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Leashing the “Dogs of War”: Examining the Effects of LOAC Training at the U.S. Military Academy and in Army ROTC

  • Andrew Bell (a1)



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1 See, e.g., Robert O. Keohane, After Hegemony (1984); Keohane, Robert O., International Relations and International Law: Two Optics, 38 Harv. J. Int’l L. 487–502 (1997); Dickinson, Laura A., Military Lawyers on the Battlefield: An Empirical Account of International Law Compliance, 104 AJIL 1–28 (2010); Kahl, Colin H., In the Crossfire or the Crosshairs? Norms, Civilian Casualties, and U.S. Conduct in Iraq, 32 Int’l Security 7–46 (2007); Morrow, James D., When Do States Follow the Laws of War? 101 Am. Pol. Sci. Rev. 559–72 (2007).

2 See, e.g., Jack L. Goldsmith & Eric A. Posner, The Limits of International Law (2006).

3 Geneva Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded and Sick in Armed Forces in the Field art. 3, Aug. 12, 1949, 6 U.S.T. 3114, 75 U.N.T.S. 31; Geneva Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of Wounded, Sick and Shipwrecked Members of Armed Forces at Sea art. 3, Aug. 12, 1949, 6 U.S.T. 3217, 75 U.N.T.S. 85; Geneva Convention Relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War art. 3, Aug. 12, 1949, 6 U.S.T. 3316, 75 U.N.T.S. 135; Geneva Convention Relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War art. 3, Aug. 12, 1949, 6 U.S.T. 3516, 75 U.N.T.S. 287.

4 Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and Relating to the Protections of Victims of International Armed Conflicts (Protocol I), 8 June 1977 arts. 48, 51, 1125 U.N.T.S. 3.

5 Id. arts. 80, 83(2) & 87(2). See also ICRC, Integrating The Law (2007).

6 See, e.g., Valentino, Benjamin A., Huth, Paul & Croco, Sarah, Covenants Without the Sword: International Law and the Protection of Civilians in Times of War, 58 World Pol. 339–77 (2006) . On the strategic incentives for targeting civilians, see also Alexander B. Downes, Targeting Civilians in War (2008).

7 See Parks, W. Hays, The United States Military and the Law of War: Inculcating an Ethos, 69 Soc. Res. 981, 982 (2002). See also McMaster, H.R., Remaining True to Our Values—Reflections on Military Ethics in Trying Times, 9 J. Mil. Ethics 183, 186 (2010).

8 Over 90 West Point graduates have been killed in the wars in Iraq, Afghanistan, and in the “Global War on Terror.” See In Memoriam: Deaths in Iraq, Afghanistan and GWOT, West Point Association of Graduates, (last visited Mar. 11, 2013); Rick Hampson, At West Point, a Quiet Place to Honor Warriors, (2012), (last visited Mar. 11, 2013).

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Proceedings of the ASIL Annual Meeting
  • ISSN: 0272-5037
  • EISSN: 2169-1118
  • URL: /core/journals/proceedings-of-the-asil-annual-meeting
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