Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Dynamic Patterns of Human Rights Practices*

  • Keith E. Schnakenberg and Christopher J. Fariss

Abstract

The science of human rights requires valid comparisons of repression levels across time and space. Though extensive data collection efforts have made such comparisons possible in principle, statistical measures based on simple additive scales made them rare in practice. This article uses a dynamic measurement model that contrasts with current approaches by (1) accounting for the fact that human rights indicators vary in the level of information they provide about the latent level of repression, (2) allowing realistic descriptions of measurement uncertainty in the form of credible intervals and (3) providing a theoretical motivation for modeling temporal dependence in human rights levels. It presents several techniques, which demonstrate that the dynamic ordinal item-response theory model outperforms its static counterpart.

Copyright

Footnotes

Hide All
*Keith Schnakenberg is a graduate student in the Department of Political Science at Washington University, St. Louis (keschnak@wustl.edu). Christopher Fariss is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Political Science, Pennsylvania State University (cjf0006@gmail.com). We thank Chad Clay, Jesse Driscoll, James Fowler, Jeff Gill, Miles Kahler, David Lake, Yon Lupu, Will Moore, Amanda Murdie, David Richards, Guillermo Rosas and Sebastian Saiegh for helpful comments. Earlier versions of this paper were presented at the 2012 meeting of the Midwestern Political Science Association, the 2012 meeting of the International Studies Association, the 2011 meeting of the American Political Science Association and the 2010 meeting of the Southern Political Science Association. We would also like to acknowledge the Southern Political Science Association for travel grants. The data and code used in this paper and the latent variable estimates from the dynamic models are publicly available at http://dvn.iq.harvard.edu/dvn/dv/HumanRightsScores. Both authors contributed to the study design, data collection, analysis and preparation of the manuscript.

Footnotes

References

Hide All
Albert, James H.Johnson, Val E.. 1999. Ordinal Data Modeling. New York: Springer-Verlag.
Aleman, EduardoSaiegh, Sebastiáns M.. 2007. ‘Legislative Preferences, Political Parties, and Coalition Unity in Chile’. Comparative Politics 39(3):253272.
Brysk, Alison. 1994. ‘The Politics of Measurement: The Contested Count of the Disappeared in Argentina’. Human Rights Quarterly 16(4):676692.
Cingranelli, David L.Richards, David L.. 1999. ‘Measuring the Level, Pattern, and Sequence of Government Respect for Physical Integrity Rights’. International Studies Quarterly 43(2):407417.
Cingranelli, David L.Richards, David L.. 2010. ‘The Cingranelli and Richards (CIRI) Human Rights Data Project’. Human Rights Quarterly 32(2):401424.
Cingranelli, David L.Richards, David L.. 2012a. ‘The Cingranelli-Richards (CIRI) Human Rights Data Project Coding Manual Version 2008.3.13’, available at http://ciri.binghamton.edu/documentation/ciri_coding_guide.pdf.
Cingranelli, David L., Richards, David L. 2012b. ‘The Cingranelli-Richards Human Rights Dataset Version 2008.03.12’, available at http://www.humanrightsdata.org.
Clark, Ann MarieSikkink, Kathryn. Forthcoming. ‘Information Effects and Human Rights Data: Is the Good News about Increased Human Rights Information Bad News for Human Rights Measures?’ Human Rights Quarterly.
Claude, Richard P.Jabine, Thomas B.. 1986. ‘Symposium: Statistical Issues in the Field of Human Rights’. Human Rights Quarterly 8(4):551566.
Clinton, Joshua, Jackman, SimonRivers, Douglas. 2004. ‘The Statistical Analysis of Roll Call Data’. American Political Science Review 98(2):355370.
Conrad, Courtenay R., Demeritt., Jacqueline H.R. 2011. ‘Options in the Arsenal: Are Repressive Tactics Substitutes or Complements?’ Working Paper.
Davenport, Christian. 1995. ‘Multi-Dimensional Threat Perception and State Repression: An Inquiry into Why States Apply Negative Sanctions’. American Journal of Political Science 39(3):683713.
Desposato, Scott W. 2006. ‘The Impact of Electoral Rules on Legislative Parties: Lessons from the Brazilian Senate and Chamber of Deputies’. Journal of Politics 68(4):10181030.
Donnelly, JackHoward, Rhoda E.. 1988. ‘Assessing National Human Rights Performance: A Theoretical Framework’. Human Rights Quarterly 10(2):214248.
Duvall, Raymond D.Stohl, Michael. 1983. ‘Governance by Terror’. In The Politics of Terrorism, edited by Michael Stohl, 179219. New York: Marcel Dekker.
Fariss, Christopher J.Schnakenberg, Keith. 2013. ‘Measuring Mutual Dependence Between State Repressive Actions’. Journal of Conflict Resolution forthcoming.
Gelman, Andrew, Carlin, John, Stern, HalRubin, Donald. 2003. Bayesian Data Analysis, Second Edition. Boca Raton, FL: Chapman and Hall/CRC.
Gelman, AndrewRubin, Donald B.. 1992. ‘Inference from Iterative Simulation using Multiple Sequences’. Statistical Science 7:457511.
Gelman, AndrewHill, Jennifer. 2007. Data Analysis using Regression and Multilevel/Hierarchical Models. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.
Geweke, John. 1992. Evaluating the Accuracy of Sampling-based Approaches to Calculating Posterior Moments. In Bayesian Statistics 4, edited by J. M. Bernardo, J. Berger, A. P. Dawid and J. F. M. Smith, 169193. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Gill, Jeff. 2007. Bayesian Methods: A Social and Behavioral Sciences Approach, Second Edition (Chapman & Hall/CRC Statistics in the Social and Behavioral Sciences), Second Edition. Boca Raton, FL: Chapman and Hall/CRC.
Goodman, RyanJinks, Derek. 2003. ‘Measuring the Effects of Human Rights Treaties’. European Journal of International Law 14(1):171183.
Heidelberger, PhilipWelch, Peter D.. 1981. ‘A Spectral Method for Confidence Interval Generation and Run Length Control in Simulations’. Communications of the ACM 24(4):233245.
Heidelberger, PhilipWelch, Peter D.. 1983. ‘Simulation Run Length Control in the Presence of an Initial Transient’. Operations Research 31(6):11091144.
Jabine, Thomas B.Claude, Richard P., eds. 1992. Human Rights and Statistics: Getting the Record Straight. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
Jackman, Simon. 2008. ‘Measurement’. In The Oxford Handbook of Political Methodology, edited by Janet M. Box-Steffensmeier, Henry E. Brady, and David Collier. New York: Oxford University Press.
Jackman, Simon. 2009. Bayesian Analysis for the Social Sciences. New York: John Wiley and Sons.
Kass, Robert E.Raftery, Adrian E.. 1995. ‘Bayes Factors’. Journal of the American Statistical Association 90(430):773795.
Keck, MargaretSikkink, Kathryn. 1998. Activists Beyond Borders: Advocacy Networks in International Politics. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Landman, Todd. 2005. ‘The Political Science of Human Rights’. British Journal of Political Science 35(3):549572.
Landman, ToddCarvalho, Edzia. 2009. Measuring Human Rights. London: Routledge.
Lauderdale, Benjamin E. 2010. ‘Unpredictable Voters in Ideal Point Estimation’. Political Analysis 18(2):151171.
Lopez, George A.Stohl, Michael. 1992. ‘Problems of Concept and Measurement in the Study of Human Rights’. In Human Rights and Statistics: Getting the Record Straight, edited by Thomas B. Jabine and Richard P. Claude. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
Martin, Andrew D.Quinn, Keven M.. 2002. ‘Dynamic Ideal Point Estimation via Markov Chain Monte Carlo for the U.S. Supreme Court, 1953-1999’. Political Analysis 10(2):134153.
McCormick, James M.Mitchell, Neil J.. 1997. ‘Human Rights Violations, Umbrella Concepts, and Empirical Analysis’. World Politics 49(4):510525.
Meernik, James D., Aloisi, Rosa, Sowell, MarshaNichols, Angela. 2012. ‘The Impact of Human Rights Organizations on Naming and Shaming Campaigns’. Journal of Conflict Resolution 56(2):233256.
Mislevy, Robert. 1991. ‘Randomization-based Inference about Latent Variables from Complex Samples’. Psychometrika 56(2):177196.
Murdie, AmandaDavis, David R.. 2012. ‘Shaming and Blaming: Using Events Data to Assess the Impact of Human Rights INGOs’. International Studies Quarterly 56(1):116.
Pemstein, Daniel, Meserve, Stephen A.Melton, James. 2010. ‘Democratic Compromise: A Latent Variable Analysis to Ten Measure of Regime Type’. Political Analysis 18(4):426449.
Piazza, James A.Walsh, James Igoe. 2009. ‘Transnational Terror and Human Rights’. International Studies Quarterly 53(1):125148.
Plummer, Martyn. 2010. ‘JAGS (Just Another Gibbs Sampler) 1.0.3 Universal’, available from http://www-fis.iarc.fr/martyn/software/jags/.
Poe, Steven C. 1990. ‘Human Rights and US Foreign Aid: A Review of Quantitative Studies and Suggestions for Future Research’. Human Rights Quarterly 12(4):499512.
Poe, Steven C.. 1991. ‘U.S. Economic Aid Allocation: The Quest for Cumulation’. International Interactions 16(4):295316.
Poe, Steven C.. 2004. ‘The Decision to Repress: An Integrative Theoretical Approach to the Research on Human Rights and Repression’. In Understanding Human Rights Violations: New Systematic Studies, edited by S. Carey and S. Poe, 1642. Aldershot: Ashgate.
Poe, Steven C., Carey, Sabine C.Vazquez, Tanya C.. 2001. ‘How are These Pictures Different? A Quantitative Comparison of the US State Department and Amnesty International Human Rights Reports, 1976–1995’. Human Rights Quarterly 23(3):650677.
Poole, Keith T. 2005. Spatial Models of Parliamentary Voting. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Poole, Keith T.Rosenthal, Howard. 1991. ‘Patterns of Congressional Voting’. American Journal of Political Science 35(1):228278.
Poole, Keith T.Rosenthal, Howard.. 1997. A Political-Economic History of Roll Call Voting. New York: Oxford University Press.
Quinn, Keven M. 2004. ‘Bayesian Factor Analysis for Mixed Ordinal and Continuous Responses’. Political Analysis 12(4):338353.
R Development Core Team. 2011. R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing. Vienna, Austria: R Foundation for Statistical Computing, available from http://www.R-project.org.
Richards, David, Gelleny, RonaldSacko, David. 2001. ‘Money With A Mean Streak? Foreign Economic Penetration and Government Respect for Human Rights in Developing Countries’. International Studies Quarterly 45(2):219239.
Rosas, Guillermo. 2009. ‘Dynamic Latent Trait Models: An Application to Latin American Banking Crises’. Electoral Studies 28:375387.
Rosas, GuillermoShomer, Yael. 2008. ‘Models of Nonresponse in Legislative Politics’. Legislative Studies Quarterly 33(4):573601.
Rubin, Donald B. 1987. Multiple Imputation for Nonresponse in Surveys. New York: J. Wiley & Sons.
Schenker, NathanielGentleman, Jane F.. 2001. ‘On Judging the Significance of Differences by Examining the Overlap Between Confidence Intervals’. The American Statistician 55(3):182186.
Spiegelhalter, David J., Best, Nicola G., Carlin, Bradley P.Van Der Linde, Angelika. 2002. ‘Bayesian Measures of Model Complexity and Fit’. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society: Series B (Statistical Methodology) 64(4):583639.
Stohl, Michael, Carleton, David, Lopez, GeorgeSamuels, Stephen. 1986. ‘State Violation of Human Rights: Issues and Problems of Measurement’. Human Rights Quarterly 8(4):592606.
Treier, ShawnJackman, Simon. 2008. ‘Democracy as a Latent Variable’. American Journal of Political Science 52(1):201217.
Voeten, Erik. 2000. ‘Clashes in the Assembly’. International Organization 54(2):185215.
Wood, Reed M.Gibney, Mark. 2010. ‘The Political Terror Scale (PTS): A Re-introduction and Comparison’. Human Rights Quarterly 32(2):367400.

Related content

Powered by UNSILO

Dynamic Patterns of Human Rights Practices*

  • Keith E. Schnakenberg and Christopher J. Fariss

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.