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Research and Evaluations of the Health Aspects of Disasters, Part IX: Risk-Reduction Framework

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  01 April 2016

Marvin L. Birnbaum*
Affiliation:
Emeritus Professor of Medicine and Physiology, School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WisconsinUSA; Emeritus Editor-in-Chief, Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
Elaine K. Daily
Affiliation:
Nursing Section Editor, Prehospital and Disaster Medicine; Secretary, World Association for Disaster and Emergency Medicine, Madison, WisconsinUSA
Ann P. O’Rourke
Affiliation:
Associate Professor, Division of General Surgery, Department of Surgery, School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WisconsinUSA
Alessandro Loretti
Affiliation:
Consultant; Retired from the World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland
*
Correspondence: Marvin L. Birnbaum, MD, PhD 610 N. Whitney Way, Suite 407 Madison, Wisconsin 53705 USA E-mail: mbirnbaum@wadem.org

Abstract

A disaster is a failure of resilience to an event. Mitigating the risks that a hazard will progress into a destructive event, or increasing the resilience of a society-at-risk, requires careful analysis, planning, and execution. The Disaster Logic Model (DLM) is used to define the value (effects, costs, and outcome(s)), impacts, and benefits of interventions directed at risk reduction. A Risk-Reduction Framework, based on the DLM, details the processes involved in hazard mitigation and/or capacity-building interventions to augment the resilience of a community or to decrease the risk that a secondary event will develop. This Framework provides the structure to systematically undertake and evaluate risk-reduction interventions. It applies to all interventions aimed at hazard mitigation and/or increasing the absorbing, buffering, or response capacities of a community-at-risk for a primary or secondary event that could result in a disaster. The Framework utilizes the structure provided by the DLM and consists of 14 steps: (1) hazards and risks identification; (2) historical perspectives and predictions; (3) selection of hazard(s) to address; (4) selection of appropriate indicators; (5) identification of current resilience standards and benchmarks; (6) assessment of the current resilience status; (7) identification of resilience needs; (8) strategic planning; (9) selection of an appropriate intervention; (10) operational planning; (11) implementation; (12) assessments of outputs; (13) synthesis; and (14) feedback. Each of these steps is a transformation process that is described in detail. Emphasis is placed on the role of Coordination and Control during planning, implementation of risk-reduction/capacity building interventions, and evaluation.

BirnbaumML, DailyEK, O’RourkeAP, LorettiA. Research and Evaluations of the Health Aspects of Disasters, Part IX: Risk-Reduction Framework. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2016;31(3):309325.

Type
Special Reports
Copyright
© World Association for Disaster and Emergency Medicine 2016 

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Footnotes

a

Task Force for Quality Control of Disaster Medicine, World Association for Disaster and Emergency Medicine, Nordic Society for Disaster Medicine. Health Disaster Management Guidelines for Evaluation and Research in the Utstein Style. Sundnes KO, Birnbaum ML (eds). Prehosp Disaster Med. 2003;17(Supplement 3).

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