Skip to main content

X-ray diffraction imaging for predictive metrology of crack propagation in 450-mm diameter silicon wafers

  • B.K. Tanner (a1), J. Wittge (a2), P. Vagovič (a3), T. Baumbach (a3), D. Allen (a4), P.J. McNally (a4), R. Bytheway (a5), D. Jacques (a5), M.C. Fossati (a1), D.K. Bowen (a1), J. Garagorri (a6), M.R. Elizalde (a6) and A.N. Danilewsky (a2)...

The apparatus for X-ray diffraction imaging (XRDI) of 450-mm wafers, is now placed at the ANKA synchrotron radiation source in Karlsruhe, is described in the context of the drive to inspect wafers for plastic deformation or mechanical damage. It is shown that full wafer maps at high resolution can be expected to take a few hours to record. However, we show from experiments on 200-, 300-, and 450-mm wafers that a perimeter-scan on a 450-mm wafer, to pick up edge damage and edge-originated slip sources, can be achieved in just over 10 min. Experiments at the Diamond Light Source, on wafers still in their cassettes, suggest that clean-room conditions may not be necessary for such characterization. We conclude that scaling up of the 300-mm format Jordan Valley tools, together with the existing facility at ANKA, provides satisfactory capability for future XRDI analysis of 450-mm wafers.

Corresponding author
a)Author to whom correspondence should be addressed. Electronic mail:
Hide All
Abell, T. (2008). “Realizing the 450 mm transition,” Solid State Technol. 51, 2230.
Betz, O., Rack, A., Schmitt, C., Ershov, A., Dieterich, A., Körner, L., Ershov, A., and Baumbach, T. (2008). “High speed X-ray cineradiography for analyzing complex kinematics of living insects,” Synchrotron Radiat. News 21, 34.
Borucki, L., Philipossian, A., and Goldstein, M. (2009). “An analysis of potential 450 mm CMP tool scaling questions,” Solid State Technol. 52, 10.
Bonse, U., and Busch, F. (1996). “X-ray computed microtomography (mu CT) using synchrotron radiation (SR),” Prog. Biophys. Mol. Biol. 65, 133169.
Bowen, D. K. and Tanner, B. K. (2006). X-ray Metrology in Semiconductor Manufacturing (CRC Taylor and Francis, Bocca Raton).
Bowen, D. K., Wormington, M., and Feichtinger, P. (2003). “A novel digital X-ray topography system,” J. Phys. D 36, A17–23.
Chien, C. F., Wang, J. K., Chang, T. C., and Wu, W. C. (2007). “Economic analysis of 450 mm wafer migration,” Proc. Int. Symp. on Semiconductor Manufacturing, p. 283286.
Danilwesky, A. N., Wittge, J., Rack, A., Weitkamp, T., Simon, R., Baumbach, T., and McNally, P. J. (2008a). “White beam topography of 300 mm Si wafers”, J. Mater. Sci. – Mater. Electron. 19, S269S272.
Danilewsky, A. N., Rack, A., Wittge, J., Weitkamp, T., Simon, R., Riesemeier, H., and Baumbach, T. (2008b). “White beam synchrotron topography using a high resolution digital X-ray imaging detector,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. B, 266, 20352040.
Danilewsky, A. N., Wittge, J., Hess, A., Cröll, A., Rack, A., dos Santos Rolo, T., Allen, D., McNally, P., Vagovič, P., Li, Z., Baumbach, T., Gorostegui-Colinas, E., Garagorri, J., Elizalde, M. R., Jacques, D., Fossati, M. C., Bowen, D. K., and Tanner, B. K. (2011). “Real time X-ray diffraction imaging for semiconductor wafer metrology and high temperature in-situ experiments,” Phys. Status Solidi a 208, 24992504.
Garagorri, J., Elizalde, M. R., Fossati, M. C., Jacques, D., and Tanner, B. K. (2012). “Slip band distribution in rapid thermally annealed silicon wafers,” J. Appl. Phys. 111, 094901.
Hartmann, W., Markewitz, G., Rettenmaier, U., and Queisser, H. J. (1975). “High-resolution direct-display X-ray topography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 27, 308309.
Jones, S. W. (2009). “300 mm Prime and the prospect for 450 mm wafers,” Solid State Technol. 52, 1415.
Nagornaya, L., Onyshchenko, G., Pirogov, E., Starzhinskiy, N., Tupitsyna, I., Ryzhikov, V., Galich, Y., Vostretsov, Y., Galkin, S., and Voronkin, E. (2005). “Production of the high-quality CdWO4 single crystals for application in CT and radiometric monitoring,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 537, 163167.
Rack, A., Zabler, S., Müller, B. R., Riesemeier, H., Weidemann, G., Lange, A., Goebbels, J., Hentschel, M., and Görner, W. (2008). “High resolution synchrotron-based radiography and tomography using hard X-rays at the BAMline (BESSY II),” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 586, 327344.
Rack, A., Weitkamp, T., Bauer Trabelsi, S., Modregger, P., Cecilia, A., dos Santos Rolo, T., Rack, T., Haas, D., Simon, R., Heldele, R., Schulz, M., Mayzel, B., Danilewsky, A. N., Waterstradt, T., Diete, W., Riesemeier, H., Müller, B. R., and Baumbach, T. (2009). “The micro-imaging station of the TopoTomo beamline at the ANKA synchrotron light source,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 267, 19781988.
Simon, R. and Danilewsky, A. N. (2003). “The experimental station for white beam X-ray topography at the synchrotron light source ANKA, Karlsruhe,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. B 199, 550553.
Tanner, B. K., Wittge, J., Allen, D., Fossati, M. C., Danilewsky, A. N., McNally, P., Garagorri, J., Elizalde, M. R., and Jacques, D. (2011). “Thermal slip sources at the extremity and bevel edge of silicon wafers,” J. Appl. Cryst. 44, 489494.
Tanner, B. K., Fossati, M. C., Garagorri, J., Elizalde, M. R., Allen, D., McNally, P. J., Jacques, D., Wittge, J., and Danilewsky, A. N. (2012). “Prediction of the propagation probability of individual cracks in brittle single crystal materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 041903.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Powder Diffraction
  • ISSN: 0885-7156
  • EISSN: 1945-7413
  • URL: /core/journals/powder-diffraction
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *



Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 5
Total number of PDF views: 17 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 181 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 25th March 2018. This data will be updated every 24 hours.