Skip to main content

Onobrychis viciifolia; a comprehensive literature review of its history, etymology, taxonomy, genetics, agronomy and botany

  • M. Mora-Ortiz (a1) (a2) and L. M. J. Smith (a1)

Onobrychis viciifolia (sainfoin) is a forage legume crop with many positive agronomic, environmental, nutritional and nutraceutical attributes. Farmers also benefit from its drought tolerance in areas of low rainfall and light free draining soil, mainly due to its deep taproot. It is resistant to most common pest and diseases and is a valuable resource for pollinators, specifically cultivated for honey production in some regions. It has many benefits for animals, being highly palatable and without danger of bloat, which can be life-threatening to livestock. Its decline in Northern Europe started during the Green Revolution and was impacted by changes towards more intensive farming. Unlike other forage legume crops such as red clover and lucerne, sainfoin does not respond well to inputs and is difficult to establish and maintain. Sainfoin could be classified as an ‘orphan crop’ with very little genetic improvement or agronomic studies in the past 60 years. In the past 5–10 years, however, there has been a resurgence in interest and this has given rise to a number of studies and initiation of systematic improvement of the crop, which is indispensable to its reintroduction into the farmed environment. Interest has been driven in part by considerable evidence to suggest that condensed tannins present in the legume foliage, together with other polyphenol compounds, have positive effects on animal nutrition together with anthelmintic properties. These compounds are also thought to play a role in environmental benefits. There remain many challenges to address in order to optimize the potential for cultivation of sainfoin and its use as a beneficial forage crop. This review makes particular reference to a recently completed project; ‘Legume Plus’, funded by the European Union and embracing a multi-disciplinary approach to both understand and improve the crop for farmers. The present review covers results from both this project and other studies during the past 5 years, also drawing on historic studies of etymology, taxonomy, genetics, agronomy and botany, aiming to be a useful resource for research and for practical plant breeders and agronomists.

Corresponding author
*Corresponding author. E-mail:
Hide All
Abou-El-Enain, MM (2002) Chromosomal criteria and their phylogenetic implications in the genus Onobrychis mill. sect. Lophobrychis (leguminosae), with special reference to Egyptian species. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 139: 409414.
Aigner, I (2009) Our future grows in the country. Stuttgart: Federal Agriculture Minister. Available at (accessed 15 March 2014).
Aktokly, E (1995) Turkiye'de yetisen Onobrychis Miller (Fabaceae) turlerinin revizyonu. PhD, Inonu Universitesi Fen Bilimleri Enstitusu Biyoloji Anabilim Dali.
Aldrich, DTA (1984) Lucerne, red clover and sainfoin-herbage production. In Forage legumes. Proceedings of a Symposium. Organised by the British Grassland Society, Maidenhead, pp. 126–131.
Allaby, M (1987) Diccionario del medio ambiente. Madrid, España: Pirámide.
Amiri, S, Karimmojeni, H, Majidi, MM and Boromand, A (2013) Evaluation of post-emergence herbicides to control weeds of newly planted sainfoin (Onobrychis sativa). Plant Knowledge Journal 2: 4.
Badoux, S (1965) Etude des caractères morphologiques, physiologiques et agronomiques de populations d'esparcette (Onobrychis spp.). PhD, Recherche Agronomique Suisse.
Baimiev, AK, Baimiev, AK, Gubaidullin, II, Kulikova, OL and Chemeris, AV (2007) Bacteria closely related to Phyllobacterium trifolii according to their 16S rRNA gene are discovered in the nodules of Hungarian sainfoin. Russian Journal of Genetics 43: 587590.
Benaiges, C (1971) La esparceta. Madrid, España: Ministerio de Agricultura.
Bland, BF (1971) Crop Production: Cereals and Legumes. London, New York: Academic Press.
Blith, W (1652) The English improver improved, or the survey of husbandry surveyed discovering the improvableness of all lands. London: J. Wright.
Borreani, G, Peiretti, PG and Tabacco, E (2003) Evolution of yield and quality of sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia scop.) in the spring growth cycle. Agronomie 23: 193201.
Botstein, D, White, RL, Skolnick, M and Davis, RW (1980) Construction of a genetic linkage map in man using restriction fragment length polymorphisms. American Journal of Human Genetics 32: 314331.
Burton, JC and Curley, RL (1968) Nodulation and nitrogen fixation in sainfoin (Onobrychis sativa LAM.) as influenced by strains of rhizobia., Sainfoin Symposium. Mont., Agric. Exp. Stn. Bull.
Canals, RM, Peralta, J and Zubiri, E (2009) Flora Pratense y Forrajera Cultivada de la Península Ibérica. Familia Leguminoseae, Onobrychis viciifolia Scop.: esparceta [Online]. Available at (accessed 12 March 2013).
Carleton, AE and Wiesner, LE (1968) Production of sainfoin seed. Sainfoin Symposium. Montana: Montana State University.
Carniol, FI (1771) Onobrychis viciifolia Scop Fl. Carniol. ed. 2, 2: 76 (1771) [“viciaefolia”].
Cash, S and Ditterline, RL (1996) Seed size effects on growth and N-2 fixation of juvenile sainfoin. Field Crops Research 46: 6.
Chen, B (1992) Sainfoin. Lanzhou, China: Gansun Sci-tech Press.
Clarke, PJ, Davison, EA and Fulloon, L (2000) Germination and dormancy of grassy woodland and forest species: effects of smoke, heat, darkness and cold. Australian Journal of Botany 48: 687699.
Cooper, CS (1972) Establishment, hay yield, and persistence of two sainfoin growth types seeded alone and with low-growing grasses and legumes. Agronomy Journal 64: 2.
Cooper, C and Fransen, S (1974) Contribution of cotyledons to growth of the sainfoin seedling. Crop Sciences 14: 3.
Corti, SR (1930) Nuovi reperti sulla cariologica di alcune leguminosae. Nuovo Giornale Botanico Italiano 37: 679680.
Davies, WAM (1815) General view of the agriculture and domestic economy of South Wales; containing the counties of Brecon, Caermarthen, Cardigan, Glamorgan, Pembroke, Radnor, M'millan.
de Candolle, A (1883) Origine des plantes cultivees. Paris, France: Cambridge University Press.
Delgado, I, Andrés, C, Sin, E and Ochoa, M (2002) Estado actual del cultivo de la esparceta (Onobrychis viciifolia Scop.). Encuesta realizada a agricultores productores de semilla. Pastos 12: 235247.
Delgado, I, Muñoz, F, Demdoum, S and Buil, I (2008) La esparceta o pipirigallo. In: Informaciones técnicas/Centro de Transferencia Agroalimentaria, Gobierno de Aragón. Aragón, Spain: Centro de Transferencia Agroalimentaria, pp. 18.
Demdoum, S (2012b) Caracterización agronómica y composición química de una colección de variedades de Esparceta. PhD Thesis, Universidad de Lleida.
Demdoum, S, Munoz, F, Delgado, I, Valderrabano, J and Wuensch, A (2012) EST-SSR cross-amplification and genetic similarity in Onobrychis genus. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 59.
Doyle, JJ and Doyle, JL (1987) A rapid DNA isolation procedure for small quantities of fresh leaf tissue. Phytochemical Bulletin 19: 4.
Drobná, J (2010) Morphological variation in natural population of Lotus corniculatus in association to geographical parameters of collecting sites. Biologia 65: 5.
Dubbs, AL (1968) The performance of sainfoin and sainfoin-grass mixture on dryland in central Montana. Sainfoin symposium; 1968 December 12–13, Bozeman, MT: Montana Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin 627: 22–25.
Emre, I, Turgut-balik, D, Sahin, A and Kursat, M (2007) Total electrophoretic band patterns of some Onobrychis species growing in Turkey. American-Eurasian Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences 2: 123126.
European-Commission (2010) The CAP Towards 2020: Meeting the Food, Natural Resources and Territorial Challenges of the Future. Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions. Brussels, Belgium: European Commission.
Font Quer, P (1987) Diccionario de botanica. Barcelona, SA: Editorial Labor.
Frame, J, Charlton, JFL and Laidlaw, AS (1998) Temperate Forage Legumes. Wallingford: CAB International.
Fulton, T, Chunwongse, J and Tanksley, S (1995) Microprep protocol for extraction of DNA from tomato and other herbaceous plants. Plant Molecular Biology Reporter 13: 2.
Galloni, M, Podda, L, Vivarelli, D and Cristofolini, G (2007) Pollen presentation, pollen-ovule ratios, and other reproductive traits in Mediterranean legumes (fam. Fabaceae-subfam. Faboideae). Plant Systematics and Evolution 266: 17.
Galloway, JN, Townsend, AR, Erisman, JW, Bekunda, M, Cai, Z, Freney, JR, Martinelli, LA, Seitzinger, SP and Sutton, MA (2008) Transformation of the nitrogen cycle: recent trends, questions, and potential solutions. Science 320: 889892.
García Salmerón, J, Montserrat, P, Buendía, F, Ruiz-del-Castillo, A and Allue, J (1966) Studies of Botany, Ecology, Biology and Pascology of the Principal Existing Species in the Spontaneous Pasture-Grounds of Mountains of our Semiarid Regions. Madrid, España: Instituto Forestal de Investigaciones y Experiencias.
Goplen, BP, Richards, KW and Moyer, JR (1991) Sainfoin for Western Canada. Ottawa, Ontario: Agriculture Canada Publication, 1470E.
Guner, A, Ozhatay, N, Ekim, T and Baser, K (2000) Flora of Turkey and East Aegean Islands, vol. 11, pp. 98–99. Edited by Press, E.U.
Harrison, MJ (1998) Development of the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis. Current Opinion in Plant Biology 1: 5.
Hartwig, UA and Nösberger, J (1996) Symbiotic nitrogen fixation: a physiological link between plant and environment. In: Younie, D (ed.) Legumes in Sustainable Farming Systems. Occasional Symposium No. 30. England: British Grassland Society, pp. 36–43.
Haynes, RJ (1980) Competitive aspects of the grass-legume association. In: Brady, NC (ed.) Advances in Agronomy. Academic Press, pp. 227261.
Hayot Carbonero, C (2011b) Sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia), a forage legume with great potential for sustainable agriculture, an insight on its morphological, agronomical, cytological and genetic characterisation. PhD, The University of Manchester.
Hayot Carbonero, C, Mueller-Harvey, I, Brown, TA and Smith, L (2011) Sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia): a beneficial forage legume. Plant Genetic Resources 9: 7085.
Hayot-Carbonero, CH, Carbonero, F, Smith, LMJ and Brown, TA (2012) Phylogenetic characterisation of Onobrychis species with special focus on the forage crop Onobrychis viciifolia Scop. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 59: 17771788.
Hayot Carbonero, C, Carbonero, F, Smith, LMJ and Brown, TA (2013) Cytological characterisation of the underutilized forage crop Onobrychis viciifolia Scop. and other members of the Onobrychis genus. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 60: 19871996.
Hill, R (1997) Sainfoin: the not quite forgotten Legume. In: Lane, GPF and Wilkinson, JM (eds) Alternative Forages for Ruminants Papers, Conference. Cirencester, UK, pp. 5559.
Hormaza, JI (1999) Early selection in cherry combining RAPDs with embryo culture. Scientia Horticulturae, 79, 5.
ILDIS (International Legume Database & Information Service) (2005) Website: Available at
Jensen, E and Sharp, M (1968) Agronomic evaluation of sainfoin in Nevada. Sainfoin Symposium Montana State University.
Kallenbanch, R, Matches, A and Mahan, J (1996) Sainfoin regrowth declines as metabolic rate increases with temperatures. Crop Sciences 36: 6.
Karshibaev, HK (1992) Chromosome numbers of some Fabaceae in Uzbekistan. Soveshchanie Po Kariologii Ratenii 27: 2.
Kells, A (2001) Sainfoin: an alternative forage crop for bees. Bee World 82: 192194.
Kempf, K (2016) Self-Fertilization and Marker-Trait Associations in Sainfoin (Onobrychis Viciifolia) PhD, ETH Zürich.
Kempf, K, Mora-Ortiz, M, Smith, LMJ, Kolliker, R and Skot, L (2016) Characterization of novel SSR markers in diverse sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) germplasm. BMC Genetics, 17.
Knuth, P (1906) Handbook of Flower Pollination Based upon Hermann Müller's Work ‘The Fertilisation of Flowers by Insects’. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Koivisto, JM (2001) Sainfoin, worth another look. PhD, Royal Agricultural College.
Koter, Z (1965) Nutrition of leguminous plants. 1. The effect of different forms of N on the growth and symbiotic N2-fixation by red clover and sainfoin plants. 2. The effect of increasing amount of N on the yield and n2-fixation by Sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia). Pamielnik Pulawski 20: 34.
Lancha, J and Sempere, T (1988) Diccionario de ciencias naturales. Usos y etimologías. Madrid: Siglo veintiuno de España editores.
Lauriault, LM, Contreras, F, VanLeeuwen, DM and Kirksey, RE (2009) Sainfoin has natural tolerance to Glyphosate. Plant Management Network.
Lewke Bandara, N, Papini, A, Mosti, S, Brown, T and Smith, LMJ (2013) A phylogenetic analysis of genus Onobrychis and its relationships within the tribe Hedysareae (Fabaceae). Turkish Journal of Botany 37: 981992.
Liu, Z, Baines, RN, Lane, GPF and Davies, WAM (2009) Survival of plants of common sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia Scop.) in competition with two companion grass species. Grass and Forage Sciences 65: 3.
Lorenz, M (2011) Sainfoin Tannins and Their Impact on Protein Degradation During Silage and Rumen Fermentation and Testing of Novel Techniques. Uppsala: Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
Lüscher, A, Mueller-Harvey, I, Soussana, JF, Rees, RM and Peyraud, JL (2014) Potential of legume-based grassland–livestock systems in Europe: a review. Grass and Forage Science 69: 206228.
Malik, N and Waddington, J (1988) Weed control strategies for forage legumes. Weed Technology 3: 288296.
Malisch, CS, Suter, D, Studer, B and Luscher, A (2017) Multifunctional benefits of sainfoin mixtures: Effects of partner species, sowing density and cutting regime. Grass and Forage Science 72: 794805.
Martinello, P and Ciola, A (1994) The effect of agronomic factors on seed and forage production in perennial legumes sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia Scop.) and French honeysuckle (Hedysarum coranarium L.). Grass and Forage Science 49: 8.
Massoud, R, Karamian, R and Hadadi, A (2010) Cytosystematics of three Onobrychis species (Fabaceae) in Iran. Caryologia 63: 12.
Mathre, D (1968) Disease in sainfoin. Sainfoin Symposium 6566.
McGregor, SE (1976) Insect pollination of cultivated crop plants. In Legumes and Some Relatives. U.S.D.A. Agriculture Handbook No. 496. Chap. 4. Available at
Mesicek, J and Sojak, J (1992) Chromosome numbers of Mongolian angiosperms. Preslia 64: 13.
Meyer, D (1975). Yield, regrowth and persistence of sainfoin under fertilisation. Agronomy Journal 67: 2.
Meyer, D and Badaruddin, M (2001) Frost tolerance of ten seedling legume species at four growth stages. Crop Sciences 41: 4.
Michelena, A (1983) Estudio de la variabilidad de la esparceta cultivada (Onobrychis viciifolia Scop.) en España. PhD thesis. 198pp. Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingenieros Agrónomos de Lérida. Lérida. Spain.
Miller, DA and Hoveland, CS (1995) Other Temperate Legumes. Ames, Iowa, USA: Iowa State University Press.
Moliner, M (1982) Diccionario de uso del español. Madrid, España: Gredos.
Mora-Ortiz, M (2015) Pre-breeding, functional genomics and agronomic improvement of the tanniniferous forage crop Onobrychis viciifolia. PhD Philosophy Doctorate Thesis, University of Reading.
Mora-Ortiz, M and Smith, L (2016) Sainfoin – Surprising Science Behind a Forgotten Forage. Moreton-in-Marsh, UK: Cotswold Grass Seeds.
Mora-Ortiz, M, Wood, TA, Philpott, H, Skøt, L and Smith, LMJ (2015a) Pre-emergence herbicide treatments to improve the early establishment of sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia). In: De Ron, AM (ed.) V Meeting AEL. Actas AEL 6, 2nd Edn. Pontevedra, Spain: Eucarpia International Symposium on Protein Crops.
Mora-Ortiz, M, Wood, TA, Skøt, L and Smith, LMJ (2015b) Weed control in sainfoin; pre-emergence treatments for the development of new strategies for the establishment of Onobrychis viciifolia. In: De Ron, AM (ed.) Eucarpia International Symposium on Protein Crops. V Meeting AEL. Plant Proteins For the Future. Pontevedra, Spain.
Mora-Ortiz, M, Swain, MT, Vickers, MJ, Hegarty, MJ, Kelly, R, Smith, LMJ and Skøt, L (2016) De-novo transcriptome assembly for gene identification, analysis, annotation, and molecular marker discovery in Onobrychis viciifolia. BMC Genomics 17: 756.
Morrill, WL, Ditterline, RL and Cash, SD (1998) Insect pests and associated root pathogens of sainfoin in western USA. Field Crops Research 59: 129134.
Moyer, JR (1985) Effect of weed control and a companion crop on alfalfa and sainfoin establishment, yields and nutrient composition. Canadian Journal of Plant Science 65: 9.
Moyer, JR, Hironaka, R, Kozub, GC and Bergen, P (1990) Effect of herbicide treatments on dandelion, alfalfa and sainfoin yields and quality. Canadian Journal of Plant Science 70: 8.
Newman, G (1997) An overview of forage legumes. In: Lane, GPF and Wilkinson, JM (eds) Alternative Forages for Ruminants. Cirencester, UK, pp. 314.
Novobilský, A, Mueller-Harvey, I and Thamsborg, SM (2011) Condensed tannins act against cattle nematodes. Veterinary Parasitology 182: 213220.
Pavlova, D and Manova, V (2000) Pollen morphology of the genera Onobrychis and Hedysarum (hedysareae, Fabaceae) in Bulgaria. Annales Botanici Fennici 37: 10.
Pellikaan, WF, Stringano, E, Leenaars, J, Bongers, DJGM, Schuppen, SvL-v, Plant, J and Mueller-Harvey, I (2011) Evaluating effects of tannins on extent and rate of in vitro gas and CH4 production using an automated pressure evaluation system (APES). Animal Feed Science and Technology 166: 377390.
Polunin, O (1991) Guía de campo de las flores de Europa. Barcelona, Spain: Omega.
Prevost, D, Bordeleau, LM and Antoun, H (1987) Symbiotic effectiveness of indigenous arctic rhizobia on temperate forage legume – Sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia). Plant and Soil 104: 6.
Prosperi, J, Demarquet, F, Angevain, M and Mansat, P (1994) Evaluation agronomique de variétés de pays de sainfoin (Onobrychis sativa L.) originaires du sud-est de la France. Agronomie 14: 13.
Provorov, NA and Tikhonovich, IA (2003) Genetic resources for improving nitrogen fixation in legume-rhizobia symbiosis. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 50: 10.
Rees, J (1928) A preliminary survey of the rough pastures of the Llyn peninsula. Thesis for the degree of M.Sc, University of Wales, Bangor.
Sacristan, MD (1966) Estudios citotaxonomicos sobre al género Onobrychis (L). Adanson con referencia especial a la citogenetica de la esparceta (O. viciifolia Scop). Anales de La Estación Experimental de Aula Dei 8: 1114.
Seker, H, Rowe, DE and Brink, GE (2003) White clover morphology changes with stress treatments. Crop Sciences 43, 7.
Sheehy, J and McNeill, A (1988) Factors controlling legume nitrogen fixation and their measurement in the field. Physiological limitations and the genetic improvement of symbiotic nitrogen fixation. Advances in Agricultural Biotechnology 23: 9.
Sheehy, JE and Popple, SC (1981) Photosynthesis, water relations, temperature and canopy structure as factors influencing the growth of sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia Scop.) and lucerne (Medicago sativa L.). Annals of Botany 48: 113128.
Sheehy, JE, Minchin, FR and McNeill, A (1984) Physiological principles governing the growth and development of lucerne, sainfoin and red clover. Forage Legumes 13: 113125.
Sheldrick, RD and Thomson, DJ (1982) Management and Utilization of Sainfoin (Onobrychis Sativa). I. Institute ed Hurley, Berkshire. Berkshire: Institute ed Hurley.
Sheldrick, R, Thomson, D and Newman, G (1987) Sainfoin. In: Legumes for Milk and Meat. Marlow, UK: Chalcombe Publications.
Sheldrick, R, Newman, G and Roberts, D (1995) Legumes for Milk and Meat. Canterbury, UK: Chalcome Publications.
Sims, J, Muir, M and Carleton, A (1968) Evidence of ineffective rhizobia and its relation to the nitrogen nutrition of sainfoin (Onobrychis viciaefolia). Sainfoin Symposium. Montana: Montana Agriculture Experimental Station Bulletin.
Širjaev, G (1925) Onobrychis Generis Revisio Critica. Brno: Faculté des Sciences de l'Université Masaryk ed.
Slavicvk, B, Jarolivmovav, V and Chrtek, J (1993) Chromosome counts of some plants from Cyprus. Candollea 48: 8.
Smoliak, S, Jonston, A and Hanna, M (1972) Germination and seedling growth of alfalfa, sainfoin and cicer milkvetch. Canadian Journal of Plant Science 52: 5.
Somay Akcelik, E, Avci, S, Uzun, S and Sancak, C (2012) Karyotype analysis in some Onobrychis (sainfoin) species in Turkey. Archives of Biological Science, Belgrade 64: 567571.
Stebler, FG, Schroeter, C and Volkart, A (1894) Les Meilleures Plantes Fourragères. Berne: K.J. Wyss.
Stevovic, V, Stanisavljevic, R, Djukic, D and Djurovic, D (2010) Effect of row spacing on seed and forage yield in sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia Scop.) cultivars. Tubitak 36: 10.
Surayya, K and Syed Irtifaq, A (1991) Chromosome numbers in subfamily papilionoideae (Leguminosae) from Pakistan. Willdenowia 20: 159165.
Tamas, E (2006) Citological aspects of the Onobrychis genus. Bulletin USAM 62: 154158.
Theodoridou, K, Aufrère, J, Andueza, D, Le Morvan, A, Picard, F, Stringano, E, Pourrat, J, Mueller-Harvey, I and Baumont, R (2011) Effect of plant development during first and second growth cycle on chemical composition, condensed tannins and nutritive value of three sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) varieties and lucerne. Grass and Forage Science 66, 402414.
Thill, J, Regos, I, Farag, MA, Ahmad, AF, Kusek, J, Castro, A, Schlangen, K, Carbonero, CH, Gadjev, IZ and Smith, LMJ (2012) Polyphenol metabolism provides a screening tool for beneficial effects of Onobrychis viciifolia (sainfoin). Phytochemistry 82: 6780.
Thomson, JR (1938) Cross and self-fertility in sainfoin. Annals of Applied Biology 25, 695704. 25, 9.
Thomson, JR (1951) Seed studies in sainfoin. Journal of British Grassland Society 6: 12.
Tufenkci, S, Erman, M and Sonmez, F (2006) Effects of phosphorus and nitrogen applications and Rhizobium inoculation on the yield and nutrient uptake of sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia L.) under irrigated conditions in Turkey. New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research 49: 4.
Tull, J (1733) The Horse-Hoeing Husbandry; or, an Essay on the Principles of Tillage and Vegetation and Tillage. Designed to Introduce a New Method of Culture; Whereby the Produce of Land will be Increased, and the Usual Expence Lessened. Together with Accurate Descriptions and Cuts of the Instruments Employed in it. London, UK: A. Millar.
Valdes, E (2000) Ononbrychis. En: Flora Ibérica. Madrid, Castroviejo. CSIC.
Vicente, MC and Arús, P (1996) Tetrasomic inheritance of Isozymes in Sainfoin (Onobrychis viciaefolia Scop.). Journal of Heredity 87: 5462.
Wallace, LE (1968) Current and Potential Insect Problems of Sainfoin in America. Sainfoin Symposium. Montana: Montana Agriculture Experimental Station Bulletin.
Wallace, R (1969) Flora Europaea. Vol. 2 by T. G. Tutin, V. H. Heywood, N. A. Burges, D. M. Moore, D. H. Valentine, S. M. Walters, D. A. Webb. Madroño; a West American journal of botany.
Weightman, RM, Cottrill, BR, Wiltshire, JJJ, Kindred, DR and Sylvester-Bradley, R (2011) Opportunities for avoidance of land-use change through substitution of soya bean meal and cereals in European livestock diets with bioethanol coproducts. Global Change Biology Bioenergy 3: 158170.
Wiesner, L, Carleton, A and Cooper, C (1968) Factors affecting sainfoin seed germination and emergence. Sainfoin Symposium. Montana Agriculture Experimental Station Bulletin. Bozeman, Montana: Montana State University.
Yildiz, B, Ciplak, B and Aktoklu, E (1999) Fruit morphology of sections of the genus Onobrychis miller (Fabaceae) and its phylogenetic implications. Israel Journal of Plant Sciences 47: 269282.
Young, A (1913) General View of the Agriculture of Oxfordshire. Drawn up for the Consideration of the Board of Agriculture and Internal Improvement. London, UK: M'Millan, B.
Zolla, D (1904) Dictionnaire-manuel-illustré d'Agriculture. Paris, France: Librairie Armand Colin.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Plant Genetic Resources
  • ISSN: 1479-2621
  • EISSN: 1479-263X
  • URL: /core/journals/plant-genetic-resources
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *



Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed