Skip to main content

No Calm After the Storm: A Systematic Review of Human Health Following Flood and Storm Disasters

  • Dell D. Saulnier (a1), Kim Brolin Ribacke (a1) and Johan von Schreeb (a1)
Abstract Introduction

How the burden of disease varies during different phases after floods and after storms is essential in order to guide a medical response, but it has not been well-described. The objective of this review was to elucidate the health problems following flood and storm disasters.


A literature search of the databases Medline (US National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health; Bethesda, Maryland USA); Cinahl (EBSCO Information Services; Ipswich, Massachusetts USA); Global Health (EBSCO Information Services; Ipswich, Massachusetts USA); Web of Science Core Collection (Thomson Reuters; New York, New York USA); Embase (Elsevier; Amsterdam, Netherlands); and PubMed (National Center for Biotechnology Information, National Institutes of Health; Bethesda, Maryland USA) was conducted in June 2015 for English-language research articles on morbidity or mortality and flood or storm disasters. Articles on mental health, interventions, and rescue or health care workers were excluded. Data were extracted from articles that met the eligibility criteria and analyzed by narrative synthesis.


The review included 113 studies. Poisonings, wounds, gastrointestinal infections, and skin or soft tissue infections all increased after storms. Gastrointestinal infections were more frequent after floods. Leptospirosis and diabetes-related complications increased after both. The majority of changes occurred within four weeks of floods or storms.


Health changes differently after floods and after storms. There is a lack of data on the health effects of floods alone, long-term changes in health, and the strength of the association between disasters and health problems. This review highlights areas of consideration for medical response and the need for high-quality, systematic research in this area.

Saulnier DD , Brolin Ribacke K , von Schreeb J . No Calm After the Storm: A Systematic Review of Human Health Following Flood and Storm Disasters. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2017;32(5):568579.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      No Calm After the Storm: A Systematic Review of Human Health Following Flood and Storm Disasters
      Available formats
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      No Calm After the Storm: A Systematic Review of Human Health Following Flood and Storm Disasters
      Available formats
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      No Calm After the Storm: A Systematic Review of Human Health Following Flood and Storm Disasters
      Available formats
Corresponding author
Correspondence: Dell Saulnier, Msc Widerströmska huset, Plan 4 Tomtebodavägen 18a 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden E-mail:
Hide All

Conflicts of interest/funding: The authors were funded by the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare (Stockholm, Sweden) while writing this paper. The funders had no role in the design, data collection, analysis, decision to publish, or writing of the manuscript.

Hide All
1. Center for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters. The human cost of weather-related disasters: 1995-2015. Belgium/Switzerland; 2015.
2. Du W, FitzGerald GJ, Clark M, Hou XY. Health impacts of floods. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2010;25(3):265-272.
3. Alderman K, Turner LR, Tong S. Floods and human health: a systematic review. Environ Int. 2012;47:37-47.
4. Tempark T, Lueangarun S, Chatproedprai S, Wananukul S. Flood-related skin diseases: a literature review. Int J Dermatol. 2013;52(10):1168-1176.
5. Doocy S, Daniels A, Murray S, Kirsch TD. The human impact of floods: a historical review of events 1980-2009 and systematic literature review. PLoS Curr. 2013;5.
6. Doocy S, Dick A, Daniels A, Kirsch TD. The human impact of tropical cyclones: a historical review of events 1980-2009 and systematic literature review. PLoS Curr. 2013;5.
7. Goldman A, Eggen B, Golding B, Murray V. The health impacts of windstorms: a systematic literature review. Public Health. 2014;128(1):3-28.
8. Saulnier D, Brolin Ribacke K, von Schreeb J. No calm after the storm: a systematic review of human health following flood and storm disasters. PROSPERO: International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews. 2016.
9. Explanatory Notes: Guidelines. Center for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters Web site. Accessed March 16, 2016.
10. Secretariat of the World Meteorological Organization. International meteorological vocabulary. Q J R Meteorol Soc. 1967;93(395):148.
11. World Health Organization. ICD-10: International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. Published 2010. Accessed April 15, 2016.
12. World Health Organization. Recommended Surveillance Standards. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO; 1999.
13. Moher D, Liberati A, Tetzlaff J, Altman DG, Group TP. Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses: the PRISMA statement. PLoS Med. 2009;6(7):e100097.
14. Ahmed Z, Khan AA, Nisar N. Frequency of infectious diseases among flood affected people at district Rajanpur, Pakistan. Pak J Med Sci. 2011;27(4):866-869.
15. Averhoff F, Young S, Mott J, et al. Morbidity surveillance after Hurricane Katrina - Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Texas, September 2005. MMWR. 2006;55(26):727-731.
16. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Epidemiologic assessment of the impact of four hurricanes - Florida, 2004. MMWR. 2005;54(28):693-697.
17. Brewer RD, Morris PD, Cole TB. Hurricane-related emergency department visits in an inland area: an analysis of the public health impact of Hurricane Hugo in North Carolina. Ann Emerg Med. 1994;23(4):731-736.
18. Cariappa MP, Khanduri P. Health emergencies in large populations: the Orissa experience. Med J Armed Forces India. 2003;59(4):286-289.
19. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Hurricane Ike rapid needs assessment - Houston, Texas, September 2008. MMWR. 2009;58(38):1066-1071.
20. Henderson AK, Lillibridge SR, Salinas C, Graves RW, Roth PB, Noji EK. Disaster medical assistance teams: providing health care to a community struck by Hurricane Iniki. Ann Emerg Med. 1994;23(4):726-730.
21. Howe E, Victor D, Price EG. Chief complaints, diagnoses, and medications prescribed seven weeks post-Katrina in New Orleans. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2008;23(1):41-47.
22. Lee LE, Fonseca V, Brett KM, et al. Active morbidity surveillance after Hurricane Andrew - Florida, 1992. J Am Med Assoc. 1993;270(5):591-594.
23. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Rapid assessment of the needs and health status of older adults after Hurricane Charley Charlotte, DeSoto, and Hardee counties, Florida, August 27-31, 2004. MMWR. 2004;53(36):837-840.
24. Lopez C, Bergeron T, Ratard R, et al. Injury and illness surveillance in hospitals and acute care facilities after Hurricanes Katrina and Rita - New Orleans Area, Louisiana, September 25-October 15, 2005. MMWR. 2006;55(2):35-38.
25. McNabb SJ, Kelso KY, Wilson SA, McFarland L, Farley TA. Hurricane Andrew-related injuries and illnesses, Louisiana, 1992. South Med J. 1995;88(6):615-618.
26. McNeil KM. Surveillance for illness and injury after Hurricane Katrina -- New Orleans, Louisiana, September 8-25, 2005. MMWR. 2005;54(40):1018-1021.
27. McNeill KM, Byers P, Kittle T, et al. Surveillance for illness and injury after Hurricane Katrina - three counties, Mississippi, September 5-October 11, 2005. MMWR. 2006;55(9):231-234.
28. Noe RS, Schnall AH, Wolkin AF, et al. Disaster-related injuries and illnesses treated by American Red Cross disaster health services during Hurricanes Gustav and Ike. South Med J. 2013;106(1):102-108.
29. Nufer KE, Wilson-Ramirez G. A comparison of patient needs following two hurricanes. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2004;19(2):146-149.
30. Nufer KE, Wilson-Ramirez G, Crandall CS. Different medical needs between hurricane and flood victims. Wilderness Environ Med. 2003;14(2):89-93.
31. Paul BK, Rahman MK, Rakshit BC. Post-Cyclone Sidr illness patterns in coastal Bangladesh: an empirical study. Nat Hazards. 2011;56(3):841-852.
32. Quinlisk P, Jones MJ, Bostick NA, et al. Results of rapid needs assessments in rural and urban Iowa following large-scale flooding events in 2008. Disaster Med Public Health Prep. 2011;5(4):287-292.
33. Wu J, Xiao J, Li T, et al. A cross-sectional survey on the health status and the health-related quality of life of the elderly after flood disaster in Bazhong City, Sichuan, China. BMC Public Health. 2015;15:163.
34. Williams EW, Williams-Johnson J, French S, Singh P, McDonald A, Ford R. The effect of Hurricane Ivan on emergency department operations at the University Hospital of the West Indies. West Indian Med J. 2005;54(4):232-235.
35. Vest JR, Valadez AM. Health conditions and risk factors of sheltered persons displaced by Hurricane Katrina. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2006;21(2):55-58.
36. Sullivent EE, West CA, Noe RS, Thomas KE, Wallace LJ, Leeb RT. Nonfatal injuries following Hurricane Katrina--New Orleans, Louisiana, 2005. J Safety Res. 2006;37(2):213-217.
37. Siddique AK, Baqui AH, Eusof A, Zaman K. 1988 floods in Bangladesh: pattern of illness and causes of death. J Diarrhoeal Dis Res. 1991;9(4):310-314.
38. Sharma AJ, Weiss EC, Young SL, et al. Chronic disease and related conditions at emergency treatment facilities in the New Orleans area after Hurricane Katrina. Disaster Med Public Health Prep. 2008;2(1):27-32.
39. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Morbidity surveillance following the Midwest flood - Missouri, 1993. MMWR. 1993;42(41):797-798.
40. Read DJ, Holian A, Moller CC, Poutawera V. Surgical workload of a foreign medical team after Typhoon Haiyan. ANZ J Surg. 2016;86(5):361-365.
41. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Preliminary report: medical examiner reports of deaths associated with Hurricane Andrew--Florida, August 1992. MMWR. 1992;41(35):641-644.
42. Jones KT, Grigg M, Crockett LK, et al. Preliminary medical examiner reports of mortality associated with Hurricane Charley - Florida, 2004. MMWR. 2004;53(36):835-837.
43. Combs DL, Parrish RG, McNabb SJ, Davis JH. Deaths related to Hurricane Andrew in Florida and Louisiana, 1992. Int J Epidemiol. 1996;25(3):537-544.
44. Nelson S, Luten J, Jones K, et al. Mortality associated with Hurricane Katrina - Florida and Alabama, August-October 2005. MMWR. 2006;55(9):239-342.
45. Ragan P, Schulte J, Alelson SJ, Jones KT. Mortality surveillance - 2004 to 2005 Florida hurricane-related deaths. Am J Forensic Med Pathol. 2008;29(2):148-153.
46. Zane DF, Bayleyegn TM, Hellsten J, et al. Tracking deaths related to Hurricane Ike, Texas, 2008. Disaster Med Public Health Prep. 2011;5(1):23-28.
47. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Medical examiner/coroner reports of deaths associated with Hurricane Hugo - South Carolina. MMWR. 1989;38(44):754, 759-762.
48. Jani AA, Fierro M, Kiser S, et al. Hurricane Isabel-related mortality--Virginia, 2003. J Public Health Manag Pract. 2006;12(1):97-102.
49. Myung HN, Jang JY. Causes of death and demographic characteristics of victims of meteorological disasters in Korea from 1990 to 2008. Environ Health. 2011;10:82.
50. Hampson N, Dunn S, Bronstein A, et al. Carbon monoxide exposures after Hurricane Ike - Texas, September 2008. MMWR. 2009;58(31):845-849.
51. Hampson NB, Lai MW, McNeil M, et al. Carbon monoxide poisoning after Hurricane Katrina - Alabama, Louisiana, and Mississippi, August-September 2005. MMWR. 2005;54(39):996-998.
52. Sniffen JC, Cooper TW, Johnson D, et al. Carbon monoxide poisoning from hurricane-associated use of portable generators - Florida, 2004. MMWR. 2005;54(28):697-700.
53. Tucker M, Eichold B, Lofgren JP, et al. Carbon monoxide poisonings after two major hurricanes - Alabama and Texas, August-October 2005. MMWR. 2006;55(9):236-239.
54. Staes C, Orengo JC, Malilay J, Rullan J, Noji E. Deaths due to flash floods in Puerto Rico, January, 1992 - implications for prevention. Int J Epidemiol. 1994;23(5):968-975.
55. World Health Organization. Leptospirosis, India. Report of the investigation of a post-cyclone outbreak in Orissa, November 1999. Wkly Epidemiol Rec. 2000;75(27):217-224.
56. Atchison CG, Wintermeyer LA, Kelly JR. Public health consequences of a flood disaster-Iowa, 1993. MMWR. 1993;42(34):653-656.
57. Brackbill RM, Caramanica K, Maliniak M, et al. Nonfatal injuries one week after Hurricane Sandy--New York City metropolitan area, October 2012. MMWR. 2014;63(42):950-954.
58. Daley WR, Shireley L, Gilmore R. A flood-related outbreak of carbon monoxide poisoning - Grand Forks, North Dakota. J Emerg Med. 2001;21(3):249-253.
59. Fife CE, Smith LA, Maus EA, et al. Dying to play video games: carbon monoxide poisoning from electrical generators used after hurricane Ike. Pediatrics. 2009;123(6):e1035-e1038.
60. Gagnon EB, Aboutanos MB, Malhotra AK, Dompkowski D, Duane TM, Ivatury RR. In the wake of Hurricane Isabel: a prospective study of post-event trauma and injury control strategies. Am Surg. 2005;71(3):194-197.
61. George McDowell N, Landron F, Glenn J, et al. Deaths associated with Hurricanes Marilyn and Opal - United States, September October 1995. MMWR. 1996;45(29):32-38.
62. Greenough PG, Lappi MD, Hsu EB, et al. Burden of disease and health status among Hurricane Katrina-displaced persons in shelters: a population-based cluster sample. Ann Emerg Med. 2008;51(4):426-432.
63. Kirsch TD, Wadhwani C, Sauer L, Doocy S, Catlett C. Impact of the 2010 Pakistan floods on rural and urban populations at six months. PLoS Curr. 2012;4:e4fdfb212d2432.
64. Kunii O, Nakamura S, Abdur R, Wakai S. The impact on health and risk factors of the diarrhea epidemics in the 1998 Bangladesh floods. Public Health. 2002;116(2):68-74.
65. Morrow J, Norman E, Dickens R, et al. Rapid community health and needs assessments after Hurricanes Isabel and Charley - North Carolina, 2003-2004. MMWR. 2004;53(36):840-842.
66. Ridenour ML, Cummings KJ, Sinclair JR, Bixler D. Displacement of the underserved: medical needs of Hurricane Katrina evacuees in West Virginia. J Health Care Poor Underserved. 2007;18(2):369-381.
67. Hendrickson LA, Vogt RL, Goebert D, Pon E. Morbidity on Kauai before and after Hurricane Iniki. Prev Med. 1997;26(5 Pt 1):711-716.
68. Miller JA, Kearney GD, Proescholdbell SK. Surveillance of injuries in Eastern North Carolina following Hurricane Irene using emergency department data. N C Med J. 2013;74(4):272-278.
69. Platz E, Cooper HP, Silvestri S, Siebert CF. The impact of a series of hurricanes on the visits to two central Florida emergency departments. J Emerg Med. 2007;33(1):39-46.
70. Chen BC, Shawn LK, Connors NJ, et al. Carbon monoxide exposures in New York City following Hurricane Sandy in 2012. Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2013;51(9):879-885.
71. Kim HK, Takematsu M, Biary R, Williams N, Hoffman RS, Smith SW. Epidemic gasoline exposures following Hurricane Sandy. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2013;28(6):586-591.
72. Forrester MB. Impact of Hurricane Ike on Texas poison center calls. Disaster Med Public Health Prep. 2009;3(3):151-157.
73. Forrester MB. Impact of Hurricane Rita on Texas poison center calls. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2008;23(3):256-262.
74. Quinn B, Baker R, Pratt J. Hurricane Andrew and a pediatric emergency department. Ann Emerg Med. 1994;23(4):737-741.
75. Alhinai MY. Tropical Cyclone Gonu: number of patients and pattern of illnesses in the primary health centers in A’seeb area, Muscat, Sultanate of Oman. Oman Med J. 2011;26(4):223-228.
76. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Hurricanes and hospital emergency room visits --Mississippi, Rhode Island, Connecticut. MMWR. 1986;34(51-52):765-770.
77. Sjoberg L, Yearwood R. Impact of a Category 3 hurricane on the need for surgical hospital care. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2007;22(3):194-198.
78. Sheppa CM, Stevens J, Philbrick JT, Canada M. The effect of a Class IV hurricane on emergency department operations. Am J Emerg Med. 1993;11(5):464-467.
79. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Morbidity and mortality associated with Hurricane Floyd--North Carolina, September-October 1999. MMWR. 2000;49(17):369-372.
80. Longmire AW, Burch J, Broom LA. Morbidity of Hurricane Elena. South Med J. 1988;81(11):1343-1346.
81. Warner GS. Increased incidence of domestic animal bites following a disaster due to natural hazards. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2010;25(2):188-190.
82. Waring SC, DesVignes-Kendrick M, Arafat RR, et al. Tropical Storm Allison rapid needs assessment - Houston, Texas, June 2001. J Am Med Assoc. 2002;287(20):2646-2647.
83. Deng Z, Xun H, Zhou M, et al. Impacts of tropical cyclones and accompanying precipitation on infectious diarrhea in cyclone landing areas of Zhejiang Province, China. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2015;12(2):1054-1068.
84. Panda S, Pati KK, Bhattacharya MK, Koley H, Pahari S, Nair GB. Rapid situation and response assessment of diarrhea outbreak in a coastal district following tropical cyclone Aila in India. Indian J Med Res. 2011;133:395-400.
85. Myint NW, Kaewkungwal J, Singhasivanon P, et al. Are there any changes in burden and management of communicable diseases in areas affected by Cyclone Nargis? Confl Health. 2011;5(1):9.
86. Setzer C, Domino ME. Medicaid outpatient utilization for waterborne pathogenic illness following Hurricane Floyd. Public Health Rep. 2004;119(5):472-478.
87. Vilain P, Pages F, Combes X, et al. Health impact assessment of Cyclone Bejisa in Reunion Island (France) using syndromic surveillance. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2015;30(2):137-144.
88. Greene SK, Wilson EL, Konty KJ, Fine AD. Assessment of reportable disease incidence after Hurricane Sandy, New York City, 2012. Disaster Med Public Health Prep. 2013;7(5):513-521.
89. Fredrick T, Ponnaiah M, Murhekar MV, et al. Cholera outbreak linked with lack of safe water supply following a tropical cyclone in Pondicherry, India, 2012. J Health Popul Nutr. 2015;33(1):31-38.
90. Palacio H, Shah U, Kilborn C, et al. Norovirus outbreak among evacuees from Hurricane Katrina - Houston, Texas, September 2005. MMWR. 2005;54(40):1016-1018.
91. Bhattacharjee S, Bhattacharjee S, Bal B, Pal R, Niyogi SK, Sarkar K. Is Vibrio fluvialis emerging as a pathogen with epidemic potential in coastal region of eastern India following cyclone Aila? J Health Popul Nutr. 2010;28(4):311-317.
92. Bhunia R, Ghosh S. Waterborne cholera outbreak following Cyclone Aila in Sundarban area of West Bengal, India, 2009. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2011;105(4):214-219.
93. Trevejo RT, Rigau-Perez JG, Ashford DA, et al. Epidemic leptospirosis associated with pulmonary hemorrhage-Nicaragua, 1995. J Infect Dis. 1998;178(5):1457-1463.
94. Sanders EJ, Rigau-Perez JG, Smits HL, et al. Increase of leptospirosis in dengue-negative patients after a hurricane in Puerto Rico in 1996. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1999;61(3):399-404.
95. Lin PC, Lin HJ, Guo HR, Chen KT. Epidemiological characteristics of lower extremity cellulitis after a typhoon flood. PLoS ONE. 2013;8(6):e65655.
96. Engelthaler D, Lewis K, Anderson S, et al. Vibrio illnesses after Hurricane Katrina - multiple states, August-September 2005. MMWR. 2005;54(37):928-931.
97. Caillouet KA, Michaels SR, Xiong X, Foppa I, Wesson DM. Increase in West Nile neuroinvasive disease after Hurricane Katrina. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(5):804-807.
98. Beatty ME, Hunsperger E, Long E, et al. Mosquito-borne infections after Hurricane Jeanne, Haiti, 2004. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(2):308-310.
99. Schwartz BS, Harris JB, Khan AI, et al. Diarrheal epidemics in Dhaka, Bangladesh, during three consecutive floods: 1988, 1998, and 2004. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2006;74(6):1067-1073.
100. Gertler M, Durr M, Renner P, et al. Outbreak of Cryptosporidium hominis following river flooding in the city of Halle (Saale), Germany, August 2013. BMC Infect Dis. 2015;15:88.
101. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Early warning disease surveillance after a flood emergency--Pakistan, 2010. MMWR. 2012;61(49):1002-1007.
102. Milojevic A, Armstrong B, Hashizume M, et al. Health effects of flooding in rural Bangladesh. Epidemiology. 2012;23(1):107-115.
103. Smith JK, Young MM, Wilson KL, Craig SB. Leptospirosis following a major flood in Central Queensland, Australia. Epidemiol Infect. 2013;141(3):585-590.
104. Dechet AM, Parsons M, Rambaran M, et al. Leptospirosis outbreak following severe flooding: a rapid assessment and mass prophylaxis campaign; Guyana, January-February 2005. PLoS ONE. 2012;7(7):e39672.
105. Pradutkanchana J, Pradutkanchana S, Kemapanmanus M, Wuthipum N, Silpapojakul K. The etiology of acute pyrexia of unknown origin in children after a flood. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2003;34(1):175-178.
106. Bich TH, Quang LN, Ha le TT, Hanh TT, Guha-Sapir D. Impacts of flood on health: epidemiologic evidence from Hanoi, Vietnam. Glob Health Action. 2011;4:6356.
107. McCarthy MC, Haberberger RL, Salib AW, et al. Evaluation of arthropod-borne viruses and other infectious disease pathogens as the causes of febrile illnesses in the Khartoum Province of Sudan. J Med Virol. 1996;48(2):141-146.
108. Cookson ST, Soetebier K, Murray EL, et al. Internet-based morbidity and mortality surveillance among Hurricane Katrina evacuees in Georgia. Prev Chronic Dis. 2008;5(4):A133.
109. Swerdel JN, Janevic TM, Cosgrove NM, Kostis JB, Myocardial Infarction Data Acquisition System Study G. The effect of Hurricane Sandy on cardiovascular events in New Jersey. J Am Heart Assoc. 2014;3(6):e001354.
110. Gautam S, Menachem J, Srivastav SK, Delafontaine P, Irimpen A. Effect of Hurricane Katrina on the incidence of acute coronary syndrome at a primary angioplasty center in New Orleans. Disaster Med Public Health Prep. 2009;3(3):144-150.
111. Fonseca VA, Smith H, Kuhadiya N, et al. Impact of a natural disaster on diabetes: exacerbation of disparities and long-term consequences. Diabetes Care. 2009;32(9):1632-1638.
112. Park KJ, Moon JY, Ha JS, et al. Impacts of heavy rain and typhoon on allergic disease. Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2013;4(3):140-145.
113. Rath B, Donato J, Duggan A, et al. Adverse health outcomes after Hurricane Katrina among children and adolescents with chronic conditions. J Health Care Poor Underserved. 2007;18(2):405-417.
114. Rabito F, Perry S, Davis W, Levetin E. The relationship between mold exposure and allergic response in post-Katrina New Orleans. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2010;181(1).
115. Simeon DT, Grantham-McGregor SM, Walker SP, Powell CA. Effects of a hurricane on growth and morbidity in children from low-income families in Kingston, Jamaica. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1993;87(5):526-528.
116. Barrios RE, Stansbury JP, Palencia R, Medina MT. Nutritional status of children under 5 years of age in three hurricane-affected areas of Honduras. Rev Panam Salud Publica. 2000;8(6):380-384.
117. Howard D, Zhang R, Huang Y, Kutner N. Hospitalization rates among dialysis patients during Hurricane Katrina. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2012;27(4):325-329.
118. Duff EM, Cooper ES. Neural tube defects in Jamaica following Hurricane Gilbert. Am J Public Health. 1994;84(3):473-476.
119. Ng JM, Thorpe J, Walton C, Atkin SL, Kilpatrick ES. The effect of extensive flooding in Hull on the glycemic control of diabetes patients. Diabet Med. 2010;27(2):108.
120. Rodriguez-Llanes JM, Ranjan-Dash S, Degomme O, Mukhopadhyay A, Guha-Sapir D. Child malnutrition and recurrent flooding in rural eastern India: a community-based survey. BMJ Open. 2011;1(2):e000109.
121. Sihawong R, Janwantanakul P, Pensri P. Incidence of and risk factors for musculoskeletal symptoms in the neck and low-back during severe flooding in Bangkok in 2011. J Rehabil Med. 2012;44(8):624-628.
122. Cummings KJ, Cox-Ganser J, Riggs MA, Edwards N, Hobbs GR, Kreiss K. Health effects of exposure to water-damaged New Orleans homes six months after Hurricanes Katrina and Rita. Am J Public Health. 2008;98(5):869-875.
123. Rabito FA, Iqbal S, Kiernan MP, Holt E, Chew GL. Children’s respiratory health and mold levels in New Orleans after Katrina: a preliminary look. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2008;121(3):622-625.
124. Hendrickson LA, Vogt RL. Mortality of Kauai residents in the 12-month period following Hurricane Iniki. Am J Epidemiol. 1996;144(2):188-191.
125. McKinney N, Houser C, Meyer-Arendt K. Direct and indirect mortality in Florida during the 2004 hurricane season. Int J Biometeorol. 2011;55(4):533-546.
126. Kutner NG, Muntner P, Huang Y, et al. Effect of Hurricane Katrina on the mortality of dialysis patients. Kidney Int. 2009;76(7):760-766.
127. Ahern M, Kovats RS, Wilkinson P, Few R, Matthies F. Global health impacts of floods: epidemiologic evidence. Epidemiol Rev. 2005;27:36-46.
128. Watson JT, Gayer M, Connolly MA. Epidemics after natural disasters. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(1):1-5.
129. Alson R, Alexander D, Leonard RB, Stringer LW. Analysis of medical treatment at a field hospital following Hurricane Andrew, 1992. Ann Emerg Med. 1993;22(11):1721-1728.
130. Jhung MA, Shehab N, Rohr-Allegrini C, et al. Chronic disease and disasters medication demands of Hurricane Katrina evacuees. Am J Prev Med. 2007;33(3):207-210.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
  • ISSN: 1049-023X
  • EISSN: 1945-1938
  • URL: /core/journals/prehospital-and-disaster-medicine
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *


Type Description Title
Supplementary Materials

Saulnier et al supplementary material
Saulnier et al supplementary material 1

 Word (46 KB)
46 KB


Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 280
Total number of PDF views: 562 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 1059 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between 13th June 2017 - 11th December 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.