Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa

Fatalities from Firearm-Related Injuries in Selected Governorates of Iraq, 2010-2013

  • Maximilian P. Nerlander (a1) (a2), Eva Leidman (a1), Ahmed Hassan (a3), Abdul-Salam Saleh Sultan (a4), Syed Jaffar Hussain (a5), Lauren B. Browne (a1) (a2) and Oleg O. Bilukha (a1)...
Abstract
Abstract Background

In Iraq, where Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS) and other groups have contributed to escalating violence in recent years, understanding the epidemiology of intentional firearm-related fatalities is essential for public health action.

Methods

The Iraqi Ministry of Health (MoH; Baghdad, Iraq) compiles surveillance of fatal injuries in eight of Iraq’s 18 governorates (Baghdad, Al-Anbar, Basrah, Erbil, Kerbala, Maysan, Ninevah, and Al-Sulaimaniya). Information is collected from coroner’s reports and interviews with family members. Analysis was performed on intentional firearm-related injuries, excluding injuries from intentional self-harm or negligent discharges, that occurred during 2010-2013, a subset of all fatal injuries, and compared to previously published explosive-related fatalities.

Results

Overall, the dataset included 7,985 firearm-related fatalities. Yearly fatalities were: 2010=1,706; 2011=1,642; 2012=1,662; and 2013=2,975. Among fatalities, 86.0% were men and 13.7% women; 83.4% were adults and 6.2% children <18 years of age. Where age and sex were both known, men aged 20-39 years accounted for 56.3% of fatalities. Three “high-burden” governorates had the highest fatality rate per 100,000 population—Baghdad (12.9), Ninevah (17.0), and Al-Anbar (14.6)—accounting for 85.9% of fatalities recorded in the eight governorates. Most fatalities occurred in the street (56.3%), followed by workplace (12.2%), home (11.3%), and farm/countryside (8.4%). Comparing the ratio of firearm-related fatalities to explosives-related fatalities revealed an overall ratio of 2.8:1. The ratio in Baghdad more than doubled from 2.9 in 2010 to 6.1 in 2013; the highest ratios were seen outside the high-burden governorates.

Conclusions

Firearm-related fatalities remained relatively stable throughout 2010-2012, and almost doubled in 2013, correlating with increased ISIS activity. Three governorates contributed the majority of fatalities and experienced the highest fatality rates; these saw high levels of conflict. Firearm-related fatalities disproportionately affected younger men, who historically are over-represented as victims and perpetrators of violence. More than one-half of fatalities occurred in the street, indicating this as a common environment for conflict involving firearms. Firearms appear to account for more fatalities in Iraq than explosives and largely accounted for escalating violence in Baghdad during the study period. The high ratio observed outside the high-burden governorates is reflective of very low numbers of explosives-related fatalities; thus, violence in these governorates is likely non-conflict-related. These observations provide valuable public health information for targeted intervention to prevent violence.

Nerlander MP , Leidman E , Hassan A , Sultan ASS , Hussain SJ , Browne LB , Bilukha OO . Fatalities from Firearm-Related Injuries in Selected Governorates of Iraq, 2010-2013. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2017;32(5):548555.

Copyright
Corresponding author
Correspondence: Eva Leidman, MSPH, Epidemiologist Emergency Response and Recovery Branch Division of Global Health Protection Center for Global Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 1600 Clifton Road, MS E-22 Atlanta, Georgia 30345 USA E-mail: eleidman@cdc.gov
Footnotes
Hide All

Conflicts of interest: All authors declare they have no competing interests; no support from any organization for the submitted work; no financial relationships with any organizations that might have an interest in the submitted work in the previous three years; and no other relationships or activities that could appear to have influenced the submitted work. The findings and conclusions in this report are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official position of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (Atlanta, Georgia USA), the World Health Organization (Geneva, Switzerland), or the Ministry of Health, Iraq (Baghdad, Iraq).

Footnotes
References
Hide All
2. Z Obermeyer , CJ Murray , E Gakidou . Fifty years of violent war deaths from Vietnam to Bosnia: analysis of data from the world health survey program. BMJ. 2008;336(7659):1482-1486.

7. D Archer , R Gartner . Violent acts and violent times: a comparative approach to postwar homicide rates. Am Sociol Rev. 1976;41(6):937-963.

19. O Al Madni , MAA Kharosha , AM Shotar . Firearm fatalities in Dammam, Saudi Arabia. Med Sci Law. 2008;48(3):237-240.

20. M Elfawal , O Awad . Firearm fatalities in Eastern Saudi Arabia: impact of culture and legislation. Am J Forensic Med Pathol. 1997;18(4):391-396.

22. A Amiri , H Sanaei-Zadeh , HT Zavarei , FR Ardestani , N Savoji . Firearm fatalities. A preliminary study report from Iran. J Clin Forensic Med. 2003;10(3):159-163.

24. D Gregory . Seeing red: Baghdad and the event-full city. Political Geography. 2010;29(5):266-279.

25. BJ Eastridge , RL Mabry , P Seguin , et al. Death on the battlefield (2001-2011): implications for the future of combat casualty care. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2012;73(6 Suppl 5):S431-S437.

31. AC Beekley , MJ Martin , PC Spinella , SP Telian , JB Holcomb . Predicting resource needs for multiple and mass-casualty events in combat: lessons learned from combat support hospital experience in Operation Iraqi Freedom. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2009;66(4):S129-S137.

32. E Depoortere , F Checchi , F Broillet , et al. Violence and mortality in West Darfur, Sudan (2003-2004): epidemiological evidence from four surveys. Lancet. 2004;364(9442):1315-1320.

33. MV Herp , V Parqué , E Rackley , N Ford . Mortality, violence and lack of access to healthcare in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Disasters. 2003;27(2):141-153.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
  • ISSN: 1049-023X
  • EISSN: 1945-1938
  • URL: /core/journals/prehospital-and-disaster-medicine
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords:

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 2
Total number of PDF views: 26 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 328 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between 18th May 2017 - 17th October 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.