Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
×
Home

The nature and nurture of star clusters

  • Bruce G. Elmegreen (a1)

Abstract

Star clusters have hierarchical patterns in space and time, suggesting formation processes in the densest regions of a turbulent interstellar medium. Clusters also have hierarchical substructure when they are young, which makes them all look like the inner mixed parts of a pervasive stellar hierarchy. Young field stars share this distribution, presumably because some of them came from dissolved clusters and others formed in a dispersed fashion in the same gas. The fraction of star formation that ends up in clusters is apparently not constant, but may increase with interstellar pressure. Hierarchical structure explains why stars form in clusters and why many of these clusters are self-bound. It also explains the cluster mass function. Halo globular clusters share many properties of disk clusters, including what appears to be an upper cluster cutoff mass. However, halo globulars are self-enriched and often connected with dwarf galaxy streams. The mass function of halo globulars could have initially been like the power-law mass function of disk clusters, but the halo globulars have lost their low-mass members. The reasons for this loss are not understood. It could have happened slowly over time as a result of cluster evaporation, or it could have happened early after cluster formation as a result of gas loss. The latter model explains best the observation that the globular cluster mass function has no radial gradient in galaxies.

    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      The nature and nurture of star clusters
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      The nature and nurture of star clusters
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      The nature and nurture of star clusters
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

References

Hide All
Bailin, J. & Harris, W. E. 2009, ApJ, 695, 1082
Barbá, R. H., Maíz, Apellániz. J., Pérez, E., Rubio, M., Bolatto, A., Fariña, C., Bosch, G., & Walborn, N. R. 2009, in: Pérez, E., de Grijs, R., & González Delgado, R. M., Young massive star clusters: initial conditions and environments, ApSS, 324, 309, Dordrecht: Springer
Bastian, N., Gieles, M., Ercolano, B., & Gutermuth, R. 2009, MNRAS, 392, 868
Bedin, L. R. 2004, ApJ (Letters), 605, L125
Bekki, K. & Norris, J. E. 2006, ApJ (Letters), 637, L109
Belokurov, V., Evans, N. W., Irwin, M. J., Hewett, P. C., & Wilkinson, M. I., 2006, ApJ (Letters), 637, L29
Bhatia, R. K. & Hatzidimitriou, D. 1988, MNRAS, 230, 215
Block, D. L., Puerari, I., Elmegreen, B. G., Elmegreen, D. M., Fazio, G. G., & Gehrz, R. D. 2009, ApJ, 694, 115
Carraro, G., Zinn, R., & Moni Bidin, C. 2007, A&A, 466, 181
Cartwright, A. & Whitworth, A. P., 2004, MNRAS, 348, 589
Casetti–Dinescu, D. I., Girard, T. M., Majewski, S. R., Vivas, A. K., Wilhelm, R., Carlin, J. L., Beers, T. C., & van Altena, W. F. 2009, ApJ (Letters), 701, L29
Cassisi, S., Salaris, M., Pietrinferni, A., Piotto, G., Milone, A. P., Bedin, L. R., & Anderson, J. 2008, ApJ (Letters), 672, L115
Chandar, R., Fall, S. M., & McLaughlin, D. E. 2007, ApJ (Letters), 668, L119
Dahm, S. E. & Simon, T. 2005, AJ, 129, 829
D'Antona, F., Caloi, V., Montalbán, J., Ventura, P., & Gratton, R. 2002, A&A, 395, 69
D'Ercole, A., Vesperini, E., D'Antona, F., McMillan, S. L. W., & Recchi, S. 2008, MNRAS, 391, 825
de Grijs, R., Anders, P., Bastian, N., Lynds, R., Lamers, H. J. G. L. M., & O'Neil, E. J. Jr. 2003, MNRAS, 343, 1285
de Grijs, R. & Anders, P. 2006, MNRAS, 366, 295
de la Fuente Marcos, R. & de la Fuente Marcos, C. 2008, ApJ, 672, 342
de la Fuente Marcos, R. & de la Fuente Marcos, C. 2009a, ApJ, 700, 436
de la Fuente Marcos, R. & de la Fuente Marcos, C. 2009b, A&A (Letters), 500, L13
Dieball, A., Müller, H., & Grebel, E. K. 2002, A&A, 391, 547
Dinescu, D. I., Girard, T. M., & van Altena, W. F., 1999, AJ, 117, 1792
Efremov, Yu. N. 1995, AJ, 110, 2757
Efremov, Yu. N. & Elmegreen, B. G. 1998, MNRAS, 299, 588
Elias, F., Alfaro, E. J., & Cabrera–Caño, J. 2009, MNRAS, 397, 2
Elmegreen, B. G. 2007, ApJ, 668, 1064
Elmegreen, B. G. 2008, ApJ, 672, 1006
Elmegreen, B. G. & Elmegreen, D. M. 1987, ApJ, 320, 182
Elmegreen, B. G. & Efremov, Yu. N. 1996, ApJ, 466, 802
Elmegreen, B. G. & Efremov, Yu. N. 1997, ApJ, 480, 235
Elmegreen, B. G., Elmegreen, D. M., & Leitner, S. N. 2003, ApJ, 590, 271
Elmegreen, B. G., Elmegreen, D. M., Chandar, R., Whitmore, B., & Regan, M. 2006, ApJ, 644, 879
Engargiola, G., Plambeck, R. L., Rosolowsky, E., & Blitz, L. 2003, ApJS, 149, 343
Enoch, M. L., et al. 2006, ApJ, 638, 293
Fall, S. M. & Zhang, Q. 2001, ApJ, 561, 751
Feigelson, E. D., Martin, A. L., McNeill, C. J., Broos, P. S., & Garmire, G. P. 2009, AJ, 138, 227
Feitzinger, J. V. & Braunsfurth, E. 1984, A&A, 139, 104
Feitzinger, J. V. & Galinski, T. 1987, A&A, 179, 249
Gao, S., Jiang, B.-W., & Zhao, Y.-H. 2007, ChJAA, 7, 111
Georgiev, I. Y., Hilker, M., Puzia, T. H., Goudfrooij, P., & Baumgardt, H. 2009, MNRAS, 396, 1075
Gieles, M., Bastian, N., & Ercolano, E. 2008, MNRAS (Letters), 391, L93
Gieles, M., Larsen, S. S., Bastian, N., & Stein, I. T. 2006a, A&A, 450, 129
Gieles, M., Larsen, S. S., & Sheepmaker, R. A. 2006b, A&A (Letters), 446, L9
Gomez, M., Hartmann, L., Kenyon, S. J., & Hewett, R. 1993, AJ, 105, 1927
Grabelsky, D. A., Cohen, R. S., Bronfman, L., Thaddeus, P., & May, J. 1987, ApJ, 315, 122
Gutermuth, R. A., Megeath, S. T., Pipher, J. L., Williams, J. P., Allen, L. E., Myers, P. C., & Raines, S. N. 2005, ApJ, 632, 397
Harris, W. E. 2009, ApJ, 699, 254
Harris, W. E., Whitmore, B. C., Karakla, D., Okoń, W., Baum, W. A., Hanes, D. A., & Kavelaars, J. J. 2006, ApJ, 636, 90
Hatzidimitriou, D. & Bhatia, R. K. 1990, A&A, 230, 11
Hunter, D. A., Baum, W. A., O'Neil, E. J. Jr., & Lynds, R. 1996, ApJ, 456, 174
Hunter, D. A., Elmegreen, B. G., Dupuy, T. J., & Mortonson, M. 2003, AJ, 126, 1836
Ivanov, G. R. 2005, Publ. Astron. Soc. Rudjer Boskovic, 5, 75
Johnstone, D., Wilson, C. D., Moriarty–Schieven, G., Joncas, G., Smith, G., Gregersen, E., & Fich, M. 2000, ApJ, 545, 327
Johnstone, D., Fich, M., Mitchell, G. F., & Moriarty–Schieven, G. 2001, ApJ, 559, 307
Jordán, A., McLaughlin, D. E., Côté, P., Ferrarese, L., Peng, E. W., Mei, S., Villegas, D., Merritt, D., Tonry, J. L., & West, M. J. 2007, ApJS, 171, 101
Jørgensen, J. K., et al. 2006, ApJ, 645, 1246
Jørgensen, J. K., Johnstone, D., Kirk, H., & Myers, P. C. 2007, ApJ, 656, 293
Kharchenko, N. V., Piskunov, A. E., Röser, S., Schilbach, E., & Scholz, R.-D. 2005, A&A, 438, 1163
Klessen, R. 2001, ApJ, 556, 837
Kundu, A., Whitmore, B. C., Sparks, W. B., Macchetto, F. D., Zepf, S. E., & Ashman, K. M. 1999, ApJ, 513, 733
Lamers, H. J. G. L. M. & Gieles, M. 2006, A&A (Letters), 455, L17
Larsen, S. S. 2009, A&A, 494, 539
Larson, R. B. 1995, MNRAS, 272, 213
Lynga, G. 1982, A&A, 109, 213
Mackey, A. D. & Gilmore, G. F., 2004, MNRAS, 355, 504
Maíz–Apellániz, J. 2001, ApJ, 563, 151
Marcolini, A., Sollima, A., D'Ercole, A., Gibson, B. K., & Ferraro, F. R. 2007, MNRAS, 382, 443
McGee, R. X. & Milton, J. A. 1964, Austr. J. Phys., 17, 128
McLaughlin, D. E. 2000, ApJ, 539, 618
McLaughlin, D. E. & Fall, S. M. 2008, ApJ, 679, 1272
Megeath, S. T., Allen, L. E., Gutermuth, R. A., Pipher, J. L., Myers, P. C., Calvet, N., Hartmann, L., Muzerolle, J., & Fazio, G. G. 2004 ApJS, 154, 367
Mieske, S. 2006, ApJ, 653, 193
Milone, A. P. 2008, ApJ, 673, 241
Norris, J. E. 2004, ApJ (Letters), 612, L25
Odekon, M. C. 2006, AJ, 132, 1834
Odenkirchen, M., & Grebel, E. K., 2004, in: Prada, F., Delgado, D. Martínez & Mahoney, T. J. (eds.), Satellites and Tidal Streams, ASP Conf. Ser. Vol. 327, p. 284, San Francisco: ASP
Palma, C., Majewski, S. R., & Johnston, K. V., 2002, ApJ, 564, 736
Parmentier, G. & Gilmore, G. F. 2007, MNRAS, 377, 352
Parmentier, G., Goodwin, S. P., Kroupa, P., & Baumgardt, H. 2008, ApJ, 678, 347
Peng, E. W., Jordán, A., Blakeslee, J. P., Mieske, S., Côté, P., Ferrarese, L., Harris, W. E., Madrid, J. P., & Meurer, G. R. 2009, ApJ, 703, 42
Piskunov, A. E., Kharchenko, N. V., Röser, S., Schilbach, E., & Scholz, R.-D. 2006, A&A, 445, 545
Rand, R. J. & Kulkarni, S. R. 1990, ApJ (Letters), 349, L43
Rathborne, J. M., Jackson, J. M., & Simon, R. 2006, ApJ, 641, 389
Reid, M. A. & Wilson, C. D. 2005, ApJ, 625, 891
Sánchez, N., & Alfaro, E. J. 2008, in: Highlights of Spanish Astrophysics V, in press (arXiv:0810.0478)
Sánchez, N. & Alfaro, E. J. 2009, ApJ, 696, 2086
Scheepmaker, R. A., Lamers, H. J. G. L. M., Anders, P., & Larsen, S. S. 2009, A&A, 494, 81
Schechter, P. 1976, ApJ, 203, 297
Schmeja, S., Kumar, M. S. N., & Ferreira, B. 2008, MNRAS, 389, 1209
Smith, M. D., Gredel, R., Khanzadyan, T., & Stanke, T. 2005, MmSAI, 76, 247
Smith, M. C., Evans, N. W., Belokurov, V., Hewett, P. C., Bramich, D. M., Gilmore, G., Irwin, M. J., Vidrih, S., & Zucker, D. B. 2009, MNRAS, 399, 1223
Strader, J., Brodie, J. P., Spitler, L., & Beasley, M. A. 2006, AJ, 132, 2333
Testi, L., Sargent, A. I., Olmi, L., & Onello, J. S. 2000, ApJ (Letters), 540, L53
Ventura, P., Caloi, V., D'Antona, F., Ferguson, J., Milone, A., & Piotto, G. 2009, MNRAS, 399, 934
Vesperini, E. 1998, MNRAS, 299, 1019
Vesperini, E. 2000, MNRAS, 318, 841
Vesperini, E., Zepf, S. E., Kundu, A., & Ashman, K. M. 2003, ApJ, 593, 760
Waters, C. Z., Zepf, S. E., Lauer, T. R., Baltz, E. A., & Silk, J. 2006, ApJ, 650, 885
Young, K. E., et al. 2006, ApJ, 644, 326
Zhang, Q. & Fall, S. M. 1999, ApJ (Letters), 527, L81
Zhang, Q., Fall, S. M., & Whitmore, B. C. 2001, ApJ, 561, 727
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union
  • ISSN: 1743-9213
  • EISSN: 1743-9221
  • URL: /core/journals/proceedings-of-the-international-astronomical-union
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×
MathJax

Keywords

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed