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A method to obtain both one-dimensional powder diffraction intensities I(2θ) and statistical uncertainties σ(2θ) from the data collected with a flat two-dimensional X-ray detector is proposed. The method has been applied to analysis of the diffraction data of fine quartz powder recorded with synchrotron X-ray. The profile and magnitude of the estimated uncertainties σ(2θ) have shown that the effects of propagation of the errors in 2θ are dominant as the uncertainties about the observed intensity values I(2θ). The powder diffraction intensity data I(2θ), including nine reflection peaks have been analyzed by the Rietveld method incorporating the experimentally estimated uncertainties σ(2θ). The observed I(2θ) data have been reproduced with a symmetric peak profile function (R wp = 0.84 %), and no significant peak shifts from calculated locations have been detected as compared with the experimental errors. The optimized values of the lattice constants of the quartz sample have nominally been estimated at a = 4.9131(4) Å and c = 5.4043(2) Å, where the uncertainties in parentheses are evaluated by the Rietveld optimization based on the estimated uncertainties σ(2θ) for intensities I(2θ). It is likely that reliability of error estimation about unit-cell dimensions has been improved by this analytical method.
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