Hostname: page-component-5d59c44645-dknvm Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-02-24T03:49:29.424Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

Amount of Usage and Involvement in Explosions Not Associated with Increased Contamination of Prehospital Vehicles with Multi-drug-resistant Organisms

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  07 January 2013

Emil Lesho*
Affiliation:
2nd Brigade Combat Team, 3rd Infantry Division, US Army, Iraq. Dr. Lesho is currently affiliated with the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Silver Spring, Maryland USA
Julie Ake
Affiliation:
Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Silver Spring, Maryland USA
Xiao-Zhe Huang
Affiliation:
Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Silver Spring, Maryland USA
Dana M. Cash
Affiliation:
Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Silver Spring, Maryland USA
Mikeljon Nikolich
Affiliation:
Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Silver Spring, Maryland USA
Melissa Barber
Affiliation:
Infectious Diseases Laboratory Service, Walter Reed National Military Medical Center, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
Kathleen Robens
Affiliation:
Montgomery County Education Association, Rockville, Maryland USA
Eric Garnett
Affiliation:
948th Forward Surgical Team, US Army, Al Kut, Iraq
Luther Lindler
Affiliation:
Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center, Silver Spring, Maryland USA
Paul Scott
Affiliation:
2nd Brigade Combat Team, 3rd Infantry Division, US Army, Iraq. Dr. Lesho is currently affiliated with the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Silver Spring, Maryland USA
*
Correspondence: Emil Lesho, DO 2209 Parker Avenue Silver Spring, MD 20902 USA E-mail carolinelesho@yahoo.com

Abstract

Introduction

The role of explosions and patient transport vehicles as sources and vectors of Gram-negative, multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) that predominate infections following lengthy evacuations after disasters due to natural hazards and in current war-trauma patients is unknown.

Hypothesis/Problem

Damaged or heavily-used vehicles could be sources of the MDROs subsequently linked to nosocomial infections.

Methods

From January through May 2008 in Iraq, inside surfaces of heavily-used, tactical vehicles (Experimental Group) were sampled with sterile, pre-moistened swabs. Swabs, along with positive and negative controls, were shipped to the reference laboratory in Washington, DC, where they underwent culture, identification and susceptibility testing, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Multidrug-resistant organisms were defined according to the standard Centers for Disease Control and Prevention definitions. High risk organisms (HROs) were defined as susceptible E. coli, A. baumannii, P. aeruginosa, Enterobacter spp, or Klebsiella spp. Concurrently, new counterparts (Control Group) were similarly surveyed in a storage lot in Georgia, USA. Groups were compared using the Chi-squared test.

Results

One hundred thirty-nine consecutive vehicles including all available ambulances were sampled, yielding 153 swabs. Nineteen were lost or damaged during shipping. Seventy-nine swabs yielded growth of one or more Gram-negative bacteria. The amount and genotype of MDROs in heavily-used vehicles, including those involved in roadside bombings, were compared to control vehicles and to strains isolated from wounds and environmental surfaces at the base hospital. Predominant organisms included P. agglomerans (34%), S. flexneri (8%), E. vulneris (6%), Pseudomonas sp. (6%), and K. pneumonia (6%). No MDROs were isolated. Thirteen vehicles (eight of 94 experimental and five of 45 control) yielded HRO. There was no difference in contamination rates (P = .63). No HROs were isolated from ambulances. No clonal association existed between vehicle and hospital strains.

Conclusion

Given the implications that this knowledge gap has on military and civilian prehospital reservoirs of infection, further study is warranted to confirm these findings and identify targets for preventive intervention throughout civilian disaster and military casualty evacuation chains.

LeshoE, AkeJ, HuangX, CashDM, NikolichM, BarberM, RobensK, GarnettE, LindlerL, ScottP. Amount of Usage and Involvement in Explosions Not Associated with Increased Contamination of Prehospital Vehicles with Multi-drug-resistant Organisms. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2013;28(2):1-3..

Type
Original Research
Copyright
Copyright © World Association for Disaster and Emergency Medicine 2012

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

1.Miskin, IN, Nir-Paz, R, Merin, O, Burshtein, S, Schwartz, D, Schwaber, MJ. Antimicrobial therapy for wound infections after catastrophic earthquakes. N Eng J Med. 2010;363:2571-2573.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
2.Petersen, K, Riddle, MS, Danko, JR, Blazes, DL, Hayden, R, Tasker, SA, Dunne, JR. Trauma-related infections in battlefield casualties from Iraq. Ann Surg. 2007;245:803-811.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
3.Wortmann, G, Weintrob, A, Barber, M, Scott, P, Zoll, ST, Eshoo, MW, Sampath, R, Ecker, DJ, Massire, C. Genotypic evolution of Acinetobacter baumannii strains in an outbreak associated with war trauma. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2008;29:53-55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
4.Scott, P, Deye, G, Srinivasan, A, et al. An outbreak of multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii-calcoaceticus complex infection in the US military health care system associated with military operation in Iraq. Clin Infect Dis. 2007;44:1577-1584.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
5.Ake, J, Scott, P, Wortmann, G, Huang, X, Barber, M, Wang, Z, Nikolich, M, VanEcho, D, Weintrob, A, Lesho, E. Gram negative multidrug-resistant organism colonization in a U.S. military hospital in Iraq. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2011;32:545-552.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
6.Dancer, SJ. Importance of the environment in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus acquisition: the case for hospital cleaning. Lancet Infect Dis. 2008;8:101-113.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
7.Dantas, G, Sommer, MOA, Oluwasegun, RD, Church, GM. Bacteria subsisting on antibiotics. Science. 2008;320:100-103.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
8.D'Costa, VM, McGrann, KM, Hughes, DW, Wright, GW. Sampling the resistome. Science. 2006;311:374-377.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
9.Kramer, A, Schwebke, I, Kampt, G. How long do nosocomial pathogens persist on inanimate surfaces? A systematic review. BMC Infect Dis. 2006;6:130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
10.Tien, HC, Battad, A, Bryce, EA, et al. Multi-drug resistant Acinetobacter infections in critically injured Canadian forces soldiers. BMC Infect Dis. 2007;7:95.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed