Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
×
Home

Calibration of X-ray imaging devices for accurate intensity measurement

  • Michael J. Haugh (a1), Michael R. Charest (a1), Patrick W. Ross (a1), Joshua J. Lee (a1), Marilyn B. Schneider (a2), Nathan E. Palmer (a2) and Alan T. Teruya (a2)...
Abstract

National Security Technologies (NSTec) has developed calibration procedures for X-ray imaging systems. The X-ray sources that are used for calibration are both diode type and diode/fluorescer combinations. Calibrating the X-ray detectors is a key to accurate calibration of the X-ray sources. Both energy dispersive detectors and photodiodes measuring total flux were used. We have developed calibration techniques for the detectors using radioactive sources that are traceable to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The German synchrotron at Physikalische Technische Bundestalt (PTB) was used to calibrate the silicon photodiodes over the energy range from 50 to 60 keV. The measurements on X-ray cameras made using the NSTec X-ray sources included quantum efficiency averaged over all pixels, camera counts per photon per pixel, and response variation across the sensor. The instrumentation required to accomplish the calibrations is described. The X-ray energies ranged from 720 to 22.7 keV. The X-ray sources produce narrow energy bands, allowing us to determine the properties as a function of X-ray energy. The calibrations were done for several types of imaging devices. There were back and front illuminated CCD (charge-coupled device) sensors, and a CID (charge injection device) type camera. The CCD and CID camera types differ significantly in some of their properties that affect the accuracy of the X-ray intensity measurements. All the cameras discussed here are silicon based. The measurements of the quantum efficiency variation with the X-ray energy are compared to the models for the sensor structure. The cameras that are not back-thinned are compared to those that are.

Copyright
Corresponding author
a) Author to whom correspondence should be addressed. Electronic mail: haughmj@nv.doe.gov
References
Hide All
Carbone, J., Zulfiquar, A., Borman, C., Czebiniak, S., and Ziegler, H. (1998). “Large format CID X-ray image sensors,” Proceedings of SPIE 3301, 90. doi:10.1117/12.304550, Solid State Sensor Arrays: Development and Applications II.
Gottwald, A., Kroth, U., Krumrey, M., Richter, M., Scholze, F., and Ulm, G. (2006). “The PTB high accuracy spectral responsivity scale in the VUV and X-ray range,” Metrologia 43, 2123.
Haugh, M. J. and Schneider, M. (2011). (in process). “Quantitative measurements of X-ray energy,” in Photodiodes-Communications, Bio-Sensing, Measurements and High Energy Physics (InTech Publisher, www.intechweb.org).
International Radiation Detectors (IRD) (n.d.), available from http://www.ird-inc.com/axuvhighnrg.html
Janesick, J. (2000). Scientific Charge-Coupled Devices (SPIE Press, Bellingham, WA).
Knoll, G. F. (2001). Radiation Detection and Measurement (John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY), 3rd ed.
Maddox, B., Park, H. S., Remington, B. A., Izumi, N., Chen, S., Chen, C., Kimminau, G., Ali, Z., Haugh, M. J., and Ma, Q. (2011). “High-energy X-ray backlighter spectrum measurements using calibrated image plates,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 023111.
Marshall, F. J., Ohki, T., McInnis, D., Ninkov, Z., and Carbone, J. (2001). “Imaging of laser–plasma X-ray emission with charge-injection devices,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 713.
Physikalisch-Technische Bundensanstalt (PTB) (n.d.), available at http://www.ptb.de/index_en.html
Poletto, L., Boscolo, A., and Tondello, G. (1999). “Characterization of a charge-coupled detector in the 1100-0.14 nm (1 eV to 9 keV) spectral range,” Appl.Opt., 38, 2936.
Quaranta, C., Canali, G., Ottavani, G., and Zanio, K. (1969). “Electron-hole pair ionization energy in CdTe between 85 K and 350 K,” Lett. Al Nuovo Dimento, 4, 908910.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Powder Diffraction
  • ISSN: 0885-7156
  • EISSN: 1945-7413
  • URL: /core/journals/powder-diffraction
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed