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Atoms Versus Bits: Consumer Protection in the (Cyber) Trade Regime

  • Sonia E. Rolland (a1)


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1 See, e.g., Reidenberg, Joel, Technology and Internet Jurisdiction, 156 U. Pa. L. Rev. 1951 (2005).

2 Yahoo! Inc. v. La Ligue Contre le Racisme et L’Antisémitisme; L’Union des Étudiants Juifs de France, 433 F.3d 1199 (9th Cir. 2006).

3 Code Pénal [C. Pén.] art. R645-1 (Fr.).

4 L’Union des étudiants juifs de France et La ligue contre le racisme et l’antisémitisme contre Yahoo! Inc. et Yahoo France, Tribunal de grande instance de Paris (May 22, 2000).

5 Panel Report, United States—Measures Affecting the Cross-Border Supply of Gambling and Betting Services, WT/DS285/R (Apr. 20, 2005), as modified by Appellate Body Report WT/DS285/AB/R, DSR 2005:XII, at 5797.

6 Generación de Confianza en el Comercio Electrónico (Building Trust in E-Commerce) (Estudio Jurídico Altmark & Brenna), at 62.

7 See, e.g., Delisle, Jacques & Trujillo, Elisabeth, Consumer Protection in Transnational Contexts, 58 Am. J. Comp. L. 135, 139–59 (2010); Kightlinger, Mark F., Cyberage Conflicts Law: A Solution to the Yahoo! Problem? The EC E-Commerce Directive as a Model for International Cooperation on Internet Choice of Law, 24 Mich. J. Int’l L. 719 (2003); O’Hara, Erin Ann, Choice of Law for Internet Transactions: The Uneasy Case for Online Consumer Protection, 153 U. Pa. L. Rev. 1883 (2005).

8 For a full examination of the role of consumer interests in WTO law, see Rolland, Sonia E., Are Consumer-Oriented Rules the New Frontier of Trade Liberalizations? 55 Harv. Int’l L.J. 401 (2014).

9 See, e.g., Swire, Peter P., Elephants and Mice Revisited: Law and Choice of Law on the Internet, 153 U. Pa. L. Rev. 1975 , 1987–88 (2005).

10 Perritt, Henry H. Jr., The Internet and Public International Law: The Internet Is Changing the Public International Legal System, 88 Ky. L.J. 885 (19992000).

11 On U.S.-EU data protection standards, see Shaffer, Greg, Globalization and Social Protection: The Impact of EU and International Rules in the Ratcheting Up of U.S. Data Privacy Standards, 25 Yale J. Int’l L. 1 (2000).

12 See, e.g., Aguilar, John, Over the Rainbow European and American Consumer Protection Policy and Remedy Conflicts on the Internet and a Possible Solution, 4 Int’l J. Comm. L. & Pol’y 1 (19992000); Kesan, Jay P. & Gallo, Andres A., Optimizing Regulation of Electronic Commerce, 72 U. Cin. L. Rev. 1497 (2004).

13 Raymond, Anjanette H. & Lambert, J. Benjamin, Technology, E-commerce and the Emerging Harmonization: The Growing Body of International Instruments Facilitating E-commerce and the Continuing Need to Encourage Wide Adoption, 17 Int’l Trade & Bus. L. Rev. 419 (2014).

Atoms Versus Bits: Consumer Protection in the (Cyber) Trade Regime

  • Sonia E. Rolland (a1)


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