In 1946, modern foreign language instruction in the College of Arts and Sciences, Cornell University, underwent a drastic reorganization. The former departments of German and Romance Languages became departments of German and Romance Literatures; all language teaching as such (together with the teaching of philology and linguistics) was placed in the hands of a new Division of Modern Languages. The new program was quite frankly experimental: it was to be an attempt to adapt to the college situation the wartime experiences in teaching foreign languages to members of the armed forces. A grant to cover initial expenses was generously made by the Rockefeller Foundation. Within five years a faculty committee was to evaluate the new program and to recommend its continuation, revision, or abolishment.