Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
×
Home

The cruise tourism industry in the Canadian Arctic: analysis of activities and perceptions of cruise ship operators

  • Frédéric Lasserre (a1) and Pierre-Louis Têtu (a1)
Abstract

With the melting of sea ice in the Arctic, the potential for higher shipping access has markedly changed. Shipping activity in the Arctic is increasing, including tourism and exploration activities, underlining the need for reliable communication and monitoring. This article examines the interactions between climate and sea ice change, the patterns of cruise ship tourism through Arctic Canada and the interest of operators to increase their activities in the cruise tourism market in the region. Since 1995, the melting of the summer pack ice in the offers the possibilities of increased shipping in this region while encouraging speculation regarding the potential of the northwest passage (NWP) and the Canadian Arctic to become a major cruise maritime highway. Integrating research from both human and transport geography, this article presents an analysis of vessel movements. It also analyses perceptions of charters and cruise ship operators and of their interests in the cruise tourism market. Discussion is focused on issues associated with the lack of available vessels and maritime infrastructure, regulations in the Canadian arctic waters, security and search and rescue. This research could prove useful for communities, and policy makers, as well as the cruise sector itself, with regard to response to change in these remote locations.

Copyright
References
Hide All
Alaska's Cruise Association. 2012. News. URL: http://www./akcruise.orgcategory/news/ (accessed 29 November 2012).
Alaska (Department of Environmental Conservation, Division of Water, Cruise Ship Program). 2012. Cruise ships. URL: www.dec.state.ak.us/water/cruise_ships/ (accessed 17 December 2012).
AECO (Association of Arctic Expedition Cruise Operators). 2012. Report submitted to executive council. Panel of experts on polar observations. Sodankyla, Finland: World Meteorological Organization (EC-PORS-3/INF. 4, 17 January 2012).
Appolonov, E.M., Marveev, G. and Ditkovski, A.V. 2005. A methodology for estimating equivalency of the existing ice classes. Transactions of the Krylov Shipbuilding Research Institute 23 (307): 2537.
Barents Observer 2011. Nine cruise vessels to Murmansk next year. Barents Observer 28 September 2011. URL : http://barentsobserver.com/en/business/nine-cruise-vessels-murmansk-next-summer (accessed 28 September 2011).
Basuyau, C. 2011. Les mondes arctiques, une ‘nouvelle frontière’ sur la planète. Paris: Académie de Paris. URL : www.ac-paris.fr/portail/jcms/p1_326136/le-grand-nord-canadien-une-nouvelle-frontiere-geographique.html (accessed 11 November 2011).
Blangy, S., McGinley, R. and Lemelin, R.H., 2010. Recherche-action participative et collaborative autochtone: améliorer l'engagement communautaire dans les projets touristiques? Téoros, 29 (1):6980.
Bridges, R. 2004. IACS polar rules harmonisation of classes. London: Lloyd's Register (Presentation, 7 September 2004).
Canada (Department of Justice). 2012b. Shipping safety control zones order. Ottawa: Department of Justice (C.R.C., c 356). URL : http://lawslois.justice.gc.ca/eng/regulations/C.R.C.,_c_356/page-2.html#docCont (accessed 7 May 2012).
Canada (Transport Canada.) 2009. IACS unified requirements for polar class ships – application in Canadian Arctic waters. Ottawa: Transport Canada. URL: www.tc.gc.ca/eng/marinesafety/bulletins-2009–04-eng.htm (accessed 12 December 2012).
Canada (Transport Canada). 2010. Arctic ice regime shipping system (AIRSS) standards. Ottawa: Transport Canada. URL: www.tc.gc.ca/eng/marinesafety/tp-tp12259-menu-605.htm (accessed 18 May 2012).
Canada (Transport Canada). 2012a. Zone/date system map and dates of entry table. Ottawa: Transport Canada. URL: www.tc.gc.ca/eng/marinesafety/debs-arctic-acts-regulations-zds-chart-2014.htm (accessed 18 May 2012).
Cruise Norway. 2012. Norway, north of the Arctic Circle. URL: www.cruise-norway.no/Statistics.aspx (accessed 28 November 2012).
Denmark (Danish Maritime Authority). 2009. Order on technical regulation on safety of navigation in Greenland territorial waters. Copenhagen; Danish Maritime Authority (Order 417 of 28 May 2009) URL : http://dma.dk/SiteCollectionDocuments/Legislation/Orders/2009/9EK-417–28052009-sejlads%20i%20groenlandsk%20soeterritorium.pdf (accessed 10 December 2012). 2012
Désiront, A. 2008. L'Arctique canadien, une grande destination de croisière. La Presse. URL: www.cyberpresse.ca/voyage/200809/19/01–671712-larctique-canadien-une-grande-destination-de-croisiere.php (accessed 21 November 2011).
Désiront, A. 2005. Les Pouls du marché, Les croisières en eaux froides. La Presse Montreal 18 May 2005. « Actuel » section, p.4.
Dupré, S. 2009. Les croisières touristiques dans l'Arctique canadien: une réalité tangible à l'appropriation territoriale encore limitée. Téoros 28 (1): 3951.
Dupré, S. 2010. Les croisières touristiques dans l'Arctique canadien: réalités contemporaines et illusions écotouristiques. In : Lasserre, F. (editor). Passages et mers arctiques: géopolitique d'une région en mutation. Québec: Presses de l'Université du Québec: 345372.
Eyres, D.J. 2001. Ship construction. Oxford: Elsevier.
Fay, G., and Karlsdottir, A. 2011. Social indicators for arctic tourism: observing trends and assessing data. Polar Geography, 34 (1–2): 6368.
Fournier, C. 2011. Le tourisme de croisière en Méditerranée. In: Les nouvelles dynamiques du tourisme dans le monde. Lyon: Ecole Normale Supérieure. URL : http://geoconfluences.ens-lyon.fr/doc/typespace/tourisme/TourScient6.htm (accessed 14 May 2013).
Gedeon, J. 2007. Variable ice, harsh weather conditions make future of Arctic shipping tentative, Canadian Sailings –Transportation andTrade Logistics 12 March 2007: 2224.
Greenland (Visit Greenland). 2012. Ship visits database. Nuuk: Visit Greenland,
Greenland (Statistics Greenland). 2010. Tourism, URL: www.stat.gl/dialog/main.asp?lang=en&version=2010&link=TR&subthemecode=o2&colcode=o (accessed 25 November 2012).
Grenier, A., and Müller, D. 2011. Polar tourism : tool for regional development. Québec: Presses de l'Université du Québec.
Hall, C.M. 2011. Policy learning and policy failure in sustainable tourism governance: from first and second-order to third-order change? Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 1: 123.
Hall, C.M., and Saarinen, J.. 2010. Geotourism and climate change: paradoxes and promises of geotourism in polar regions. Geotourism 29 (2): 7786.
Hall, C.M., James, M., and Wilson, S. 2010. Biodiversity, biosecurity, and cruising in the Arctic and sub-Arctic. Journal of Heritage Tourism, 5 (4): 351364.
Howell, S.E.L., and Yackel, J.J.. 2004. A vessel transit assessment of sea ice variability in the western Arctic 1969–2002: implications for ship navigation. Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing 30 (2): 205215.
Iceland (Icelandic Tourist Board). 2012. Tourism in Iceland in figures. Reykjavik: Icelandic Tourist Board. URL: www.ferdamalastofa.is/en/moya/news/tourism-in-iceland-in-figures-2012 (accessed 7 December 2012).
IAATO (International Association of Antarctica Tour Operators). 2012. Tourism statistics 2011–2012. Providence, Rhode Island, USA:IAATO. URL: http://iaato.org/tourism-statistics (accessed 28 November 2012).
IACS (International Association of Classification Societies). 2006. Requirements concerning polar class. In: IACS Requirements. 2011. URL: www.iacs.org.uk/document/public/Publications/Unified_requirements/PDF/UR_I_pdf410.pdf (accessed Dec. 27, 2012).
IMO (International Maritime Organization). 2002. Guidelines for ships operating in Arctic ice-covered waters, adopted by IMO. London UK: IMO (MSC/circular1056, MEPC/circular399, 23 December 2002). URL: www.gc.noaa.gov/documents/gcil_1056-MEPC-Circ399.pdf (accessed 15 December 2012).
IMO (International Maritime Organization). 2009. Guidelines for ships operating in polar waters. London UK: IMO. (Adopted by IMO Assembly Resolution A.1024(26), 2 December 2009). URL: www.imo.org/Publications/Documents/Attachments/Pages%20from%20E190E.pdf (accessed 15 December 2012).
Jørgensen, F. 2010. Arctic cruise tourism – threat or opportunity? The Circle, 1:1618. (Published by the WWF International Arctic Programme. Oslo, Norway. URL: http://awsassets.panda.org/downloads/thecircle0110.pdf (accessed 7 November 2012)).
Kaae, B.C., and Rabede, M.K.. 2011. Arctic governance dimension. Tourism strategies and environmental labelling in Greenland. In : Maher, P., Stewart, E., and Lück, M.. (editors). Polar tourism : human, environmental and governance dimensions. New York: Cognizant Communication Corporation:80101.
Lamb, T. 2004. Chapter 40: Ice-capable ships. In: Lamb, T. (editor) Ship design and construction. Vol. II. Jersey City, NJ: Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers: 40.140.34.
Lasserre, F. 2010a. Mines et pétrole. Vers une rapide expansion de l'exploitation des resources naturelles du sous-sol dans l'Arctique. In : Lasserre, F. (editor). Passages et mers arctiques : géopolitique d'une région en mutation. Québec: Presses de l'Université du Québec:373410.
Lasserre, F. 2010b. Changement climatiques dans l'Arctique : vers la disparition de la banquise? In Lasserre, F. (ed.). Passages et mers arctiques : géopolitique d'une région en mutation. Québec: Presses de l'Université du Québec:1132.
Lasserre, F. 2010c. Vers une autoroute maritime ? Passages arctiques et trafic maritime international. In Lasserre, F. (ed.). Passages et mers arctiques : géopolitique d'une région en mutation. Québec: Presses de l'Université du Québec:449478.
Lamers, M., and Amelung, B.. 2010. Climate change and its implications for cruise tourism in the polar regions. In: Luck, M., Maher, P.. and Stewart, E.J. (editors). Cruise tourism in polar regions: promoting environmental and social sustainability? London: Earthscan, 147164.
Lasserre, F., and Pelletier, S.. 2011. Polar super seaways? Maritime transport in the Arctic: an analysis of shipowners’ intentions. Journal of Transport Geography 19 (6): 14651473.
Lemelin, R.H., Dawson, J. and Stewart, E.J. 2012. Last Chance Tourism: Adapting Tourism Opportunities in a Changing World. London and New York: Routledge Taylor & Francis Group.
Loughnane, D. 2009. Mostly employed elsewhere : one of the biggest challenges in developing Arctic shipping has nothing to do with ice, Canadian Sailings –Transportation andTrade Logistics 2 March 2009: 2324.
Lück, M., Maher, P.T. and Stewart, E.J. (editors). 2010. Cruise tourism in polar regions: promoting environmental and social sustainability? London: Easthscan.
Lück, M., Maher, P.T. and Stewart, E.J. (editors). 2011. Polar tourism: human, environmental and governance dimensions. New York: Cognizant Communication Corporation.
NAIS (North American Ice Service). 2012. Daily iceberg analysis chart, hosted at Environment Canada. Washington DC: U.S. Coast Guard. URL: http://dynaweb.cis.ec.gc.ca/Archive10/?lang=en (accessed 6 December 2012).
Nelson, V. 2013. An introduction to the geography of tourism. London: Rowman and Littlefield Publishers.
Norway (Norwegian Coastal Administration). 2012a. Pilotage service and compulsory pilotage in Svalbard. Explanations of the Pilotage Act, 1 July 2012. Oslo, Norway. URL: www.kystverket.no/en/EN_Maritime-Services/Pilot-Services/Svalbard/ (accessed 10 December 2012).
Norway (Statistics Norway). 2012b. This is Svalbard, Oslo: Statistics Norway.
NRS (National Research Council). 2007. Polar Icebreakers in a Changing World. Washington, DC: NRC.
Quark Expeditions. 2010. Kapitan Khlebnikov's end of an era: icebreaker travelers generate bittersweet success for Quark Expeditions. Waterbury, VT: Quark Expeditions. URL: www.quarkexpeditions.com/Kapitan-Khlebnikovs-End-of-an-Era-Icebreaker-Travelers-Generate-Bittersweet-Success-for-Quark-Expeditions (accessed 22 November 2012).
Roura, R. 2010. Cultural heritage tourism in Antarctica and Svalbard. Patterns, impacts and policies. In Hall, C.M., and Saarinen, J. (editors). Tourism and change in polar regions: climate, environmental and experience. London and New York: Routledge:180202.
Ryder, K. 2009. Cruise ship traffic booms in Cambridge Bay, Nunavut News North 10 August 2009. URL: www.nnsl.com/frames/newspapers/2009–08/aug10_09cs.html (accessed 17 November 2011).
Stewart, E.J., and Dawson, J.. 2011. A matter of good fortune? The grounding of the Clipper Adventurer in the NWP, Arctic Canada. Arctic 64 (2): 263267.
Stewart, E.J., Draper, D. and Johnston, M.E.. 2005. A review of tourism research in polar regions. Arctic 58 (4): 383394.
Stewart, E.J., and Draper, D.. 2006. Sustainable cruise tourism in Arctic Canada: an integrated coastal management approach. Tourism in Marine Environments 3 (2): 7788.
Stewart, E.J., and Draper, D.. 2008. The sinking of the Ms Explorer: implications for cruise tourism in Arctic Canada. Arctic 61 (2): 224228.
Stewart, E.J., Howell, S.E.L., Draper, D., Yackel, J. and Tivy, A.. 2007. Sea ice in Canada's Arctic: implications for cruise tourism. Arctic 60 (4): 370380.
Stewart, E.J., Howell, S.E.L., Draper, D., Yackel, J. and Tivy, A.. 2010. Cruise tourism in Arctic Canada. Navigating a warming climate. In: Hall, C.M., and Saarinen, J. (editors). Tourism and change in polar regions: climate, environment and experience. London and New York: Routledge:7187.
Svalbard (Government). 2006. Tourism statistics for Svalbard. Longyearbyen: Svalbard Government. URL: http://tinyurl.com/bmpastx (accessed 28 November 2012).
Têtu, P-L. and Lasserre, F.. 2013. Expansion of cruise tourism in the Canadian Arctic: analysis of potential and actual activities of cruise ship operators. In: Lemelin, R.H., Maher, P.T. and Liggett, D. (editors). From talk to action: how tourism is changing the polar regions. Thunder Bay: Lakehead University, Centre for Northern Studies Press. (Conference proceedings from the 3rd International Polar Tourism Research Network (IPTRN) Conference, 1621 April 2012, Nain, Nunastiavut, Newfoundland and Labrador). In press.
Timco, G., Collins, A. and Kubat, I. 2009. The approach for revising the Canadian Arctic Shipping Regulations. Québec, QC National Research Council of Canada. Proceedings of the 20th International Conference on Port and Ocean Engineering under Arctic Conditions, June 9–12, 2009, Luleå, Sweden. URL: ftp://ftp2.chc.nrc.ca/CRTreports/POAC_09–57_Regs_Revision.pdf (accessed 3 February 2012).
Trauthwein, G. 2012. The Arctic economic promise of environment peril? New York: Marine Link, 24 May. URL: www.marinelink.com/news/environmental-economic344971.aspx (accessed May 2012).
Timco, G.W., and Kubat, I.. 2007. Mise à jour de la réglementation pour la navigation dans l'Arctique canadien: le choix d'un système de régimes de glaces. Ottawa: Centre d'hydraulique canadien. URL: ftp://ftp2.chc.nrc.ca/CRTReports/TP14732F_Reg_Approaches_07.pdf (accessed 25 May 2012).
Toomey, P., and Splettstoesser, J.. 2013. The World becomes the largest passenger ship to transit the northwest passage. Polar Record 49 (3): 319320.
United States (American Burean of Shipping). 2007. International Association of Classification Socities: Requirements concerning Polar Class. Houston, Texas USA: American Bureau of Shipping. URL: www.iacs.org.uk/document/public/Publications/Unified_requirements/PDF/UR_I_pdf410.pdf. (accessed 12 November 2012).
Verdonnet, J-F. 2007. Un marché en forte expansion. Daily 24 Heures, 7 November 2007. URL: http://archives.24heures.ch/VQ/LA_COTE/-/article-2007–11–728 (accessed 11 November 2011).
Viken, A. 2006. Svalbard, Norway. In: Baldacchino, G. (editor). Extreme tourism: lessons from the world's cold water islands. Oxford: Elsevier: 129144.
WWF (International Arctic Program). 2004. Cruise tourism on Svalbard – a risky business? Oslo: WWF. URL: wwf.panda.org/?16350/Cruise-tourism-on-Svalbard-A-risky-business (accessed 12 October 2012).
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Polar Record
  • ISSN: 0032-2474
  • EISSN: 1475-3057
  • URL: /core/journals/polar-record
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed