Hostname: page-component-5d59c44645-kw98b Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-02-22T12:15:45.873Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

GEOMETRICAL BENCHMARKING OF LASER POWDER BED FUSION SYSTEMS BASED ON DESIGNER NEEDS

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  27 July 2021

Joaquin Montero*
Affiliation:
University of the Bundeswehr Munich Bundeswehr Research Institute for Materials, Fuels and Lubricants (WIWeB)
Sebastian Weber
Affiliation:
University of the Bundeswehr Munich Bundeswehr Research Institute for Materials, Fuels and Lubricants (WIWeB)
Christoph Petroll
Affiliation:
Bundeswehr Research Institute for Materials, Fuels and Lubricants (WIWeB)
Stefan Brenner
Affiliation:
University of the Bundeswehr Munich
Matthias Bleckmann
Affiliation:
Bundeswehr Research Institute for Materials, Fuels and Lubricants (WIWeB)
Kristin Paetzold
Affiliation:
University of the Bundeswehr Munich
Vesna Nedeljkovic-Groha
Affiliation:
University of the Bundeswehr Munich
*
Montero, Joaquin, University of the Bundeswehr Munich, Institute for Technical Product Development, Germany, j.montero@unibw.de

Abstract

Core share and HTML view are not available for this content. However, as you have access to this content, a full PDF is available via the ‘Save PDF’ action button.

Commercially available metal Laser Powder Bed Fusion (L-PBF) systems are steadily evolving. Thus, design limitations narrow and the diversity of achievable geometries widens. This progress leads researchers to create innovative benchmarks to understand the new system capabilities. Thereby, designers can update their knowledge base in design for additive manufacturing (DfAM). To date, there are plenty of geometrical benchmarks that seek to develop generic test artefacts. Still, they are often complex to measure, and the information they deliver may not be relevant to some designers. This article proposes a geometrical benchmarking approach for metal L-PBF systems based on the designer needs. Furthermore, Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing (GD&T) characteristics enhance the approach. A practical use-case is presented, consisting of developing, manufacturing, and measuring a meaningful and straightforward geometric test artefact. Moreover, optical measuring systems are used to create a tailored uncertainty map for benchmarking two different L-PBF systems.

Type
Article
Creative Commons
Creative Common License - CCCreative Common License - BYCreative Common License - NCCreative Common License - ND
This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives licence (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/), which permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is unaltered and is properly cited. The written permission of Cambridge University Press must be obtained for commercial re-use or in order to create a derivative work.
Copyright
The Author(s), 2021. Published by Cambridge University Press

References

Abdel Ghany, K. and Moustafa, S.F. (2006), “Comparison between the products of four RPM systems for metals”, Rapid Prototyping Journal, Vol. 12 No. 2, pp. 8694. http://doi.org/10.1108/13552540610652429CrossRefGoogle Scholar
ASME. (2018), Dimensioning and Tolerancing Y14.5-2018., ASME.Google Scholar
Atzberger, A., Montero, J., Schmidt, T.S., Bleckmann, M. and Paetzold, K. (2018), “Characteristics of a metal additive manufacturing process for the production of spare parts”, Symposium on Design for X, Vol. 29, pp. 8394.Google Scholar
Bikas, H., Lianos, A.K. and Stavropoulos, P. (2019), “A design framework for additive manufacturing”, The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, Vol. 103 No. 9-12, pp. 37693783. http://doi.org/10.1007/s00170-019-03627-zCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Calignano, F., Lorusso, M., Pakkanen, J., Trevisan, F., Ambrosio, E.P., Manfredi, D. and Fino, P. (2017), “Investigation of accuracy and dimensional limits of part produced in aluminum alloy by selective laser melting”, The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, Vol. 88 No. 1-4, pp. 451458. http://doi.org/10.1007/s00170-016-8788-9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dowling, L., Kennedy, J., O'Shaughnessy, S. and Trimble, D. (2020), “A review of critical repeatability and reproducibility issues in powder bed fusion”, Materials & Design, Vol. 186, p. 108346. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2019.108346CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fraunhofer, ILT. (2020), “Novel LPBF Machine Concept for Additive Manufacturing of Large Components”, FutureAM – Next Generation Additive Manufacturing, 21 November, p. 1. https://www.futuream.fraunhofer.de/en/news_and_media/video-lpbf-scalable-machine-concept.htmlGoogle Scholar
Giganto, S., Martínez-Pellitero, S., Cuesta, E., Meana, V.M. and Barreiro, J. (2020), “Analysis of Modern Optical Inspection Systems for Parts Manufactured by Selective Laser Melting”, Sensors, Vol. 20 No. 11, p. 3202. http://doi.org/10.3390/s20113202CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gruber, S., Grunert, C., Riede, M., López, E., Marquardt, A., Brueckner, F. and Leyens, C. (2020), “Comparison of dimensional accuracy and tolerances of powder bed based and nozzle based additive manufacturing processes”, Journal of Laser Applications, Vol. 32 No. 3, p. 032016. http://doi.org/10.2351/7.0000115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
ISO. (2015), ISO / ASTM52900-15, Terminology for Additive Manufacturing - General Principles - Terminology, ASTM International. https://doi.org/10.1520/ISOASTM52900-15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
ISO. (2017), ISO 1101:2017(En) Geometrical Product Specifications (GPS) — Geometrical Tolerancing — Tolerances of Form, Orientation, Location and Run-Out, ISO, available at: https://www.iso.org/standard/66777.htmlGoogle Scholar
Kamarudin, K., Wahab, M.S., Raus, A.A., Ahmed, A. and Shamsudin, S. (2017), “Benchmarking of dimensional accuracy and surface roughness for AlSi10Mg part by selective laser melting (SLM)”, AIP Conference Proceedings 1831.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kniepkamp, M., Fischer, J. and Abele, E. (2016), “Dimensional Accuracy of Small Parts Manufactured by Selective Laser Melting”, presented at the Solid Freeform Fabrication 2016: Proceedings of the 26th Annual International Solid Freeform Fabrication Symposium – An Additive Manufacturing Conference, Austin, TX, USA, available at: http://utw10945.utweb.utexas.edu/sites/default/files/2016/122-Kniepkamp.pdf.Google Scholar
Kruth, J.-P., Van Den Broucke, B., Van Vaerenbergh, J. and Mercelis, P. (2005), “Benchmarking of different SLS/SLM processes as Rapid Manufacturing techniques”, International Conference Polymers & Moulds Innovations (PMI), presented at the International Conference Polymers & Moulds Innovations (PMI), Gent, Belgium.Google Scholar
Mahesh, M. (2004), Rapid Prototyping and Manufacturing Benchmarking, PhD Thesis, National University of Singapore, Singapore, available at: http://scholarbank.nus.edu.sg/handle/10635/14697.Google Scholar
Majeed, A., Lv, J., Zhang, Y., Muzamil, M., Waqas, A., Shamim, K., Qureshi, M.E., et al. (2019), “An investigation into the influence of processing parameters on the surface quality of AlSi10Mg parts by SLM process”, 2019 16th International Bhurban Conference on Applied Sciences and Technology (IBCAST), presented at the 2019 16th International Bhurban Conference on Applied Sciences and Technology (IBCAST - 2019), IEEE, Islamabad, Pakistan, pp. 143147. http://doi.org/10.1109/IBCAST.2019.8667175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Montero, J., Weber, S., Bleckmann, M., Atzberger, A., Wirths, L. and Paetzold, K. (2019), “Spare part production in remote locations through Additive Manufacturing enhanced by agile development principles”, 2019 IEEE International Conference on Engineering, Technology and Innovation (ICE/ITMC), presented at the 2019 IEEE International Conference on Engineering, Technology and Innovation (ICE/ITMC), IEEE, Valbonne Sophia-Antipolis, France, pp. 18. http://doi.org/10.1109/ICE.2019.8792631CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Montero, J., Weber, S., Bleckmann, M. and Paetzold, K. (2020), “A methodology for the decentralised design and production of additive manufactured spare parts”, Production & Manufacturing Research, Taylor & Francis, Vol. 8 No. 1, pp. 313334. http://doi.org/10.1080/21693277.2020.1790437CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Moshiri, Candeo, Carmignato, Mohanty, and Tosello, . (2019), “Benchmarking of Laser Powder Bed Fusion Machines”, Journal of Manufacturing and Materials Processing, Vol. 3 No. 4, p. 85. http://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp3040085CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Moylan, S.P., Slotwinski, J.A., Cooke, A.L., Jurrens, K.K. and Donmez, M.A. (2012), “Proposal for a standardized test artifact for additive manufacturing machines and processes”, Proceedings of the Solid Freeform Fabrication Symposium, Austin, TX, USA, available at: https://www.nist.gov/publications/proposal-standardized-test-artifact-additive-manufacturing-machines-and-processes.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Protolabs. (2018), “How to Design and Manufacture Metal 3D-Printed Parts”, Protolabs, available at: https://www.protolabs.com/resources/design-tips/how-to-design-and-manufacture-metal-3d-printed-parts/ (accessed 2 November 2020).Google Scholar
Rebaioli, L. and Fassi, I. (2017), “A review on benchmark artifacts for evaluating the geometrical performance of additive manufacturing processes”, The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, Vol. 93 No. 5-8, pp. 25712598. http://doi.org/10.1007/s00170-017-0570-0CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rivas Santos, V.M., Thompson, A., Sims-Waterhouse, D., Maskery, I., Woolliams, P. and Leach, R. (2020), “Design and characterisation of an additive manufacturing benchmarking artefact following a design-for-metrology approach”, Additive Manufacturing, Vol. 32. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.addma.2019.100964.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rupal, B.S., Ahmad, R. and Qureshi, A.J. (2018), “Feature-Based Methodology for Design of Geometric Benchmark Test Artifacts for Additive Manufacturing Processes”, Procedia CIRP, Vol. 70, pp. 8489. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.procir.2018.02.012CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sony, M. (2020), “Pros and cons of implementing Industry 4.0 for the organizations: a review and synthesis of evidence”, Production & Manufacturing Research, Vol. 8 No. 1, pp. 244272. http://doi.org/10.1080/21693277.2020.1781705CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Thompson, M.K., Moroni, G., Vaneker, T., Fadel, G., Campbell, R.I., Gibson, I., Bernard, A., et al. (2016), “Design for Additive Manufacturing: Trends, opportunities, considerations, and constraints”, CIRP Annals, Vol. 65 No. 2, pp. 737760. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.cirp.2016.05.004CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wang, D., Wu, S., Bai, Y., Lin, H., Yang, Y. and Song, C. (2017), “Characteristics of typical geometrical features shaped by selective laser melting”, Journal of Laser Applications, Vol. 29 No. 2, p. 022007. http://doi.org/10.2351/1.4980164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Yang, L. and Anam, M.A. (2014), “An investigation of standard test part design for additive manufacturing”, Proceeding of the Solid Free Form Fabrication Symposium, pp. 901922.Google Scholar
Yang, T., Liu, T., Liao, W., MacDonald, E., Wei, H., Chen, X. and Jiang, L. (2019), “The influence of process parameters on vertical surface roughness of the AlSi10Mg parts fabricated by selective laser melting”, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Vol. 266, pp. 2636. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2018.10.015CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zaeh, M.F. and Branner, G. (2010), “Investigations on residual stresses and deformations in selective laser melting”, Production Engineering, Vol. 4 No. 1, pp. 3545. http://doi.org/10.1007/s11740-009-0192-yCrossRefGoogle Scholar