In response to a letter from Goldbach, Euler considered sums of the form
where s and t are positive integers.
As Euler discovered by a process of extrapolation (from s + t ≦ 13), σh(s, t) can be evaluated in terms of Riemann ζ-functions when s + t is odd. We provide a rigorous proof of Euler's discovery and then give analogous evaluations with proofs for corresponding alternating sums. Relatedly we give a formula for the series
This evaluation involves ζ-functions and σh(2, m).
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