Adams, J., and Merrill, S.
2006. Why small, centrist third parties motivate policy divergence by major parties. American Political Science Review
Adams, J., Clark, M., Ezrow, L., and Glasgow, G.
2006. Are niche parties fundamentally different from mainstream parties? The causes and the electoral consequences of western European parties' policy shifts, 1976–1998. American Journal of Political Science
Adams, J., and Somer-Topcu, Z.
2009. Policy adjustment by parties in response to rival parties' policy shifts: Spatial theory and the dynamics of party competition in twenty-five post-war democracies. British Journal of Political Science
Alvarez, R., and Nagler, J.
2004. Party system compactness: Measurement and consequences. Political Analysis
Bailey, M. A.
2007. Comparable preference estimates across time and institutions for the court, Congress, and presidency. American Journal of Political Science
2009. Re-measuring left-right: A comparison of SEM and Bayesian measurement models for extracting left-right party placements. Electoral Studies
Bartolini, S., and Mair, P.
1990. Identity, competition, and electoral availability. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Benoit, K., and Laver, M.
2006. Party policy in modern democracies. London: Routledge.
Benoit, K., and Laver, M.
2007. Estimating party policy positions: Comparing expert surveys and hand-coded content analysis. Electoral Studies
Benoit, K., and Laver, M.
2012. The dimensionality of political space: Epistemological and methodological considerations. European Union Politics
Benoit, K., Laver, M., and Mikhaylov, S.
2009. Treating words as data with error: Uncertainty in text statements of policy positions. American Journal of Political Science
Benoit, K., Laver, M., Lowe, W., and Mikhaylov, S.
2012. How to scale coded text units without bias: A response to Gemenis. Electoral Studies
Bernhardt, M., and Ingberman, D.
1985. Candidate reputations and the “incumbency effect”. Journal of Public Economics
Blais, A., Blake, D., and Dion, S.
1993. Do parties make a difference? Parties and the size of government in liberal democracies. American Journal of Political Science
1990. Les Partis Politique Dans La France d'Aujord'hui. Paris: Seuil.
Braun, D., Salzwedel, M., Stumpf, C., and Wüst, A.
2004. Euromanifesto Documentation.
1994. A new spatial theory of party competition: Uncertainty, ideology and policy equilibria viewed comparatively and temporally. British Journal of Political Science
Budge, I., Klingemann, H.-D., Volkens, A., Bara, J., and Tanenbaum, E.
2001. Mapping policy preferences: Estimates for parties, electors, and governments 1945–1998. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Canes-Wrone, B., and Park, J.-K.
2012. Electoral business cycles in OECD countries. American Political Science Review
1998. The European parliaments role in closer EU integration. Basingstoke, UK: Macmillan Press.
Dinas, E., and Gemenis, K.
2010. Measuring parties' ideological positions with manifesto data: A critical evaluation of the competing methods. Party Politics
Döring, H., and Manow, P.
2012. Parliament and Government Composition Database (ParlGov): An infrastructure for empirical information on parties, elections and governments in modern democracies. Version 12/10.
2013. A dynamic state-space model of coded political texts. Political Analysis
Enelow, J., and Munger, M.
1993. The elements of candidate reputation: The effect of record and credibility on optimal spatial location. Public Choice
2008. Parties' policy programmes and the dog that didn't bark: No evidence that proportional systems promote extreme party positioning. British Journal of Political Science
1989. Sweden. In Western European political parties: A comprehensive guide, ed. Jacobs, F., 618–35. Harlow, UK: Longman.
Franzmann, S., and Kaiser, A.
2006. Locating political parties in policy space. Party Politics
Gabel, M. J., and Huber, J. D.
2000. Putting parties in their place: Inferring party left-right ideological positions from party manifestos data. American Journal of Political Science
Gelman, A., and Rubin, D. B.
1992. Inference from iterative simulation using multiple sequences. Statistical Science
Gelman, A., and Hill, J.
2007. Data analysis using regression and multilevel/hierarchical models. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
2012. What to do (and not to do) with the comparative manifesto project data. Political Studies
61 (S1): 3–23.
2001. Mixed logit models for multiparty elections. Political Analysis
Golder, S. N.
2006. Pre-electoral coalition formation in parliamentary democracies. British Journal of Political Science
Grimmer, J., and Stewart, B. M.
2013. Text as data: The promise and pitfalls of automatic content analysis methods for political texts. Political Analysis published online (doi:10.1093/pan/mps028).
Groseclose, T., Levitt, S. D., and Snyder, J. M.
1999. Comparing interest group scores across time and chambers: Adjusted ADA scores for the U.S. Congress. American Political Science Review
Gschwend, T., Lo, J., and Proksch, S. O.
2012. Europe's common ideological space. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Midwest Political Science Association, Chicago.
1999. France: Living with instability. In Changing party systems in Western Europe, eds. Broughton, D. and Donovan, M., 48–70. London: Pinter.
Ho, D. E., and Quinn, K. M.
2008. Measuring explicit political positions of media. Quarterly Journal of Political Science
Hooghe, L., Bakker, R., Brigevich, A., De Vries, C., Edwards, E., Marks, G., Rovny, J., Steenbergen, M., and Vachudova, M.
2010. Reliability and validity of the 2002 and 2006 Chapel Hill expert surveys on party positioning. European Journal of Political Research
Hunt, B., and Laver, M.
1992. Party and policy competition. New York: Routledge.
1989. Reputational dynamics in spatial competition. Mathematical and Computer Modelling
2009. Bayesian analysis for the social sciences. New York: Wiley.
2009. Das politische System Schwedens. In Die politischen Systeme Westeuropas, ed. Ismayr, W., 107–50. Wiesbaden, Germany: Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften.
2005. How diffusion of power in parliaments affects voter choice. Political Analysis
Kim, H., and Fording, R. C.
2002. Government partisanship in western democracies, 1945–1998. European Journal of Political Research
Klingemann, H.-D., and Volkens, A.
2007. Mapping policy preferences II: Estimates for parties, electors and governments in Central and Eastern Europe, European Union and OECD 1990–2003. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Knapp, A., and Wright, V.
2006. The government and politics of France. New York: Routledge.
König, T., and Luig, B.
2012. Party ideology and legislative agendas: Estimating contextual policy positions for the study of EU decision-making. European Union Politics
König, T., Marbach, M., and Osnabrügge, M.
2013. Replication data for: Estimating party positions across countries and time—a dynamic latent variable model for manifesto data. http://hdl.handle.net/1902.1/29312 (accessed February 28, 2013) IQSS Dataverse Network.
Laver, M., and Budge, I.
1992. Party policy and government coalitions. Houndmills, UK: Macmillan.
Laver, M., Benoit, K., and Garry, J.
2003. Extracting policy positions from political texts using words as data. American Political Science Review
Lewis, J., and King, G.
1999. No evidence on directional vs. proximity voting. Political Analysis
Lipset, S. M., and Rokkan, S.
1967. Cleavage structures, party systems and voter alignments. In Party systems and voter alignments: Cross-national perspectives, eds. Lipset, S. M. and Rokkan, S., 1–64. New York: Free Press.
1989. France. In Western European political parties, ed. Jacobs, F., 79–118. Essex, UK: Longman.
Lowe, W., and Benoit, K. Forthcoming 2013. Validating estimates of latent traits from textual data using human judgement as a benchmark. Political Analysis.
Lowe, W., Benoit, K., Mikhaylov, S., and Laver, M.
2011. Scaling policy preferences from coded political texts. Legislative Studies Quarterly
1999. Party system change: Approaches and interpretations. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
2001. The freezing hypothesis: An evaluation. In Party systems and voter alignments revisited, eds. Karvonen, L. and Kuhnle, S., 24–41. London: Routledge.
Maoz, Z., and Somer-Topcu, Z.
2010. Political polarization and cabinet stability in multiparty systems: A social networks analysis of European parliaments, 1945–98. British Journal of Political Science
Martin, A. D., and Quinn, K. M.
2002. Dynamic ideal point estimation via Markov chain Monte Carlo for the U.S. Supreme Court, 1953–1999. Political Analysis
Martin, L. W., and Stevenson, R. T.
2001. Government formation in parliamentary democracies. American Journal of Political Science
McDonald, M. D., and Mendes, S. M.
2001. The policy space of party manifestos. In Estimating the policy positions of political actors, ed. Laver, M., 90–114. New York: Routlegde.
McDonald, M. D., Mendes, S. M., and Kim, M.
2007. Cross-temporal and cross-national comparisons of party left-right positions. Electoral Studies
Mikhaylov, S., Laver, M., and Benoit, K.
2012. Coder reliability and misclassification in the human coding of party manifestos. Political Analysis
Milner, H. V., and Judkins, B.
2004. Partisanship, trade policy, and globalization: Is there a left-right divide on trade policy?
International Studies Quarterly
Nowak, M., and Sigmund, K.
1993. A strategy for win-stay, lose-shift that outperforms tit-for-tat in the prisoner's dilemma. Nature
2000. Increasing returns, path dependence, and the study of politics. American Political Science Review
2003. JAGS: a program for analysis of Bayesian graphical models using Gibbs sampling. Proceedings of the 3rd International Workshop on Distributed Statistical Computing.
Poole, K. T., and Rosenthal, H.
1985. A spatial model for legislative roll call analysis. American Journal of Political Science
Powell, B. G.
2009. The ideological congruence controversy. Comparative Political Studies
Quinn, K. M.
2004. Bayesian factor analysis for mixed ordinal and continuous responses. Political Analysis
R Core Team. 2012. R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing. Vienna, Austria. http://www.R-project.org/.
1976. Parties and party systems. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Schmitt, H., Evi, S., Leim, I., and Moschner, M.
2008. The Mannheim eurobarometer trendfile. European Commission [Principal investigator]. GESIS Data Archive, Cologne. ZA3521 Data file Version 2.0.1.
Shor, B., and McCarty, N.
2011. The ideological mapping of American legislatures. American Political Science Review
Slapin, J. B., and Proksch, S.-O.
2008. A scaling model for estimating time-series party positions from texts. American Journal of Political Science
2009. Timely decisions: The effects of past national elections on party policy change. Journal of Politics
Steenbergen, M. R., and Marks, G.
2007. Evaluating expert surveys. European Journal of Political Research
2010. Elite-level conflict salience and dimensionality in Western Europe: Concepts and empirical findings. West European Politics
2007. Principle vs. pragmatism: Policy shifts and political competition. American Journal of Political Science
Tavits, M., and Letki, N.
2009. When left is right: Party ideology and policy in post-communist Europe. American Political Science Review
1999. Veto players and law production in parliamentary democracies: An empirical analysis. American Political Science Review
2002. Veto players: How political institutions work. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
1988. The Swedish five-party syndrome and the environmentalists. In When parties refuse to fail: the case of France, eds. Merkl, P. H. and Lawson, K., 76–109. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Volkens, A., Lacewell, O., Lehmann, P., Regel, S., Schultze, H., and Werner, A.
2012. The manifesto data collection. Manifesto project (MRG/CMP/MARPOR). Berlin: Wissenschaftszentrum Berlin für Sozialforschung (WZB).
Warwick, P. V.
1998. Policy distance and parliamentary government. Legislative Studies Quarterly
West, M., and Harrison, J.
1997. Bayesian forecasting and dynamic models. New York: Springer.
Wüst, A. M., and Volkens, A.
2003. Euromanifesto coding instructions. MZES Working paper 64.