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Published online by Cambridge University Press:  11 June 2020

P. Kong*
TUMCREATE Ltd, Singapore
H. Cornet
TUMCREATE Ltd, Singapore
F. Frenkler
Technical University of Munich, Germany


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In an era of increased automation in commuters’ everyday life, addressing the disconnect caused by taking the human out of the loop is critical. This paper describes the development of two extreme Companions for a public autonomous bus interface in Singapore. Attributes were identified in a benchmarking study and tested in a survey to investigate local users’ key preferences for must-have and ideal-to-have traits and Companion qualities. Finally, two contrasting Companion concepts are proposed and design strategies considering user expectations of Companions versus humans are discussed.

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The Author(s), 2020. Published by Cambridge University Press


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