Skip to main content
×
×
Home

A scoping literature review of collaboration between primary care and public health

  • Ruth Martin-Misener (a1), Ruta Valaitis (a2), Sabrina T. Wong (a3), Marjorie MacDonald (a4), Donna Meagher-Stewart (a5), Janusz Kaczorowski (a6), Linda O-Mara (a7), Rachel Savage (a8), Patricia Austin (a9) and the Strengthening Primary Health Care through Public Health and Primary Care Collaborations Team...
Abstract
Aim

The purpose of this scoping literature review was to determine what is known about: 1) structures and processes required to build successful collaborations between primary care (PC) and public health (PH); 2) outcomes of such collaborations; and 3) markers of their success.

Background

Collaboration between PC and PH is believed to enable more effective individual and population services than what might be achieved by either alone.

Methods

The study followed established methods for a scoping literature review and was guided by a framework that identifies systemic, organizational and interactional determinants for collaboration. The review was restricted to articles published between 1988 and 2008. Published quantitative and qualitative primary studies, evaluation research, systematic and other types of reviews, as well as descriptive accounts without an explicit research design, were included if they addressed either the structures or processes to build collaboration or the outcomes or markers of such collaboration, and were published in English.

Findings

The combined search strategy yielded 6125 articles of which 114 were included. Systemic-level factors influencing collaboration included: government involvement, policy and fit with local needs; funding and resource factors, power and control issues; and education and training. Lack of a common agenda; knowledge and resource limitations; leadership, management and accountability issues; geographic proximity of partners; and shared protocols, tools and information sharing were influential at the organizational level. Interpersonal factors included having a shared purpose; philosophy and beliefs; clear roles and positive relationships; and effective communication and decision-making strategies. Reported benefits of collaboration included: improved chronic disease management; communicable disease control; and maternal child health. More research is needed to explore the conditions and contexts in which collaboration between PC and PH makes most sense and potential gains outweigh the associated risks and costs.

Copyright
Corresponding author
Correspondence to: Dr Ruth Martin-Misener NP, PhD, Associate Professor, School of Nursing, Dalhousie University, 5869 University Ave., Halifax, Nova Scotia, B3H 4R2, Canada. Email: ruth.martin-misener@dal.ca
Footnotes
Hide All
10

Names listed at http://strengthenphc.mcmaster.ca

Footnotes
References
Hide All
Alexy, B.B.Elnitsky, C.A. 1996: Community outreach: rural mobile health unit. Journal of Nursing Administration 26, 3842.
Anderson, K., Sebaldt, R., Lohfeld, L., Karwalajtys, T., Ismaila, A., Goeree, R., Donald, F., Burgess, K.Kaczorowski, J. 2008: Patient views on reminder letters for influenza vaccinations in an older primary care patient population: a mixed methods study. Canadian Journal of Public Health 99, 133136.
Andrews, D. 2002: Management of HIV/AIDS on the mid north coast: a collaborative model of care involving general practitioners and the public health system. Australian Journal of Rural Health 10, 244248.
Arksey, H.O'Malley, L. 2005: Scoping studies: towards a methodological framework. International Journal of Social Research Methodology 8, 1932.
Arora, S., Davies, A.Thompson, S. 2000: Developing health improvement programmes: challenges for a new millennium. Journal of Interprofessional Care 14, 918.
Asaid, A.Riley, K. 2007: From solo practice to partnering – the evolution of the Elmore model of primary health. Australian Family Physician 36, 167169.
Ayres, P.J., Pollock, C.T., Wilson, A., Fox, P., Tabner, T.Hanney, I. 1996: Practical public health in a primary care setting. Discrete projects confer discrete benefits but a long-term relationship is needed. Journal of Management in Medicine 10, 3648.
Banks-Smith, J., Dowswell, T., Gillam, S.Shipman, C. 2001: Primary care groups and trusts. Nursing Times 97, 3032.
Baptiste, L.Drennan, V. 1999: Research study. Communication between school nurses and primary care teams. British Journal of Community Nursing 4, 1318.
Bennett, N.M., Lewis, B., Doniger, A.S., Bell, K., Kouides, R., LaForce, F.M.Barker, W. 1994: A coordinated, communitywide program in Monroe County, New York, to increase influenza immunization rates in the elderly. Archives of Internal Medicine 154, 17411745.
Billingham, K.Perkins, E. 1997: A public health approach to nursing in the community. Nursing Standard 11, 4346.
Bindman, A.B., Weiner, J.P.Majeed, A. 2001: Primary care groups in the United Kingdom: quality and accountability. Health Affairs 20, 132145.
Bourdages, J., Sauvageau, L.Lepage, L. 2003: Factors in creating sustainable intersectoral community mobilization for prevention of heart and lung disease. Health Promotion International 18, 135144.
Brauer, P., Schneider, T., Preece, C., Northmore, D., West, E., Dietrich, L.Davidson, B. 2006: Promoting healthy lifestyles in Ontario Family Health Networks. Canadian Journal of Dietetic Practice and Research 67 (Suppl), S39S46.
Brown, C.van Zwanenberg, T.D. 1989: Primary and community health services in Newcastle upon Tyne – a joint statement of intent. Journal of the Royal College of General Practitioners 39, 164165.
Brown, H.M. 2006: Towards effective teamwork: an examination of the perceptions of interprofessional teamwork and continuing education needs amongst primary health care providers in rural Newfoundland. Dissertation/thesis. Newfoundland: Memorial University of Newfoundland.
Brown, S., Burns, D., Chapel, H., Cronin, D., Evans, D., Gray, S., Howard, J., Kendall, L., Lewendon, G., Mackenzie, I., Miles, D., Morgan, K., Orme, J., Tolley, F.Weil, S. 2007: Public health leadership in the real world: the role of the director of public health. Public Health Medicine 6, 5860.
Butler-Jones, D. 2004: Primary health reform and public health. Public Health Agency of Canada. Retrieved on August 31, 2008 from http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/publicat/pmr_spr/
Carlisle, R., Morris, R., Whittle, S., Hargreaves, S., Fryers, P.Lindley, S. 2004: The health impact of changing to geographical working. Community Practitioner 77, 376380.
Chambers, L.W., Kaczorowski, J., Dolovich, L., Karwalajtys, T., Hall, H.L., McDonough, B., Hogg, W., Farrell, B., Hendriks, A.Levitt, C. 2005: A community-based program for cardiovascular health awareness. Canadian Journal of Public Health 96, 294298.
Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR) – Institute of Population and Public Health. 2003: The Future of public health in Canada: developing a public health system for the 21st century. Ottawa, ON: Canadian Institutes of Health Research.
Ciliska, D., Ehrlich, A.DeGuzman, A. 2005: Public health and primary care: challenges and strategies for collaboration. Hamilton, ON: Public Health Research, Education and Development Programme.
Ciliska, D., Woodcox, V.Isaacs, S. 1992: A descriptive study of the attachment of public health nurses to family physicians’ offices. Public Health Nursing 9, 5357.
Cook, G., Gerrish, K.Clarke, C. 2001: Decision-making in teams: issues arising from two UK evaluations. Journal of Interprofessional Care 15, 141151.
Cook, L. 2000: Triple integration nursing. Nursing Standard 14, 3334.
Cornell, S. 1999: Public health and primary care collaboration – a case study. Journal of Public Health 21, 199204.
Crump, R.L., Gaston, M.H.Fergerson, G. 1999: HRSA's Models That Work Program: implications for improving access to primary health care. Public Health Reports 114, 218224.
Culyer, A.J.Lomas, J. 2006: Deliberative processes and evidence-informed decision making in healthcare: do they work and how might we know? Evidence and Policy: A Journal of Research, Debate and Practice 2, 357371.
Danila, R.N., Lexau, C., Lynfield, R., Moore, K.A.Osterholm, M.T. 1997: Addressing emerging infections. The partnership between public health and primary care physicians. Postgraduate Medicine 106, 9092.
Dault, M., Lomas, J.Barer, M. 2004: Listening for direction II: National consultation on health services and policy issues for 2004–2007 Final Report. Ottawa: Canadian Health Services Research Foundation and Canadian Institutes of Health Research.
DeGuzman, A. 2007: Facilitators and barriers in the implementation of nurse practitioner roles in public health units in Ontario. Hamilton, Ontario: McMaster University.
Desai, J., Solberg, L., Clark, C., Reger, L., Pearson, T., Bishop, D., Roberts, M., Sniegowski, R.O'Connor, P. 2003: Improving diabetes care and outcomes: the secondary benefits of a public health-managed care research collaboration. Journal of Public Health Management and Practice 9 (Suppl. 16), S36S43.
Dion, X. 2004: A multidisciplinary team approach to public health working. British Journal of Community Nursing 9, 149154.
Edmonstone, J., Hamer, S.Smith, S. 2003: Integrated community nursing teams: an evaluation study. Community Practitioner 76, 386389.
Elster, A.B., Callan, C.M. and American Medical Association. 2002: Physician roles in medicine-public health collaboration: future directions of the American Medical Association. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 22, 211213.
Ewles, L. 1999: Health improvement programmes. Avon calling. Health Service Journal 109, 2425.
Fatchett, A.B. 1990: Health visiting: a withering profession? Journal of Advanced Nursing 15, 216222.
Ferguson, M.G., Berkeley, L., Fourcher, L., Guyton, B.Reiner, L.R. 1992: Health Care Linkage Project: improving access to care. Henry Ford Hospital Medical Journal 40, 912.
Ferrari, A.Rideout, B. 2005: The collaboration of public health nursing and primary care nursing in the development of a nurse managed health center. Nursing Clinics of North America 40, 771778.
Fraser, J. 2005: Population and public health in Australian general practice – changes, challenges and opportunities. Australian Family Physician 34, 177179.
Frenk, J. 2009: Reinventing primary health care: the need for systems integration. Lancet 374, 170173.
Gavagan, T. 2008: A systematic review of COPC: evidence for effectiveness. Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved 19, 963980.
Gerrish, K. 1999: Teamwork in primary care: an evaluation of the contribution of integrated nursing teams. Health and Social Care in the Community 7, 367375.
Gillam, S., Joffe, M., Miller, R., Gray, A., Epstein, L.Plamping, D. 1998: Community-oriented primary care – old wine in new bottles. Journal of Interprofessional Care 12, 5361.
Gillam, S.Schamroth, A. 2002: The community-oriented primary care experience in the United Kingdom. American Journal of Public Health 92, 17211725.
Harper, P.G., Baker, N.J.Reif, C.J. 2000: Implementing community-oriented primary care projects in an urban family practice residency program. Family Medicine 32, 683690.
Harris, K., Pickering, L., Fasano, N., Fowler, G., Gangarosa, P.Gust, D. 2007: Relationships between state health departments and medical professional organizations regarding immunizations. Journal of Public Health Management and Practice 13, 590594.
Harris, S.K., Samples, C.L., Keenan, P.M., Fox, D.J., Melchiono, M.W.Woods, E.R. 2003: Outreach, mental health, and case management services: can they help to retain HIV-positive and at-risk youth and young adults in care? Maternal and Child Health Journal 7, 205218.
Harrison, R.L., MacNab, A.J., Duffy, D.J.Benton, D.H.J. 2006: Brighter smiles: service learning, inter-professional collaboration and health promotion in a First Nations community. Canadian Journal of Public Health 97, 237240.
Harrison, S.Keen, S. 2002: Public health practitioners in NHS hospital trusts: the impact of ‘medical care epidemiologists’. Journal of Public Health Medicine 24, 1620.
Headland, C., Crown, N.Pringle, M. 2000: Specialist nursing. Integrated nursing in primary care and analysis of nurses’ caseloads. British Journal of Nursing 9, 708712.
Heller, B.R.Goldwater, M.R. 2004: The Governor's Wellmobile: Maryland's mobile primary care clinic. Journal of Nursing Education. 43, 9294.
Heller, R.F., Edwards, R., Patterson, L.Elhassan, M. 2003: Public health in Primary Care Trusts: a resource needs assessment. Public Health 117, 157164.
Hogg, R.Hanley, J. 2008: Community development in primary care: opportunities and challenges. Community Practitioner 81, 2225.
Hogg, W., Huston, P., Martin, C., Saginur, R., Newbury, A., Vilis, E.Soto, E. 2006a: Promoting best practices for control of respiratory infections: collaboration between primary care and public health services. Canadian Family Physician 52, 11101111.
Hogg, W., Huston, P., Martin, C.Soto, E. 2006b: Enhancing public health response to respiratory epidemics: are family physicians ready and willing to help? Canadian Family Physician 52, 12541260.
Hopayian, K., Harvey, I., Howe, A.Horrocks, G. 2005: Perceived aids and barriers to clinical effectiveness in the work of primary care organisations in England: a qualitative study. Quality in Primary Care 13, 1724.
Hripcsak, G., Knirsch, C.A., Jain, N.L., Stazesky, R.C. Jr, Pablos-Mendez, A.Fulmer, T. 1999: A health information network for managing innercity tuberculosis: bridging clinical care, public health, and home care. Computers and Biomedical Research 32, 6776.
Hurley, C., Baum, F., Johns, J.Labonte, R. 2010: Comprehensive primary health care in Australia: findings from a narrative review of the literature. Australasian Medical Journal 1, 147152.
Hurst, K., Ford, J.Gleeson, C. 2002: Evaluating self-managed integrated community teams. Journal of Management in Medicine 16, 463483.
Huston, P., Hogg, W., Martin, C., Soto, E.Newbury, A. 2006: A process evaluation of an intervention to improve respiratory infection control practices in family physician offices. Canadian Journal of Public Health 97, 475479.
Hutchison, B., Abelson, J.Lavis, J. 2001: Primary care in Canada: so much innovation, so little change. Health Affairs 20, 116131.
Hutchison, B. 2008: A long time coming: primary healthcare renewal in Canada. Healthcare Papers 8, 1024.
Iliffe, S.Lenihan, P. 2003: Integrating primary care and public health: learning from the community-oriented primary care model. International Journal of Health Servey 33, 8598.
Iliffe, S., Lenihan, P., Wallace, P., Drennan, V., Blanchard, M.Harris, A. 2002: Applying community-oriented primary care methods in British general practice: a case study. The British Journal of General Practice: The Journal of the Royal College of General Practitioners 52, 646651.
Jackson, C.L.Marley, J.E. 2007: A tale of two cities: academic service, research, teaching and community practice partnerships delivering for disadvantaged Australian communities. Medical Journal of Australia 187, 8487.
Jenkins, M.L.Sullivan-Marx, E.M. 1994: Nurse practitioners and community health nurses. Clinical partnerships and future visions. Nursing Clinics of North America 29, 459470.
Jewell, T.Griffiths, S. 2001: Shifting the balance of power and managed public health networks. Public Health Medicine 3, 4547.
Joint Task Group on Public Health Human Resources. 2005: Building the public health workforce: a Pan-Canadian framework for public health human resource planning. Retrieved 31 August 2008 from http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/php-psp/pdf/building_the_public_health_workforce_fo_%20the-21stc_e.pdf
Jordan, J., Wright, J., Wilkinson, J.Williams, R. 1998: Assessing local health needs in primary care: understanding and experience in three English districts. Quality in Health Care 7, 8389.
Kaufman, A., Derksen, D., Alfero, C., DeFelice, R., Sava, S., Tomedi, A., Baptiste, N., Jaeger, L.Powell, W. 2006: The Health Commons and care of New Mexico's uninsured. Annals of Family Medicine 4 (Suppl. 1), S22S27.
Kearney, M., Bradbury, C., Ellahi, B., Hodgson, M.Thurston, M. 2005: Mainstreaming prevention: prescribing fruit and vegetables as a brief intervention in primary care. Public Health 119, 981986.
Kilduff, A., McKeown, K.Crowther, A. 1998: Health needs assessment in primary care: the evolution of a practical public health approach. Public Health 112, 175181.
Koponen, P.Kalkas, H. 1997: Practice patterns of Finnish public health nurses. International Journal of Nursing Practice 3, 97104.
Lamarche, P.A., Beaulieu, M., Pinealut, R., Contandriopoulos, A., Denis, J.Haggery, J. 2003: Choices for change: the path for restructuring primary healthcare services in Canada. Retrieved 28 August 2008 from http://www.chsrf.ca/Migrated/PDF/ResearchReports/CommissionedResearch/choices_for_change_e.pdf
Lambrew, J.M., Ricketts, T.C. III.Morrissey, J.P. 1993: Case study of the integration of a local health department and a community health center. Public Health Reports 108, 1929.
Larson, K., Levy, J., Rome, M.G., Matte, T.D., Silver, L.D.Frieden, T.R. 2006: Public health detailing: a strategy to improve the delivery of clinical preventive services in New York City. Public Health Reports 121, 228234.
Lasker, R.D. 2002: Maximizing the power of partnerships: a team-based workshop. In Community Campus Partnerships for Health Conference, Miami, FL, May 4, 2002, pp. 2–10.
Lasker, R.D. and The Committee on Medicine and Public Health. 1997: Medicine and public health. The power of collaboration. New York: New York Academy of Medicine.
Lea, D.H., Johnson, J.L., Ellingwood, S., Allan, W., Patel, A.Smith, R. 2005: Telegenetics in Maine: successful clinical and educational service delivery model developed from a 3-year pilot project. Genetics in Medicine 7, 2127.
Lemelin, J., Hogg, W.Baskerville, N. 2001: Evidence to action: a tailored multifaceted approach to changing family physician practice patterns and improving preventive care. Canadian Medical Association Journal 164, 757763.
Lundeen, S.P., Friedbacher, B., Thomas, M.Jackson, T. 1997: Testing the viability of collaborative interdisciplinary practice in community-focused primary health care: a case study in change. Wisconsin Medical Journal 96, 3036.
Machala, M.Miner, M.W. 1994: Money isn't everything: rural physicians identify other factors that facilitate providing prenatal care for low-income women. Public Health Reports 109, 441445.
Mack, D., Brantley, K.M.Bell, K.G. 2007: Mitigating the health effects of disasters for medically underserved populations: electronic health records, telemedicine, research, screening, and surveillance. Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved 18, 432442.
Malcolm, L.Barnett, P. 1995: Decentralisation, integration and accountability: perceptions of New Zealand's top health service managers. Health Services Management Research 8, 121134.
Margolis, P.A., Stevens, R., Bordley, W.C., Stuart, J., Harlan, C., Keyes-Elstein, L.Wisseh, S. 2001: From concept to application: the impact of a community-wide intervention to improve the delivery of preventive services to children. Pediatrics 108, e42, pp. 110.
Marks, L.Hunter, D.J. 2005: Moving upstream or muddying the waters? Incentives for managing for health. Public Health 119, 974980.
Mayo, K., White, S., Oates, S.K.Franklin, F. 1996: Community collaboration: prevention and control of tuberculosis in a homeless shelter. Public Health Nursing 13, 120127.
McDonald, A.L., Langford, I.H.Boldero, N. 1997: The future of community nursing in the United Kingdom: district nursing, health visiting and school nursing. Journal of Advanced Nursing 26, 257265.
McDonald, J., Powell Davies, G.Fort Harris, M. 2009: Interorganisational and interprofessional partnership approaches to achieve more coordinated and integrated primary and community health services: The Australian experience. Australian Journal of Primary Health 15, 262269.
McElmurry, B.J., McCreary, L.L., Park, C.G., Ramos, L., Martinez, E., Parikh, R., Kozik, K.Fogelfeld, L. 2009: Implementation, outcomes, and lessons learned from a collaborative primary health care program to improve diabetes care among urban Latino populations. Health Promotion Practice, 10, 293302.
Meyrick, J. 2004: View from the front: three key challenges facing Public Health in one London Primary Care Trust. Public Health Medicine 5, 6771.
Michener, J.L., Champagne, M.T., Yaggy, D., Yaggy, S.D.Krause, K.M. 2005: Making a home in the community for the academic medical center. Academic Medicine 80, 5761.
Morgan, S.Kelly, P.M. 2004: Enhancing the population health capacity of general practice: an innovative training model for general practice registrars. Australian Family Physician 33, 473474.
Muldoon, L.K., Hogg, W.E.Levitt, M. 2006: Primary care (PC) and primary health care (PHC) – What is the difference? Canadian Journal of Public Health – Revue Canadienne de Sante Publique 97, 409411.
Naylor, D., Basrur, S., Bergeron, M., Brunham, R., Butler-Jones, D., Dafoe, G., Ferguson-Pare, M., Lussing, F., McGeer, A., Neufeld, K.Plummer, F. 2003: Learning from SARS: renewal of public health in Canada. Ottawa: Health Canada.
O'Neil, M.Clarkson, H. 2002: “Reaching families with young children”: a community dental health project for preventing early childhood caries. Probe 36, 145148.
Olney, R.S.Yoon, P.W. 2007: Role of family medical history information in pediatric primary care and public health: introduction. Pediatrics 120 (Suppl. 9), S57S59.
Ontario Ministry of Health and Long Term Care. 2006: Revitalizing Ontario's public health capacity: the final report of the Capacity Review Committee. Retrieved 31 August 2008 from http://www.health.gov.on.ca/english/public/pub/ministry_reports/capacity_review06/capacity_review06.pdf
Oros, M., Johantgen, M., Antol, S., Heller, B.R.Ravella, P. 2001: Community-based nursing centers: a model for health care delivery in the 21st century. Community-based nursing centers: challenges and opportunities in implementation and sustainability. Policy, Politics, and Nursing Practice 2, 277287.
Peckham, S.Hann, A. 2008: General practice and public health: assessing the impact of the new GMS contract. Critical Public Health 18, 347356.
Pierce, R., Pittard, A., West, T.Richardson, M. 2007: Medical response to hurricanes Katrina and Rita: local public health preparedness in action. Journal of Public Health Management and Practice 13, 441446.
Porter, P.G., Ross, L., Chapman, R.W., Kohatsu, N.D.Fox, P. 2007: Medicine and public health partnerships: predictors of success. San Francisco, CA: Institute for Health and Aging, University of California.
Poulton, B. 2000: Reorganising primary care: the Northern Ireland approach. Primary Health Care 10, 1014.
Public Health Agency of Canada. 2007: Core competencies for public health in Canada [Release 1.0]. Ottawa: Public Health Agency of Canada.
Public Health Research Education and Development (PHRED) Program Sudbury and District Health Unit. 2006: Evaluation of the prenatal and postnatal nurse practitioner services initiative: final report. Sudbury: PHRED Program, Sudbury and District Health Unit.
QSR International Pty Ltd. 2008. NVivo qualitative data analysis software, Version 8. Cambridge, MA: QSR International Pty Ltd.
Rachlis, M. 2006: Public health and primary care collaboration. Toronto: Public Health Agency of Canada.
Record, N.B., Harris, D.E., Record, S.S., Gilbert-Arcari, J., Desisto, M.Bunnell, S. 2000: Mortality impact of an integrated community cardiovascular health program. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 19, 3038.
Renfrew, B.L., Kempe, A., Lowery, N.E., Chandramouli, V., Steiner, J.F.Berman, S. 2001: The impact of immunization record aggregation on up-to-date rates – implications for immunization registries in rural areas. Journal of Rural Health 17, 122126.
Riley, A.J., Harding, G., Meads, G., Underwood, M.R.Carter, Y.H. 2003: An evaluation of personal medical services: the times they are achangin. Journal of Interprofessional Care 17, 127139.
Roff, M. 2003: Levelling the playing fields of England: promoting health in deprived communities. Journal of the Royal Society of Health 123, 2022.
Rogers, W., Veale, B.Weller, D. 1999: Evaluation of the interface between general practice and population health in research funded by the General Practice Evaluation Program. Australian Journal of Primary Health – Interchange 5, 5154.
Rothman, N.L., Lourie, R.J., Brian, D.Foley, M. 2005: Temple Health Connection: a successful collaborative model of community-based primary health care. Journal of Cultural Diversity 12, 145151.
Rumrill, P.D., Fitzgerald, S.M.Merchant, W.R. 2010: Using scoping literature reviews as a means of understanding and interpreting existing literature. Work – A Journal of Prevention Assessment and Rehabilitation 35, 399404.
Russell, G., Geneau, R., Liddy, C., Hogg, W., Hogan, K. 2007: Mapping the future of primary healthcare in Canada: A report to the Canadian Health Services Research Foundation. Ottawa: Canadian Health Services Research Foundation.
Russell, G., Sutton, J., Reid, G.J., Beynon, C., Cohen, I.Huffman, D. 2003: Universal influenza immunization. Were Ontario family physicians prepared? Canadian Family Physician 49, 13151321.
San Martin-Rodriguez, L., Beaulieu, M.D., Amour, D.Ferrada Videla, M. 2005: The determinants of successful collaboration: a review of theoretical and empirical studies. Journal of Interprofessional Care 19 (Suppl. 1), 132147.
Sanders, M.R., Ralph, A., Sofronoff, K., Gardiner, P., Thompson, R., Dwyer, S.Bidwell, K. 2008: Every family: a population approach to reducing behavioral and emotional problems in children making the transition to school. Journal of Primary Prevention 29, 197222.
Scott, R.J. 1999: Toward self-empowered community teams within Inuvik Regional Health and Social Services Board. Dissertation/thesis. Canada: Royal Roads University.
Shandro, G. 2003: Primary care partnerships project: the Crowfoot Project. Health Innovation Fund Project no. 81. Final project team report. Retrieved 29 August 2008 from http://www.health.alberta.ca/key/phc_IE_081PrimaryPartnershipsProject.pdf
Shaw, S., Ashcroft, J.Petchey, R. 2006: Barriers and opportunities for developing sustainable relationships for health improvement: the case of public health and primary care in the UK. Critical Public Health 16, 7388.
Shirin, E., Scotten, E.S.Absher, A.C. 2006: Creating community-based access to primary healthcare for the uninsured through strategic alliances and restructuring local health department programs. Journal of Public Health Management and Practice 12, 446451.
Starfield, B. 1998: Primary care: balancing health needs, services and technology. New York: Oxford University Press.
Stevenson Rowan, M.S., Hogg, W.Huston, P 2007: Integrating public health and primary care. Healthcare Policy/Politiques de Santq 3, 122.
Taylor, M., Stokes, W., Bajuscak, R., Serdula, M., Siegel, K., Griffin, B., Keiser, J., Agate, L., Kite-Powell, A., Roach, D., Humbert, N., Brusuelas, K.Shekar, S. 2007: Mobilizing mobile medical units for hurricane relief: The United States Public Health Service and Broward County Health Department response to hurricane Wilma, Broward County, Florida. Journal of Public Health Management and Practice 13, 447452.
Thackway, S.V., Delpech, V.C., Jorm, L.R., McAnulty, J.M.Visotina, M. 2000: Monitoring acute diseases during the Sydney 2000 Olympic and Paralympic games. Medical Journal of Australia 173, 318321.
The Change Foundation. 2009: Integrated health care in England: lessons for Ontario. Toronto: The Change Foundation.
The Leeds and Grenville and Lanark District Health Unit. 2000: Rideau district high school clinic evaluation. Retrieved 31 August 2008 from http://www.healthunit.org/reportpub/evaluations/rideau_clinic.pdf
The Network Towards Unity for Health. 2008: Integrating medicine and public health. Retrieved 31 August 2008 from http://www.the-networktufh.org/publications_resources/positioncontent.asp?id=8andt=Position+Papers
Thomas, C.P., Cashman, S.Fulmer, H. 1995: The cluster committee: setting the stage for community-responsive care. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 11, 918.
Valaitis, R., Martin-Misener, R., Wong, S., MacDonald, M., Meagher-Stewart, D., Austin, P., Kaczorowski, J., O-Mara, L. and the Strengthening Primary Health Care through Public Health and Primary Care Collaborations Team. 2011. Methods and technologies strategies used in conducting a scoping literature review of collaboration between primary care and public health. Primary Health Care Research and Development (in press).
Voelker, R. 1994: Population-based medicine merges clinical care, epidemiologic techniques. Journal of the American Medical Association 271, 13011302.
Wedel, R., Kalischuk, R.G.Patterson, E. 2007: Turning vision into reality: successful integration of primary healthcare in Taber, Canada. Healthcare Policy/Politiques de Santq 3, 8095.
Weiss, E.S., Anderson, R.M.Lasker, R.D. 2002: Making the most of collaboration: exploring the relationship between partnership synergy and partnership functioning. Health Education and Behavior 29, 683698.
Welton, W.E., Kantner, T.A.Katz, S.M. 1997: Developing tomorrow's integrated community health systems: a leadership challenge for public health and primary care. Milbank Quarterly 75, 261288.
Wiles, R.Robison, J. 1994: Teamwork in primary care: the views and experiences of nurses, midwives and health visitors. Journal of Advanced Nursing 20, 324330.
Williams, J.F., Riegelman, R.K.Grossman, J.H. 1999: Academic health centers can bridge the gulf between medicine and public health. Academic Medicine 74, 484487.
Wilson, A.H., Wold, J.L., Spencer, L.Pittman, K. 2000: Primary health care for Hispanic children of migrant farm workers. Journal of Pediatric Health Care 14, 209215.
Wood, N., Farrow, S.Elliott, B. 1994: A review of primary health-care organization. Journal of Clinical Nursing 3, 243250.
World Health Organization (WHO). 1978: Declaration of Alma Ata. Geneva: WHO.
World Health Organization (WHO). 2008: Primary health care – now more than ever. Geneva: WHO.
Xyrichis, A.Lowton, K. 2008: What fosters or prevents interprofessional teamworking in primary and community care? A literature review. International Journal of Nursing Studies 45, 140153.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Primary Health Care Research & Development
  • ISSN: 1463-4236
  • EISSN: 1477-1128
  • URL: /core/journals/primary-health-care-research-and-development
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed