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A New Multinomial Accuracy Measure for Polling Bias

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  04 January 2017

Kai Arzheimer*
University of Mainz, Dept. of Political Science, Colonel-Kleinmann-Weg 2, Mainz, Germany
Jocelyn Evans
University of Leeds, POLIS, Leeds LS2 9JT, United Kingdom e-mail:
e-mail: (corresponding author)
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In this article, we propose a polling accuracy measure for multi-party elections based on a generalization of Martin, Traugott, and Kennedy's two-party predictive accuracy index. Treating polls as random samples of a voting population, we first estimate an intercept only multinomial logit model to provide proportionate odds measures of each party's share of the vote, and thereby both unweighted and weighted averages of these values as a summary index for poll accuracy. We then propose measures for significance testing, and run a series of simulations to assess possible bias from the resulting folded normal distribution across different sample sizes, finding that bias is small even for polls with small samples. We apply our measure to the 2012 French presidential election polls to demonstrate its applicability in tracking overall polling performance across time and polling organizations. Finally, we demonstrate the practical value of our measure by using it as a dependent variable in an explanatory model of polling accuracy, testing the different possible sources of bias in the French data.

Research Article
Copyright © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Political Methodology 


Authors' note: We are grateful to two anonymous reviewers and to the editors of Political Analysis for their extremely helpful comments and suggestions. We would also like to thank Gilles Ivaldi (CNRS/University of Nice) for providing data on the French election surveys. Replication materials can be found in Arzheimer and Evans (2013). surveybias.ado, a Stata add-on that facilitates the computation of B and Bw, is available from the Boston College Statistical Software Components (SSC) archive. Supplementary materials for this article are available on the Political Analysis Web site.


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