Skip to main content Accessibility help
Hostname: page-component-7bb4899584-z9rhp Total loading time: 0.277 Render date: 2023-01-26T23:07:58.466Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "useRatesEcommerce": false } hasContentIssue true


Published online by Cambridge University Press:  11 June 2020

S. Stadler*
TUMCREATE Ltd, Singapore
H. Cornet
TUMCREATE Ltd, Singapore
D. Mazeas
TUMCREATE Ltd, Singapore
J.-R. Chardonnet
Arts et Métiers ParisTech, France
F. Frenkler
Technical University of Munich, Germany


HTML view is not available for this content. However, as you have access to this content, a full PDF is available via the ‘Save PDF’ action button.

Computer-Aided Design (CAD) constitutes an important tool for industrial designers. Similarly, Virtual Reality (VR) has the capability to revolutionize how designers work with its increased sense of scale and perspective. However, existing VR CAD applications are limited in terms of functionality and intuitive control. Based on a comparison of VR CAD applications, ImPro, a new application for immersive prototyping for industrial designers was developed. The user evaluations and comparisons show that ImPro offers increased usability, functionality, and suitability for industrial designers.

Creative Commons
Creative Common License - CCCreative Common License - BYCreative Common License - NCCreative Common License - ND
This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives licence (, which permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is unaltered and is properly cited. The written permission of Cambridge University Press must be obtained for commercial re-use or in order to create a derivative work.
The Author(s), 2020. Published by Cambridge University Press


Akca, E. (2017), “Development of Computer-Aided Industrial Design Technology”, Periodicals of Engineering and Natural Sciences (PEN), Vol. 5 No. 2, pp. 124127. Scholar
Arora, R. et al. (2017), “Experimental Evaluation of Sketching on Surfaces in VR”, Proceedings of the 2017 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems - CHI ‘17, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), Denver. Scholar
Autodesk (2019), 3ds max - 3d modeling and rendering software for design visualization, games, and animation, [online] Available at: (accessed 7.10.2019).Google Scholar
Berg, L.P. and Vance, J.M. (2016), “Industry use of virtual reality in product design and manufacturing: a survey”, Virtual Reality, Vol. 21 No. 1. Scholar
Bishop, I.D., Wherrett, J.A.R. and Miller, D.R. (2001), “Assessment of path choices on a country walk using a virtual environment”, Landscape and Urban Planning, Vol. 52 No. 4, pp. 225237. Scholar
Boothroyd, G. (1994), “Product design for manufacture and assembly”, Computer-Aided Design, Vol. 26 No. 7, pp. 505520. Scholar
Brooke, J. (1996), “SUS: A “quick and dirty” usability scale”, In: Jordan, P.W., Thomas, B., Weerdmeester, B. and McClelland, A.L. (Eds.), Usability Evaluation in Industry, Taylor & Francis, London.Google Scholar
Cambridge Dictionary (2014), Virtual Reality, [online] Cambridge University Press, Available at: (accessed 26.01.2019).Google Scholar
Cross, N. (2006), Designerly ways of knowing, Designerly Ways of Knowing, Springer, London. Scholar
Cross, N. (1999), “Design Research: A Disciplined Conversation”, Design Issues, Vol. 15 No. 2, pp. 510.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Deb, S. et al. (2017), “Efficacy of virtual reality in pedestrian safety research”, Applied Ergonomics, Vol. 65, pp. 449460. ScholarPubMed
Flyingshapes (2019), Flyingshapes, [online] Available at: (accessed 29.08.2019).Google Scholar
Freeman, I.J., Salmon, J.L. and Coburn, J.Q. (2017), “CAD Integration in Virtual Reality Design Reviews for Improved Engineering Model Interaction”, Proceedings of the ASME 2016 International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, ASME, Phoenix. Scholar
Google (2017), Google Blocks, [online] Available at: (accessed 29.08. 2019).Google Scholar
Gravity Sketch (2017), Gravity Sketch, [online] Available at: (accessed 29.08.2019).Google Scholar
Heufler, G. (2004), Design Basics - From Ideas to Products, Niggli Verlag AG, Zürich.Google Scholar
Hirsch, S. (2014), Gestaltung und Umbruch - Industrie Design als Mittel sozioökonomischer Wertschöpfung, Diplomica Verlag, Hamburg.Google Scholar
Keeley, D. (2018), The use of Virtual Reality Sketching in the conceptual stages of Product Design, [Department of Design & Engineering], Bournemouth University.Google Scholar
Microsoft (2019), Maquette, [online] Available at: (accessed 29.08.2019).Google Scholar
Mihelj, M., Novak, D. and Beguš, S. (2013) Virtual Reality Technology and Applications, Springer Science+Business Media, Dodrecht. Scholar
Mindesk (2019) Mindesk. [online] Available at: (accessed 29.08. 2019).Google Scholar
Nielsen, J. and Molich, R. (1990), “Heuristic Evaluation of User Interfaces”, Proceedings of the 1990 CHI Conference on Empowering People - CHI’90, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), Seattle. Scholar
Ottosson, S. (2002), “Virtual reality in the product development process”, Journal of Engineering Design, Vol. 13 No. 2, pp. 159172. Scholar
Polson, P.G. et al. (1992), “Cognitive walkthroughs: a method for theory-based evaluation of user interfaces”, International Journal of Man-Machine Studies, Vol. 36 No. 5, pp. 741773. Scholar
Rhinoceros (2019), Rhinoceros, [online] Available at: (accessed 7.10.2019).Google Scholar
Rieuf, V. and Bouchard, C. (2017), “Emotional activity in early immersive design: Sketches and moodboards in virtual reality”, Design Studies, Vol. 48, pp. 4375. Scholar
Rubin, J. and Chisnell, D. (2008), Handbook of usability testing: How to plan, design, and conduct effective tests, Wiley Publishing, Indianapolis.Google Scholar
Stadler, S., Cornet, H. and Frenkler, F. (2019), “A Study in Virtual Reality on (Non -) Gamers, Attitudes and Behaviors”, Proceedings of the 26th IEEE Conference on Virtual Reality and 3D User Interfaces, IEEE, Osaka. Scholar
Stadler, S. et al. (2019), “A Tool, not a Toy: Using Virtual Reality to Evaluate the Communication Between Autonomous Vehicles and Pedestrians”, In: tom Dieck, M.C. and Jung, T.H. (Eds.), Augmented Reality and Virtual Reality, Springer Nature Switzerland, Cham.Google Scholar
Tovey, M. (1989), “Drawing and CAD in industrial design”, Design Studies, Vol. 10 No. 1, pp. 2439. Scholar
Wendrich, R.E. (2010), “Raw shaping form finding: Tacit tangible CAD”, Computer-Aided Design and Applications, Vol. 7 No. 4, pp. 505531. Scholar
You have Access Open access
Cited by

Save article to Kindle

To save this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Available formats

Save article to Dropbox

To save this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Available formats

Save article to Google Drive

To save this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Available formats

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *