Acharya, A, Blackwell, M and Sen, M (2016) Explaining causal findings without bias: detecting and assessing direct effects. American Political Science Review 110, 512–29.
Akee, R, Copeland, W, Costello, EJ, Holbein, JB and Simeonova, E (2018) Family income and the intergenerational transmission of voting behavior: evidence from an income intervention. NBER Working Paper 24770.
Almond, G and Verba, S (1989) The Civic Culture: Political Attitudes and Democracy in Five Nations. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Beck, PA and Jennings, MK (1982) Pathways to participation. American Political Science Review 76, 94–108.
Blackwell, M (2013) A framework for dynamic causal inference in political science. American Journal of Political Science 57, 504–520.
Blackwell, M and Glynn, A (2014) How to Make Causal Inferences with Time-Series Cross-Sectional Data. Technical Report Working Paper. Harvard University.
Brady, HE, Verba, S and Schlozman, KL (1995) Beyond SES: a resource model of political participation. American Political Science Review 89, 271–294.
Córdova, A (2009) Methodological note: measuring relative wealth using household asset indicators. Americas Barometer Insights 6, 1–9.
Currie, J (2008) Healthy, Wealthy, and Wise: Socioeconomic Status, Poor Health in Childhood, and Human Capital Development. Technical Report. National Bureau of Economic Research.
Elwert, F and Winship, C (2014) Endogenous selection bias: the problem of conditioning on a collider variable. Annual Review of Sociology 40, 31–53.
Glynn, AN and Quinn, KM (2010) An introduction to the augmented inverse propensity weighted estimator. Political Analysis 18, 36–56.
Hernán, MÁ, Brumback, B and Robins, JM (2000) Marginal structural models to estimate the causal effect of zidovudine on the survival of HIV-positive men. Epidemiology 11, 561–570.
Hernán, MÁ, Brumback, B and Robins, JM (2001) Marginal structural models to estimate the joint causal effect of nonrandomized treatments. Journal of the American Statistical Association 96, 440–448.
Imai, K and Ratkovic, M (2014) Covariate balancing propensity score. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society: Series B (Statistical Methodology) 76, 243–263.
Imai, K and Ratkovic, M (2015) Robust estimation of inverse probability weights for marginal structural models. Journal of the American Statistical Association 110, 1013–1023.
Imai, K, Keele, L and Tingley, D (2010) A general approach to causal mediation analysis. Psychological Methods 15, 309–334.
Imai, K, Keele, L, Tingley, D and Yamamoto, T (2011) Unpacking the black box of causality: learning about causal mechanisms from experimental and observational studies. American Political Science Review 105, 765–789.
Jennings, MK, Markus, GB, Niemi, RG and Stoker, L (2005) Youth-parent socialization panel study, 1965–1997: four waves combined.
Kang, JDY and Schafer, JL (2007) Demystifying double robustness: a comparison of alternative strategies for estimating a population mean from incomplete data. Statistical Science 22, 523–539.
Lipset, SM (1959) Some social requisites of democracy: economic development and political legitimacy. American Political Science Review 53, 69–105.
Miller, AH, Gurin, P, Gurin, G and Malanchuk, O (1981) Group consciousness and political participation. American Journal of Political Science 25, 494–511.
Miratrix, LW, Sekhon, JS and Yu, B (2013) Adjusting treatment effect estimates by post-stratification in randomized experiments. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society: Series B (Statistical Methodology) 75, 369–396.
Montgomery, JM and Olivella, S (2018) Tree-based models for political science data. American Journal of political Science 62(3), 729–744.
Montgomery, JM, Nyhan, B and Torres, M (2018) How conditioning on posttreatment variables can ruin your experiment and what to do about it. American Journal of Political Science 62, 760–775.
Moore, JC and Welniak, EJ (2000) Income measurement error in surveys: a review. Journal of Official Statistics 16, 331.
Mutz, DC (2002) The consequences of cross-cutting networks for political participation. American Journal of Political Science 46, 838–855.
Nandi, A, Glymour, MM, Kawachi, I and VanderWeele, TJ (2012) Using marginal structural models to estimate the direct effect of adverse childhood social conditions on onset of heart disease, diabetes, and stroke. Epidemiology 23, 223–232.
Ojeda, C (2018) The two income-participation gaps. American Journal of Political Science 62, 813–829.
Pearl, J (2001) Direct and indirect effects. Proceedings of the Seventeenth Conference on Uncertainty in Artificial Intelligence (UAI '01). San Francisco, CA: Morgan Kaufmann Publishers Inc., pp. 411–420.
Pearl, J (2011) The Mediation Formula: A Guide to the Assessment of Causal Pathways in Nonlinear Models. Technical Report DTIC Document.
Platt, RW, Delaney, JAC and Suissa, S (2012) The positivity assumption and marginal structural models: the example of warfarin use and risk of bleeding. European Journal of Epidemiology 27, 77–83.
Robins, JM (1997) Causal inference from complex longitudinal data. In Berkane, M. (eds) Latent Variable Modeling and Applications to Causality. New York, NY: Springer, pp. 69–117.
Robins, JM (1999) Association, causation, and marginal structural models. Synthese 121, 151–179.
Robins, JM, Hernán, MÁ and Brumback, B (2000) Marginal structural models and causal inference in epidemiology. Epidemiology 11, 550–560.
Rosenbaum, PR (1984) The consequences of adjustment for a concomitant variable that has been affected by the treatment. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society. Series A (General) 147, 656–666.
Rubin, DB (1977) Assignment to treatment group on the basis of a covariate. Journal of Educational and Behavioral Statistics 2, 1–26.
Samii, C, Paler, L and Daly, S (2017) Retrospective causal inference with machine learning ensembles: an application to Anti-Recidivism Policies in Colombia. Political Analysis 24, 434–456.
VanderWeele, TJ (2009) Marginal structural models for the estimation of direct and indirect effects. Epidemiology 20, 18–26.
VanderWeele, TJ (2010) Bias formulas for sensitivity analysis for direct and indirect effects. Epidemiology 21, 540–551.
Verba, S and Nie, NH (1972) Participation in America: Political Democracy and Social Equality. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Verba, S, Nie, NH and Kim, J (1978) Participation and Political Equality: A Seven-Nation Comparison. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Watkins, S, Jonsson-Funk, M, Brookhart, MA, Rosenberg, SA, O'shea, TM and Daniels, J (2013) An empirical comparison of tree-based methods for propensity score estimation. Health Services Research 48, 1798–1817.
Westreich, D, Cole, SR, Schisterman, EF and Platt, RW (2012) A simulation study of finite-sample properties of marginal structural Cox proportional hazards models. Statistics in Medicine 31, 2098–2109.