping for plant morphology. PLoS One 11: e48642.
Frankel OH (1984) Genetic perspective of germplasm collection. In: Arber W, Limensee K, Peacock WJ and Stralinger P (eds) Genetic Manipulations: Impact on Man and Society. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 161170.
Grenier C, Hamon P and Bramel-Cox PJ (2001) Core collection of sorghum: II. comparison of three random sampling strategies. Crop Science 41: 241246.
Hamilton JP and Buell CR (2012) Advances in plant genome sequencing. Plant Journal 70: 177190.
ICRISAT (2009) Multi-purpose groundnut: Replaces a 60-year old variety; bring hop to poor farmers. pp. 4. Available at http://www.icrisat.org/impacts/impact-stories/icrisat-is-groundnuts.pdf.
Imai I, Kimball JA, Conway B, Yeater KM, McCouch SR and McClung A (2013) Validation of yield-enhancing quantitative trait loci from a low-yielding wild ancestor of rice. Molecular Breeding 32: 101120.
Jadhav DR, Mallikarjuna N, Sharma HC and Saxena KB (2012) Introgression of Helicoverpa armigera resistance from Cajanus acutifolius–a wild relative from secondary gene pool of pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan). Asian Journal of Agricultural Sciences 4: 242248.
Kiran Babu T, Thakur RP, Upadhyaya HD, Reddy PN, Sharma R, Girish A and Sarma NDRK (2013) Resistance to blast (Magnaporthe grisea) in a mini core collection of finger millet germplasm. European Journal of Plant Pathology 135: 299311.
Krishnamurthy L, Upadhyaya HD, Saxena KB and Vadez V (2012) Variation for temporary waterlogging response within the mini core pigeonpea germplasm. Journal of Agricultural Science 150: 357364.
Lai J, Li R, Xu X, Jin W, Xu M, Zhao H, Xiang Z, Song W, Ying K, Zhang M, Jiao Y, Ni P, Zhang J, Li D, Guo X, Ye K, Jian M, Wang B, Zheng H, Liang H, Zhang X, Wang S, Chen S, Li J, Fu Y, Springer NM, Yang H, Wang J, Dai J, Schnable PS and Wang J (2010) Genome-wide patterns of genetic variation among elite maize inbred lines. Nature Genetics 42: 10271030.
Mallikarjuna N, Senapathy S, Jadhav DR, Saxena K, Sharma HC, Upadhyaya HD, Rathore A and Varshney R (2011) Progress in the utilization of Cajanus platycarpus (Benth.) Maesen in pigeonpea improvement. Plant Breeding 130: 507514.
Mallikarjuna N, Jadhav DR, Reddy K, Husain F and Das K (2012) Screening new Arachis amphidiploids, and autotetraploids for resistance to late leaf spot by detached leaf technique. European Journal of Plant Pathology 132: 1721.
McCouch S, Baute GJ, Bradeen J, Bramel P, Bretting PK, Buckler E, Burke JM, Charest D, Cloutier S, Cole G, Dempewolf H, Dingkuhn M, Feuillet C, Gepts P, Grattapaglia D, Guarino L, Jackson S, Knapp S, Langridge P, Lawton-Rauh A, Lijua Q, Lusty C, Michael T, Myles S, Naito K, Nelson RL, Pontarollo R, Richards CM, Rieseberg L, Ross-Ibarra J, Rounsley S, Hamilton RS, Schurr U, Stein N, Tomooka N, van der Knaap E, van Tassel D, Toll J, Valls J, Varshney RK, Ward J, Waugh R, Wenzl P and Zamir D (2013) Agriculture: Feeding the future. Nature 499: 2324.
Ramgopal D, Srivastava RK, Pande S, Rathore A, Jadhav DR, Sharma M, Gaur PM and Mallikarjuna N (2013) Introgression of botrytis gray mold resistance genes from Cicer reticulatum (bgmr1cr) and C. echinospermum (bgmr1ce) to chickpea (C. arietinum). Plant Genetic Resources 11: 212216.
Ray DK, Mueller ND, West PC and Foley JA (2013) Yield trends are insufficient to double global crop production by 2050. PLoS One 8: e66428.
Reddy LJ, Upadhyaya HD, Gowda CLL and Singh S (2005) Development of core collection in pigeonpea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millspaugh] using geographic and qualitative morphological descriptors. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 52: 10491056.
Reddy BVS, Ramesh S, Borikar ST and Sahib H (2007) ICRISAT–Indian NARS partnership sorghum improvement research: Strategies and impact. Current Science 92: 909915.
Sharma R, Rao VP, Upadhyaya HD, Reddy VG and Thakur RP (2010) Resistance to grain mold and downy mildew in a minicore collection of sorghum germplasm. Plant Disease 94: 439444.
Sharma M, Rathore A, Mangala UN, Ghosh R, Sharma S, Upadhyaya HD and Pande S (2012a) New sources of resistance to fusarium wilt and sterility mosaic in a mini core collection of pigeonpea germplasm. European Journal of Plant Pathology 133: 707714.
Sharma R, Upadhyaya HD, Manjunatha SV, Rao VP and Thakur RP (2012b) Resistance to foliar diseases in a mini-core collection of sorghum germplasm. Plant Disease 96: 16291633.
Sharma R, Upadhyaya HD, Manjunatha SV, Rai KN, Gupta SK and Thakur RP (2013a) Pathogenic variation in pearl millet blast pathogen Magnaporthe grisea and identification of resistance to diverse pathotypes. Plant Disease 97: 189195.
Sharma S, Upadhyaya HD, Varshney RK and Gowda CLL (2013b) Pre-breeding for diversification of primary gene pool and genetic enhancement of grain legumes. Frontiers in Plant Science 4: 309.
Shiferaw B, Bantilan MCS, Gupta SC and Shetty SVR (2004) Research Spillover Benefits and Experiences in Inter-Regional Technology Transfer: An Assessment and Synthesis. Patancheru 502324, Andhra Pradesh, India: International Crop Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics, pp. 140.
Shilpa K, Sunkad G, Kurella S, Marri S, Padmashree K, Jadhav DR, Sahrawat KL and Mallikarjuna N (2012) Biochemical composition and disease resistance in newly synthesized amphidiploid and autotetraploid peanuts. Food and Nutrition Science 4: 169176.
Simpson CE, Starr JL, Nesplson SC, Woodard KE and Smith OD (1993) Registration of ‘TxAG-6’ and ‘TxAG-7’ peanut germplasm. Crop Science 33: 1418.
Subrahmanyam P, van der Marwe PJA, Reddy LJ, Chiyembekeza AJ, Kimmins FM and Naidu RA (2000) Identification of elite short-duration rosette resistant lines in world germplasm collection. International Arachis Newsletter 20: 4650.
Upadhyaya HD and Ortiz R (2001) A mini core subset for capturing diversity and promoting utilization of chickpea genetic resources in crop improvement. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 102: 12921298.
Upadhyaya HD, Bramel PJ and Singh S (2001) Development of a chickpea core subset using geographic distribution and quantitative traits. Crop Science 41: 206210.
Upadhyaya HD, Bramel PJ, Ortiz R and Singh S (2002) Developing a mini core of peanut for utilization of genetic resources. Crop Science 42: 21502156.
Upadhyaya HD, Ortiz R, Bramel PJ and Singh S (2003) Development of a groundnut core collection using taxonomical, geographical and morphological descriptors. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 50: 139148.
Upadhyaya HD, Gowda CLL, Pundir RPS, Reddy VG and Singh S (2006a) Development of core subset of finger millet germplasm using geographical origin and data on 14 quantitative traits. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 53: 679685.
Upadhyaya HD, Reddy LJ, Gowda CLL, Reddy KN and Singh S (2006b) Development of a mini core subset for enhanced and diversified utilization of pigeonpea germplasm resources. Crop Science 46: 21272132.
Upadhyaya HD, Dwivedi SL, Baun M, Varshney RK, Udupa SM, Gowda CLL, Hoisington D and Singh S (2008a) Genetic structure, diversity, and allelic richness in composite collection and reference set in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). BMC Plant Biology 8: 106.
Upadhyaya HD, Pundir RPS, Gowda CLL, Reddy VG and Singh S (2008b) Establishing a core collection of foxtail millet to enhance the utilization of germplasm of an underutilized crop. Plant Genetic Resources: Characterization and Utilization 7: 177184.
Upadhyaya HD, Gowda CLL, Reddy KN and Singh S (2009a) Augmenting the pearl millet core collection for enhancing germplasm utilization in crop improvement. Crop Science 49: 573580.
Upadhyaya HD, Pundir RPS, Dwivedi SL, Gowda CLL, Reddy VG and Singh S (2009b) Developing a mini core collection of sorghum for diversified utilization of germplasm. Crop Science 49: 17691780.
Upadhyaya HD, Sarma NDRK, Ravishankar CR, Albrecht T, Narsimhudu Y, Singh SK, Varshney SK, Reddy VG, Singh S, Dwivedi SL, Wanyera N, Oduori COA, Mgonja MA, Kisandu DB, Parzies HK and Gowda CLL (2010) Developing a mini-core collection in finger millet using multilocation data. Crop Science 50: 19241931.
Upadhyaya HD, Dwivedi SL, Ambrose M, Ellis N, Berger J, Smýkal P, Duc G, Dumet D, Flavell A, Sharma SK, Mallikarjuna N and Gowda CLL (2011a) Legume genetic resources: management, diversity assessment, and utilization in crop improvement. Euphytica 180: 2747.
Upadhyaya HD, Ramesh S, Sharma S, Singh SK, Varshney SK, Sarma NDRK, Ravishankar CR, Narasimhudu Y, Reddy VG, Sahrawat KL, Dhalalakshmi TN, Mgonja MA, Parzies HK, Gowda CLL and Singh S (2011b) Genetic diversity for grain nutrients in a core collection of finger millet (Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn.) germplasm. Field Crops Research 121: 4252.
Upadhyaya HD, Ravishankar CR, Narsimhudu Y, Sarma NDRK, Singh SK, Varshney SK, Reddy VG, Singh S, Parzies HK, Dwivedi SL, Nadaf HL, Sahrawat KL and Gowda CLL (2011c) Identification of trait-specific germplasm and developing a mini core collection for efficient use of foxtail millet genetic resources in crop improvement. Field Crops Research 124: 459467.
Upadhyaya HD, Sharma S, Gowda CLL, Reddy VG and Singh S (2011d) Developing proso millet (Panicum miliaceum L.) core collection using geographic and morpho-agronomic data. Crop and Pasture Science 62: 383389.
Upadhyaya HD, Yadav D, Reddy KN, Gowda CLL and Singh S (2011e) Development of pearl millet mini core collection for enhanced utilization of germplasm. Crop Science 51: 217223.
Upadhyaya HD, Dronavalli N, Singh S and Dwivedi SL (2012a) Variability and stability for kernel iron and zinc contents in the ICRISAT mini core collection of peanut. Crop Science 52: 26282637.
Upadhyaya HD, Mukri G, Nadaf HL and Singh S (2012b) Variability and stability analysis for nutritional traits in the mini core collection of peanut. Crop Science 52: 168178.
Upadhyaya HD, Wang Y-H, Sharma S and Singh S (2012c) Association mapping of height and maturity across five environments using the sorghum mini core collection. Genome 55: 471479.
Upadhyaya HD, Wang Y-H, Sharma S, Singh S and Hasentstein KH (2012d) SSR markers linked to kernel weight and tiller number in sorghum identified by association mapping. Euphytica 187: 401410.
Upadhyaya HD, Dronavalli N, Dwivedi SL, Kashiwagi J, Krishnamurthy L, Pande S, Sharma HC, Vadez V, Singh S, Varshney RK and Gowda CLL (2013a) Mini core collection as a resource to identify new sources of variation. Crop Science 43: 25062517.
Upadhyaya HD, Singh S, Sharma S, Varshney RK and Gowda CLL (2013b) Germplasm for groundnut improvement. In Proceedings of the 3rd International Symposium on Genomics of Plant Genetic Resources – A Gateway to the New Era of Global Food Security, 16–19 April, 2013, Jeju, Korea, pp. 14.
Upadhyaya HD, Wang Y-H, Sharma R and Sharma S (2013c) Identification of genetic markers linked to anthracnose resistance in sorghum using association analysis. Theoretical Applied Genetics 126: 16491657.
Upadhyaya HD, Wang Y-H, Sharma R and Sharma S (2013d) SNP markers linked to leaf rust and grain mold resistance in sorghum. Molecular Breeding 32: 451462.
Upadhyaya HD, Dwivedi SL, Vadez V, Hamidou F, Singh S, Varshney RK and Liao B (2014) Multiple resistance and nutritionally dense germplasm identified from mini core collection in peanut. Crop Science 54: 115.
Vadez V, Krishnamurthy L, Hash CT, Upadhyaya HD and Borrell AK (2011) Yield, transpiration efficiency, and water-use variations and their relationships in the sorghum reference collection. Crop and Pasture Science 62: 645655.
Varshney RK, Chen W, Li Y, Bharti AK, Saxena RK, Schlueter JA, Donoghue MTA, Azam S, Fan G, Whaley AM, Farmer AD, Sheridan J, Iwata A, Tuteja R, Penmetsa RV, Wu W, Upadhyaya HD, Yang S-P, Shah T, Saxena KB, Michael T, McCombie WR, Yang B, Zhang G, Yang H, Wang J, Spillane C, Cook DR, May GD, Xu X and Jackson SA (2012) Draft genome sequence of pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan), an orphan legume crop of resource-poor farmers. Nature Biotechnology 30: 8389.
Varshney RK, Mohan SM, Gaur PM, Gangarao NVPR, Pandey MK, Bohra A, Sawargaonkar SL, Chitikineni A, Kimurto PK, Janila P, Saxena KB, Fikre A, Sharma M, Rathore A, Pratap A, Tripathi S, Datta S, Chatruvedi SK, Mallikarjuna N, Anuradha G, Babbar A, Choudhary AK, Mhase MB, Bhardwaj Ch, Mannur DM, Harer PN, Guo B, Liang X, Nadarajan N and Gowda CLL (2013) Achievements and prospects of genomics-assisted breeding in three legume crops of the semi-arid tropics. Biotechnology Advances 31: 11201134.
Wang YH, Bible P, Longanantharaj R and Upadhyaya HD (2012) Identification of SSR markers associated with height using pool-based genome-wide association mapping in sorghum. Molecular Breeding 30: 281292.
Zheng LY, Guo SX, He B, Sun LJ, Peng Y, Dong SS, Liu TF, Jiang S, Ramchandran S, Liu CM and Jing HC (2011) Genome-wide patterns of genetic variation in sweet and grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor). Genome Biology 12: R114.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Plant Genetic Resources
  • ISSN: 1479-2621
  • EISSN: 1479-263X
  • URL: /core/journals/plant-genetic-resources
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords:

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 1
Total number of PDF views: 19 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 214 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 24th November 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.