Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa

History of exotic terrestrial mammals in Antarctic regions

  • R. K. Headland (a1)

A concise account of exotic terrestrial mammals known to have been introduced in Antarctica and the 19 peri-Antarctic islands is provided. This includes the entire region currently relevant to the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research. Of the 24 introduced species 10 are extant at one or more locations in 2011. Some species have had a widespread distribution and others are represented by one, or a few, individuals. The majority arrived as deliberate introductions but that of some was adventitious. Details of their dates of introduction, current status, and indications of environmental effects, are tabulated. Current eradication programmes are noted.

Hide All
Alexander C. 1997. Mrs Chippy's last expedition. London: Bloomsbury.
Allen H.T. 1920. Report of the Interdepartmental Committee on Research and Development in the dependencies of the Falkland Islands. London: HMSO.
Amundsen R.E.G. 1912. Sydpolen: den Norske Sydpolsfærd med ‘Fram’ 1910–1912. Kristiania: Jacob Dybwads Forlag
Arnaud P.M. (editor). 1983. A la decouverte des Terres Australes et Antarctiques Françaises Marseille: Museum d'Histoire Naturelle.
Arnaud P.M., and Beurois J.. 1996. Les armateurs du rêve. Marseille: Mme F. Jambois.
Aubert de la Rüe E. 1930. Voyage d'exploration á lîle Heard. Paris: Comité de l'Afrique Française.
Aubert de la Rüe E. 1931. Voyage aux Iles Amsterdam, Saint-Paul et Kerguelen. La Géographie 55 (1–2): 2033.
Basberg B.L. 2004. The shore whaling stations at South Georgia. Oslo: Novus Forlag.
Baty R. du. 1948. Fifteen thousand miles in a ketch. London: Thomas Nelson & Sons.
Bellingshausen F.G.B. von. 1945. The voyage of Captain Bellingshausen to the Antarctic Seas 1819–21. (Debenham F. translator and editor). London: Hakluyt Society (second series 91).
Bennett A.G. 1931. Whaling in the Antarctic. London: Blackwood.
Berntsen S. 1912. Letter to his wife, 3 May 1912 (translation by Karl Jan Skontorp). Unpublished document in Norwegian (translated extract provided by R. Burton).
Berry R.J., Bonner W.N., and Peters J.. 1979. Natural selection in house mice (Mus musculus) from South Georgia. Journal of Zoology 189: 385398.
Bertrand K.J. 1971. Americans in Antarctica 1775–1948. New York: American Geographical Society.
Bester M.N., and Bloomer J.P.. 2009. Successful eradication of feral cats from sub-Antarctic Marion Island, southern Indian Ocean. In: Wolff M., and Gardner M. (editors). Proceedings of the 2009 Galapagos Science Symposium. Puerto Ayora, Ecuador: Charles Darwin Foundation: 189190.
Blanc F. 1947. Possibilities de l'exploitation animale dans les Dépendencies Australes de Madagascar. Paris: R. Foulon.
Bonner W.N. 1958. The introduced reindeer of South Georgia. London: Falkland Islands Dependencies Survey (Scientific report 22).
Bonner W.N. 1984. Introduced mammals. In: Laws R.M. (editor). 1984. Antarctic ecology. London: Academic Press: 237278.
Borchgrevink C.E. 1901. First on the Antarctic continent. London: George Newnes.
Boumphrey R.S. 1967. A visit to South Georgia by Klutshak H.W., 1877. British Antarctic Survey Bulletin 12: 8592.
Bowden T. 1997. The silence calling. Sydney: Allen & Unwin.
Brine L. 1877. Report respecting the Crozet Islands, South Indian Ocean. In: Great Britain. 1877. Correspondence in regard to Her Majesty's Ships visiting groups of uninhabited islands laying on the tracks of vessels between Great Britain and the Australasian colonies. Parliament. House of Commons. Sessional Papers. Accounts and Papers [C 1752], LII, 599. Ordered by the House of Commons, to be printed. London: HMSO.
Brown R.N.R., Mossman R.C., and Pirie J.H.. 1906. The voyage of the ‘Scotia’: being the record of a voyage of exploration in Antarctic seas. Edinburgh and London: William Blackwood and Sons.
Byrd R.E. 1935. Discovery: the story of the second Byrd Antarctic expedition. New York: Putnams.
Caffin J.M. 1974. Treaty breach. Antarctic 7 (2): 44.
Campbell G. 1877. Log-letters from ‘The Challenger’. London: McMillan.
Campbell R.J. 2000. The discovery of the South Shetland Islands. London: Hakluyt Society (third series 4).
Canclini A. 2009. Islas Sandwich del Sur. Ushuaia: Zagier & Urruty.
Carrick R. 1903. Historical records of New Zealand. Dunedin: The Otago Daily Times and Witness Newspapers Company Limited.
Chapuis J.L., Boussès P., and Barnaud G.. 1994. Alien mammals, impact and management in the French subantarctic islands. Biological Conservation 67 (2): 97104.
Chapuis J.L., and Frenot Y.. 1997. Restauration d'Iles Subantarctiques Françaises. Association Amicale des Missions Australes et Polaires Françaises 42: 2832.
Charcot J.E.B. 1906. Le ‘Français’ au pole sud: journal de l'expedition Antarctique Française. Paris: Ernest Flammarion.
Charcot J.E.B. 1911. The voyage of the ‘Why Not?’ in the Antarctic. London: Hodder and Stoughton.
Chilton C. (editor). 1909. The subantarctic islands of New Zealand. Wellington: Government Printer.
Chown S.L., and Froneman P.W. (editors). 2008. The Prince Edward Islands: land-sea interactions in a changing ecosystem. Stellenbosch: Sun Press.
Chroniques d'Outre Mer, 1956. Une réussite inattendue elevage et horticulture aux Iles Kerguelen. Chroniques d'Outre Mer 30: 36.
Clark M.R. and Dingwall P.R.. 1985. Conservation of islands in the Southern Ocean. Gland: IUCN.
Clarke W.B. (editor). 1850. Narrative of the wreck of the ‘Favorite’ on the island of Desolation. London: William and Edward Painter.
Convey P., Frenot Y., Gremmen N., and Bergstrom D.M.. 2006. Biological invasions. In: Bergstrom D.M., Convey P., and Huiskes A.H.L.. 2006. Trends in Antarctic terrestrial and limnic ecosystems. Dordrecht: Springer: 193220.
Convey P., and Lebouvier M.. 2009. Environmental change and human impacts on terrestrial ecosystems of the sub-Antarctic islands between their discovery and the mid-twentieth century. Papers and Proceedings of the Royal Society of Tasmania 143 (1): 3344.
Cook F.A. 1900. Through the first Antarctic night. London: William Heinemann.
Cooper J., and Ryan P.G.. 1993. Management plan for the Gough Island wildlife reserve. Rondebosch: University of Cape Town.
Corbet C. 1875. Venus at the isle of Desolation. Southampton: Alfred Randle.
Crawford A.B. 1982. Tristan da Cunha and the roaring forties. Cape Town: David Phillipton.
Csordas S.E. 1985. Domestic animals on Macquarie Island; an un-scientific paper on a semi-scientific subject. Aurora 18: 2326.
Cumpston J.S. 1968. Macquarie Island. Canberra: Antarctic Division.
Cuthbert R., and Hilton G.. 2003. Introduced house mice Mus musculus: a significant predator of threatened and endemic birds on Gough Island, South Atlantic Ocean? Biological Conservation 117: 483489.
David A.F. 1984. More light on the French settlement on St Paul Island. The Great Circle 6 (2): 109.
Davis J.K. 1909. The ‘Nimrod's’ homeward voyage – in search of doubtful islands. In: Shackleton E.H. 1909. The heart of the Antarctic. London: William Heinemann: 407412.
Derenne P.R., and Mougin J.L.. 1976. Données ecologiques sur les mammifères introduits de l'Iles aux Cochones, Archipel Crozet. Mammalia 40 (1): 2153.
Dibbern J.S. 2010. Fur seals, whales and tourists: a commercial history of Deception Island, Antarctica. Polar Record 46 (238): 210221.
Dingwall P., and Gregory G.. 2004. A musterer's sojourn on Campbell Island: the diary of Alfred Austin 1919–1921. Wellington: Department of Conservation.
Dorst J., and Milon P.. 1964. Acclimatation et conservation de la nature dans les iles subantarctique Françaises. In: Carrick R., Holdgate M.W., and Prévost J.. 1964. Biologie Antarctique. Paris: Hermann: 579588.
Dougall W. 1888. Far south. Invercargill: Southland Times.
Douglas H.P. 1939. The Antarctic pilot (2nd edition). London: HMSO.
Downes M. 2002. First visitors to Heard Island. Hobart: Australian Antarctic Division.
Drygalski E. von. 1904. Zum Kontinent de Eisigen Südens: Deutsche Südpolarexpedition. Berlin: Georg Reimer.
Drygalski E. von. 1935. Hunde auf Kerguelen. Sondeabdruck aus der Zeitschrift der Gesellschaft für Erdkunde zu Berlin 1935: 12.
Duchêne J.C. 1989. Kerguelen: recherches au bout du monde. Tours: Territoire de Terres Australes et Antarctiques Françaises.
Easmond J. 1882–1883. Crusoes of the Antarctic: being an account of the voyage and shipwreck of their bark Trinity and hardships of her crew. Forest and Stream 19: 424425, 443–444.
Eden A.W. 1955. Islands of despair. London: Andrew Melrose.
Enderby C. 1850. The Auckland Islands. London: Southern Whale Fishery Company.
Falkland Islands and Dependencies Government. 1912. An Ordinance to provide for the preservation of certain wild animals and birds in South Georgia (no. 8 of 1912). The Falkland Islands Gazette 176: 197198.
Falla R.A. 1937. Birds. Adelaide: B.A.N.Z.A.R. Expedition Committee (reports series B, vol. II).
Fiennes R. 1983. To the ends of the Earth. London: Hodder and Stoughton.
Filchner W. 1922. Zum Sechsten Erdteil: Die Zweite Deutsche Südpolar-Expedition. Berlin: Ullstein.
Floch D. 1982. Les oubliés de l'Ile Saint-Paul. Rennes: Ouest France.
Fotheringham B.I. 1995. The Southern Whale Fishery Company at the Auckland Islands. Unpublished M.Phil dissertation. Cambridge, Scott Polar Research Institute.
Fraser C. 1986. Beyond the roaring forties: New Zealand's subantarctic islands. Wellington: Government Printing Office.
Fraser G. [compiler]. 2001. Shetland's whalers remember. Fort William: G. Fraser.
Frenot Y., Chown S.L., Whinam J., Selkirk P.M., Convey P., Skotnicki M., and Bergstrom D.M.. 2005. Biological invasions in the Antarctic: extent, impacts and implications. Biological Review 80: 4572.
Fuchs V.E. 1987. Of ice and men. London: Anthony Nelson.
Gilchrist A. 1992. Addendum to ‘Biology Log’, Heard Island ‘47-‘48-’49. Hobart: Australian National Antarctic Research Expeditions (unpublished document).
Gillham M.E. 1967. Sub-Antarctic sanctuary: summertime of Macquarie Island. London: Gollancz.
Goodenough J. G. 1878. Memoirs of Commodore Goodenough, R.N., C.B., C.M.G., with extracts from his letters and journals. London: C. Kegan Paul & Co.
Goodridge C. M. 1832. Narrative of a voyage to the South Seas, and the shipwreck of the ‘Princess of Wales’ cutter, with an account of two years residence on an uninhabited island. London: Hamilton & Adam.
Great Britain. 1918. Kerguelen. London: Foreign Office (Handbooks prepared under the direction of the historical section of the Foreign Office 146).
Green K., and Woehler E. (editors). 2006. Heard Island: southern ocean sentinel. Chipping Norton: Surry Beatty and Sons.
Hänel C., Chown S.L., and Gaston K.J.. 2005. Gough Island: a natural history. Stellenbosch: Sun Press.
Harrowfield D.L. 2007. Call of the ice. Auckland: David Bateman.
Hart I.B. 2001. Pesca. Salcomb: Aidan Ellis.
Hart I.B. 2009. Antarctic magistrate. Newton St Margarets: Pequena.
Headland R.K. 1984a. Wrecks, hulks and other vessel remains at South Georgia, Falkland Islands Dependencies. British Antarctic Survey Bulletin 65: 109126.
Headland R.K. 1984b. The island of South Georgia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Headland R.K. 1998. Births on South Georgia and other Antarctic regions. Falkland Islands Journal 7 (2): 1014.
Headland R.K. 2009a. A chronology of Antarctic exploration: a synopsis of events and activities from the earliest times until the International Polar Years, 2007–09. London: Bernard Quaritch Ltd.
Headland R.K. 2009b. Antarctic winter scientific stations to the International Polar Year, 2007–2009. Polar Record 45 (232): 924.
Heymann G., Erasmus T., Huntley B.J., Liebenberg A.C., Retief D. de F., Condy P.R., and Van Der Westhuysen O.A.. 1987. Report to the Minister of Environment Affairs on an environmental impact assessment of a proposed emergency landing facility on Marion Island 1987. Pretoria: South African National Scientific Programmes (report 140).
Holdgate M.W., and Wace N.. 1961. The influence of man on the floras and faunas of southern islands. Polar Record 10 (68): 475493.
Huxley L. (editor). 1913. Scott's last expedition. London: Smith Elder & Co.
Jacquemart J. 1882. Ile Campbell. Annales Hydrographiques 37: 7179.
Jansen van Vuuren B., and Chown S.L.. 2007. Genetic evidence confirms the origin of the house mouse on sub-Antarctic Marion Island. Polar Biology 30 (3): 327332.
Jones A.G.E. 1970. Captain Abraham Bristow and the Auckland Islands. Notes and Queries October: 369–371.
Jones A.G.E. 1975. Captain Robert Fildes in New South Shetland. Notes and Queries February: 70–75.
Jones M.G.W., and Ryan P.G.. 2009. Evidence of mouse attacks on albatross chicks on sub-Antarctic Marion Island. Antarctic Science 22 (1): 3942.
Kaeuffer R., Coltman D.W., Chapuis J.-L., Pontiet D., and Réale D.. 2006. Unexpected heterozygosity in an island mouflon population founded by a single pair of individuals. Proceedings of the Royal Society, Series B (doi: 10.1098/rspb.2006.3743).
Kerr I.S. 1976. Campbell Island; a history. Wellington: A. H. & A. W. Reed.
Kerr I.S., and Judd N.. 1978. Marlborough whalers at Campbell Island 1909–1916. Wellington: Department of Lands and Survey.
Kidder J.H. 1876. Contributions to the natural history of Kerguelen Island made in connection with the United States transit-of-Venus Expedition 1874–75. Bulletin of the United States National Museum 2, 3.
La Grange J.J. 1950. Sojourn on Marion Island. Pretoria: Weather Bureau/Weerburo (News Letter 39): 4–6.
La Grange J.J. 1961. The island stations and Antarctica news. Pretoria: Weather Bureau/Weerburo (News Letter 151): 165–166.
Leader-Williams N. 1985. The sub-Antarctic islands – introduced mammals. In: Bonner W.N., and Walton D.W.H.. 1985. Key environments: Antarctica. London: Pergamon: 318328.
Leader-Williams N. 1988. Reindeer in South Georgia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Lesel R., and Derenne P.. 1975. Introducing animals to Iles Kerguelen. Polar Record 17 (110): 485494.
Loranchet J. 1960. Etude historique de la découverete des Terres Australes et Antarctiques Françaises. TAAF 13: 326.
Lucas P.H.C. 1983. Management plan for the Campbell Island nature reserve. Wellington: Department of Lands and Survey.
Lukins E. 1896. Round southern isles. Nelson: Bond Finney & Co.
Lunde S.T. 2004. Grytviken. Oslo: Institut Minos.
M'Cosh J. 1835. Narrative of the wreck of the ‘Lady Monro’. Villafield: George Brookman.
McEwan M. (editor). 2006. Charles Fleming's cape expedition diary: Auckland Islands, 1942–43. Wellington: McEwan Associates.
McLaren F.B. 1948. The eventful story of the Auckland Islands. Wellington: A. H. & A. W. Reed.
McNab R. 1907. Murihiku and the southern islands. Invercargill: William Smith.
Malone R.E. 1854. Three years’ cruise in the Australasian colonies. London: Richard Bentley.
Marr J.W.S. 1923. Into the frozen south. London: Cassell.
Marsh J.H. 1948. No pathway here. Cape Town: Howard B. Timmins.
Mathews E. 2003. Ambassador to the penguins. Boston: David R. Godine.
Matsumoto M. 1959. Nan'kyoku-Yusôki [An account of Antarctic transport]. Tokyo: Sogen-sha.
Mawson D. 1915. The home of the blizzard. London: William Heinemann.
Mawson D. 1921. Macquarie Island. Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society of Australasia (South Australian Branch) 20: 7085.
Mawson D. 1932. The B.A.N.Z. Antarctic Research Expedition. Journal of the Royal Geographical Society 30 (2): 101131.
Mazzei A. 1994. Telefax to Dr R. I. Lewis-Smith, 28 August 1994. Santiago, Instituto Chileno Antártico S10/998.
Micol T., and Jouventin P.. 1995. Restoration of Amsterdam Island, South Indian Ocean, following control of feral cattle. Biological Conservation 73: 199206.
Micol T., and Jouventin P.. 1998. Le retour des oiseaux sur l'Île Saint-Paul. Pour la Science 251: 21
Migot A. 1955. The lonely south. London: Travel Book Club.
Moneta J.M. 1958. Cuatro años en las Orcadas del Sur (10th edition). Buenos Aires: Peuser.
Moseley H.N. 1879. Notes by a naturalist on the ‘Challenger’. London: Macmillan and Co.
Munro G.D. 2006. ‘Waiting on the weather’ – the ANARE years 1947–1955. In: Green K., and Woehler E. (editors). Heard Island: southern ocean sentinel. Chipping Norton: Surry Beatty and Sons.
Murphy R.C. 1947. Logbook for Grace. London: Robert Hale.
Musgrave T. 1866. Castaway on the Aucklands. London: Lockwood and Co.
Neumayer G. (editor). 1891. Die Deutschen Expeditionen und Ihre Ergebnisse. Berlin: A. Asher and Co.
Nilsen T. 1912. Frams reiser. In: Amundsen R. 1912. Sydpolen: den Norske Sydpolsfærd med ‘Fram’ 1910 – 1912. Kristiania: Jacob Dybwads Forlag.
Noble P. 2009. Dog days on ice. Cheltenham: Reardon Publishing.
Nordenskjöld O., and Andersson J.G.. 1905. Antarctica or two years amongst the ice of the South Pole. London: Hurst and Blackett.
Olstad O. 1930. Rats and reindeer in the Antarctic. Oslo: Det Norske Vitenskabs-Akademi (scientific results of the Norwegian Antarctic expeditions 1927–28, 1928–1929, instituted and financed by Consul Lars Christensen) 4: 1–30.
Ouvry A.A.C. 1950. Marion Island 5th relief voyage [HMSAS ‘Transvaal’]. Pretoria: Director General of Naval Forces NF 3/2/5 (unpublished).
Palmer H. (editor). 1929. Life on a whaler or Antarctic adventures in the isle of Desolation by Nathaniel W. Taylor. New York: New London County Historical Society.
Parkes J. 2008. A feasibility study for the eradication of house mice from Gough Island. Sandy: Royal Society for the Protection of Birds.
Perillo T. (editor). 2000. Rapport annuel sur l'etat de l'environement dans les TAAF. Saint-Pierre: TAAF [Terres Australes et Antarctiques Françaises].
Perry S.J. 1876. Notes of a voyage to Kerguelen Island to observe the transit of Venus, December 8, 1874. London: Henry S. King & Co.
Pierce-Butler K.S. 1972. Notes on domestic animals introduced to South Georgia. Unpublished report, 21 July 1972. Cambridge: British Antarctic Survey (copy provided by R. I. Lewis Smith).
Pye T., and Bonner W.N.. 1980. Feral brown rats, Rattus norvegicus, in South Georgia, South Atlantic Ocean. Journal of Zoology 192: 237255.
Rare Breeds Conservation Society of New Zealand. 2010. Campbell Island, Auckland Islands. URL: (accessed 28 April 2010).
Ravisi T. de. 1853. Les iles Saint-Paul et Amsterdam. Saint-Denis, Reunion: Ch. Jamin.
Reppe X. 1957. Aurore sur l'Antarctique. Paris: Nouvelles Editions Latines.
Richard K.J. 1992. Non-native (alien) species in Antarctica. BAS Club Newsletter 29: 3042.
Richards R. 1984. The maritime fur trade; sealers and other residents on St Paul and Amsterdam Islands. The Great Circle 6 (1): 2444, 6(2): 93–109.
Richards R. [1991]. The commercial exploitation of sea mammals at Iles Crozet and Prince Edward Islands before 1850. Cambridge, Scott Polar Research Institute (Polar Monograph 1).
Richardson M.E. 1984. Aspects of the ornithology of the Tristan da Cunha Group and Gough Island,1972–1974. Cormorant 12 (2): 123201.
Rosenman H. (translator and editor). 1987. An account in two volumes of two voyages to the south seas by Captain (later Rear-Admiral) Jules S.-C. Dumont d'Urville of the French navy to Australia, New Zealand, Oceania 1826–1829 in the corvette ‘Astrolabe’ and to the straits of Magellan, Chile, Oceania, South East Asia, Australia, Antarctica, New Zealand and Torres Strait 1837–1840 in the corvettes ‘Astrolabe’ and’ Zélée’. Melbourne: Melbourne University Press.
Ross J.C. 1847. A voyage of discovery and research in the Southern and Antarctic regions during the years 1839–45. London: John Murray.
Savours A. (editor). 1966. Edward Wilson, diary of the ‘Discovery’ expedition. London: Blandford.
Scherzer K. von. 1861. Narrative of the circumnavigation of the globe by the Austrian frigate ‘Novara’ undertaken by order of the imperial government in the years 1857, 1858, & 1859. London: Saunders Otley, and Co.
Scott R.F. 1905. Voyage of the ‘Discovery’. London: Smith Elder.
Selkirk P.M., Seppelt R.D., and Selkirk D.R.. 1990. Subantarctic Macquarie Island: environment and biology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Seyrolle A. 1998. Journal de mer. Orléans: Association Amicale des Missions Australes et Polaires Françaises.
Shackleton E.H. 1909. The heart of the Antarctic. London: William Heinemann.
Shackleton E.H. 1914. Endurance diary, 7 December 1914. Cambridge: Scott Polar Research Institute archives MS 1456/31 (Fisher papers).
Shackleton E. H. 1917. South. London: William Heinemann.
Shirase N. (leader). 1913. Nankyoku-ki [A record of Antarctica]. Tokyo: Nankyoku Tanken Koenkai.
Sorensen J. H. 1951. Wildlife in the subantarctic. Christchurch: Whitcombe & Tombs.
Spude C.H., and Spude R.L.. 1993. East base; historic monument, Stonington Island/Antarctic Peninsula. Denver: United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service.
Stewart J. 1990. Antarctica: an encyclopedia. Jefferson: McFarland & Company.
Stubbington J. 1867. Diary of voyage aboard ‘Dependent’ (1865–67). Cambridge: Scott Polar Research Institute (*7):91(08) [1865–67] (unpublished document).
Swire H. 1938. The voyage of ‘Challenger’, a personal narrative: a personal narrative of the historic circumnavigation of the globe in the years 1772–76 illustrated from paintings and drawings. London: Golden Cockerel Press.
TAAF [Terres Australes et Antarctiques Françaises], 2010. Environnment – réserve naturelle. Paris: URL: (accessed12 October 2010)
Taylor T.G. 1914. The bipes. In: Cherry-Garrard A. (editor). 1914. The South Polar Times Vol. III. London: Smith Elder & Co: 5673.
Taylor T.G. 1916. With Scott: the silver lining. London: Smith Elder & Co.
Terry-Lloyd M.R. 1950. Marion Island 4th relief voyage [HMSAS Natal], Pretoria: Director General of Naval Forces N.2/3/2.
Turbott G. 2002. Year away. Wellington: Department of Conservation.
Vaughan N.D. 1995. My Life of adventure. Mechanicsburg: Stackpole Books.
Vélain M.C. 1877. Observations générales sur la faune des deux îles. Archives de Zoologie Expérimentale et Général 6 (1): 1143.
Verrill G.E. 1895. Notes on birds and eggs of Gough Island, Kerguelen, and South Georgia. Transactions of the Connecticut Academy 9 (2): 239241.
Villiers A.J. 1924. To the frozen south. Hobart: Davies Brothers.
Viola H.J., and Margolis C. (editors). 1985. Magnificent voyagers. Washington: Smithsonian Institution.
Wace N.M., and Holdgate M.W.. 1976. Man and nature in the Tristan da Cunha islands. Morges: International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources.
Wace N.M. 1986. Rat hunt on Gough Island. Polar Record 23 (142): 9597.
Walton E.W.K., and Atkinson R.. 1996. Of dogs and men. Malvern: Images Publishing.
Watkins B.P., and Cooper J.. 1986. Introduction, present status and control of alien species at the Prince Edward Islands, sub-Antarctic. South African Journal of Antarctic Research 16: 8694.
Watson A.C. (editor). 1931. A voyage on the sealer Emeline and the journal from Washington Fosdick's manuscript preserved in the Museum of the Old Dartmouth Historical Society at New Bedford. Zoölogia 9 (14): 475549.
Watt J.P.C. 1990. Stewart Island's Kaipiki shipyard and the Ross Sea whalers. Hawke's Bay: J.P.C. Watt.
Weather Bureau / Weerburo, South Africa. 1956. Reindeer in the sub-Antarctic. News Letter 87: 4.
Weddell J. 1827. A voyage towards the South Pole performed in the years 1822–1824. London: Longman, Hurst, Orme, Browne, and Green.
Wild F. 1923. Shackleton's last voyage. London: Cassell.
Wilkes C. 1845. Narrative of the United States Exploring Expedition during the years 1838–1842. Philadelphia: Lea and Blanchard.
Woehler E. 2006. Status and conservation of seabirds of Heard Island. In: Green K., and Woehler E. (editors). 2006. Heard Island: southern ocean sentinel. Chipping Norton: Surry Beatty and Sons.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Polar Record
  • ISSN: 0032-2474
  • EISSN: 1475-3057
  • URL: /core/journals/polar-record
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *


Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 8
Total number of PDF views: 34 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 215 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 23rd October 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.