Abramson, Paul R., Aldrich, John H., Diskin, Abraham, Houck, Aaron, Levine, Renan, Scotto, Thomas J., and Sparks, David. 2014. ‘The Effect of National and Constituency Expectations on Tactical Voting in the British General Election of 2010’. Unpublished manuscript, Duke University, Durham, NC USA.
Abramson, Paul R., Aldrich, John H., and Rohde, David W.. 1987. ‘Progressive Ambition Among United States Senators: 1972–1988’. Journal of Politics 49(1):3–35.
Aldrich, John H., and Bianco, William T.. 1992. ‘A Game-theoretic Model of Party Affiliation of Candidates and Office Holders’. Mathematical and Computer Modelling 16(8):103–116.
Aldrich, John H. 1994. ‘A Model of a Legislature with Two Parties and a Committee System’. Legislative Studies Quarterly 19(3):313–339.
Aldrich, John H. 1995. Why Parties? The Origin and Transformation of Political Parties in America. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Aldrich, John H. 2005. ‘The Election of 1800: The Consequences of the First Change in Party Control’. In Kenneth R. Bowling and Donald R. Kennon (eds), Establishing Congress: The Removal to Washington, D.C., and the Election of 1800. 23–38. Athens, OH: Ohio University Press.
Aldrich, John H. 2011. Why Parties? A Second Look. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Aldrich, John H., and Rohde, David W.. 2000. ‘The Consequences of Party Organization in the House: The Role of the Majority and Minority Parties in Conditional Party Government’. In Jon R. Bond and Richard Fleisher (eds), Polarized Politics: Congress and the President in a Partisan Era. 31–72. Washington, DC: CQ Press.
Barrie, Doreen, and Gibbins, Roger. 1989. ‘Parliamentary Careers in the Canadian Federal State’. Canadian Journal of Political Science 22(1):137–145.
Bonica, Adam. 2014. ‘Mapping the Ideological Marketplace’. American Journal of Political Science 58(2):367–386.
Chibber, Pradeep, and Kollman, Ken. 1998. ‘Party Aggregation and the Number of Parties in India and the United States’. American Political Science Review 92(2):329–342.
Chibber, Pradeep, and Kollman, Ken. 2004. The Formation of National Party Systems: Federalism and Party Competition in Canada, Great Britain, India, and the United States. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Cox, Gary W., and McCubbins, Mathew D.. 1993. Legislative Leviathan: Party Government in the House. Berkeley, CA: University of Berkeley Press.
Cox, Gary W. 1994. ‘Strategic voting equilibria under the single nontransferable vote’. American Political Science Review 88(3):608–621.
Cox, Gary, and Monroe., Burt 1995 ‘Strategic Voting Equilibria in Parliamentary Elections’. Paper presented at Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association, Chicago, IL.
Cox, Gary W. 1997. Making Votes Count: Strategic Coordination in the World’s Electoral Systems. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Cox, Gary W., and McCubbins, Mathew D.. 2005. Setting the Agenda: Responsible Party Government in the US House of Representatives. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
Desposato, Scott W. 2006. ‘Parties for Rent? Ambition, Ideology, and Party Switching in Brazil’s Chamber of Deputies’. American Journal of Political Science 50(1):62–80.
Docherty, David. 2011. ‘The Canadian Political Career Structure: From Stability to Free Agency’. Regional and Federal Studies 21(2):185–203.
Duverger, Maurice. 1954. Political Parties: Their Organization and Activities in the Modern State. New York, NY: Wiley.
Gaines, Brian J. 1999. ‘Duverger’s Law and the Meaning of Canadian Exceptionalism’. Comparative Political Studies 32(7):835–861.
Godbout, Jean-François, and Høyland, Bjørn. 2013a. ‘The Emergence of Parties in the Canadian House of Commons (1867–1908)’. Canadian Journal of Political Science 46(4):773–797.
Godbout, Jean-François, and Høyland, Bjørn. 2013b. ‘Parties and Voting in Parliament’. Paper presented at the Center for Study of Democratic Politics Workshop at Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, USA, 2013. University of Montreal.
Grynaviski, Jeffrey D. 2010. Partisan Bonds: Political Reputations and Legislative Accountability. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
Hemple, Carl G. 1966. Philosophy of Natural Science. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Klarner, Carl E. 2003. ‘Measurement of the Partisan Balance of State Government’. State Politics and Policy Quarterly 3(3):309–319.
Laybourn, Keith. 2001. British Political Leaders: A Biographical Dictionary. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO.
Lee, Daniel J. 2012. ‘Anticipating Entry: Major Party Positioning and Third Party Threat’. Political Research Quarterly 65(1):138–150.
McCarty, Nolan, Keith T. Poole, and Howard Rosenthal, 2001. ‘The Hunt for Party Discipline in Congress.’. American Political Science Review 95(3): 673–687.
Palfrey, Thomas. 2001. ‘The Hunt for Party Discipline in Congress’. American Political Science Review 95(3):673–687.
Mershon, Carol. 2008. ‘Legislative Party Switching and Executive Coalitions’. Japanese Journal of Political Science 9(3):391–414.
Palfrey, Thomas. 1984. ‘Spatial Equilibrium with Entry’. Review of Economic Studies 51:139–156.
Palfrey, Thomas. 1989. ‘A Mathematical Proof of Duverger’s Law’. In Peter C. Ordeshook (ed.), Models of Strategic Choice in Politics. 69–91. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.
Poole, Keith T., and Rosenthal, Howard L.. 2007. Ideology and Congress. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.
Riker, William H. 1982. ‘The Two-party System and Duverger's Law: An Essay on the History of Political Science’. American Political Science Review 76(4):753–766.
Rohde, David W. 1979. ‘Risk-bearing and Progressive Ambition: The Case of Members of the United States House of Representatives’. American Journal of Political Science 23(1):1–26.
Rohde, David W. 1991. Parties and Leaders in the Postreform House. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Samuels, David. 2003. Ambition, Federalism, and Legislative Politics in Brazil. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Schlesinger, Joseph A. 1966. Ambition and Politics: Political Careers in the United States. Chicago: Rand McNally.
Seitz-Wald, Alex. 2013. ‘Dennis Hastert: “There is no Hastert Rule”’. National Journal Daily, 3 October.
Seyd, Patrick. 1999. ‘New Parties/New Politics: A Case Study of the British Labour Party’. Party Politics 5(3):383–405.
Shor, Boris, and McCarty, Nolan. 2011. ‘The Ideological Mapping of American Legislatures’. American Political Science Review 105(3):530–551.
Singer, Matthew M. 2013. ‘Was Duverger Correct? Single-Member District Election Outcomes in 53 Countries’. British Journal of Political Science 43(1):201–220.
Singer, Matthew M., and Stephenson, Laura. 2009. ‘The Political Context and Duverger’s Theory: Evidence at the District Level’. Electoral Studies 28(3):480–491.
Snyder, James M. Jr., and Ting, Michael M.. 2002. ‘An Informational Rationale for Political Parties’. American Journal of Political Science 46(1):90–110.
Taagepera, Rein, and Grofman, Bernard. 1985. ‘Rethinking Duverger’s Law: Predicting the Effective Number of Parties in Plurality and PR Systems – Parties Minus Issues Equals One’. European Journal of Political Research 13(4):341–352.