Hostname: page-component-7479d7b7d-m9pkr Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-07-14T15:26:47.695Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

The characteristics of psychotic features in bipolar disorder

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  10 October 2018

Annet H. van Bergen*
Department of Psychiatry, University Medical Center Utrecht, Brain Center Rudolf Magnus, Utrecht, The Netherlands Department of Psychiatry, Rode Kruis Ziekenhuis, Beverwijk, The Netherlands
Sanne Verkooijen
Department of Psychiatry, University Medical Center Utrecht, Brain Center Rudolf Magnus, Utrecht, The Netherlands
Annabel Vreeker
Department of Psychiatry, University Medical Center Utrecht, Brain Center Rudolf Magnus, Utrecht, The Netherlands
Lucija Abramovic
Department of Psychiatry, University Medical Center Utrecht, Brain Center Rudolf Magnus, Utrecht, The Netherlands
Manon H. Hillegers
Department of Psychiatry, University Medical Center Utrecht, Brain Center Rudolf Magnus, Utrecht, The Netherlands Department of Psychiatry, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
Annet T. Spijker
Department of Mood Disorders, PsyQ, The Hague and Rotterdam, The Netherlands
Erik Hoencamp
Parnassie Group, The Hague, The Netherlands Insitute of Psychology Leiden University, Leiden, The Netherlands
Eline J. Regeer
Altrecht Institute for Mental Health Care, Utrecht, The Netherlands
Stefan E. Knapen
Department of Psychiatry, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands
Rixt F. Riemersma-van der Lek
Department of Psychiatry, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands
Robert Schoevers
Department of Psychiatry, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands
Anja W. Stevens
Dimence Center for Bipolar Disorders, Almelo, The Netherlands
Peter F.J Schulte
Mental Health Service, Noord Holland Noord, Alkmaar, The Netherlands
Ronald Vonk
Reinier van Arkel, ’s-Hertogenbosch, The Netherlands
Rocco Hoekstra
Antes, Delta Center for Mental Health Care, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
Nico J. van Beveren
Antes, Delta Center for Mental Health Care, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
Ralph W. Kupka
Altrecht Institute for Mental Health Care, Utrecht, The Netherlands Department of Psychiatry, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Iris E.C. Sommer
Department of Psychiatry, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands
Roel A. Ophoff
Department of Psychiatry, University Medical Center Utrecht, Brain Center Rudolf Magnus, Utrecht, The Netherlands Semel Institute For Neuroscience and Human Behavior, University of California, Los Angeles, USA
René S. Kahn
Department of Psychiatry, University Medical Center Utrecht, Brain Center Rudolf Magnus, Utrecht, The Netherlands Department of Psychiatry, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, USA
Marco P.M. Boks
Department of Psychiatry, University Medical Center Utrecht, Brain Center Rudolf Magnus, Utrecht, The Netherlands
Author for correspondence: Annet H. van Bergen, E-mail:



In a large and comprehensively assessed sample of patients with bipolar disorder type I (BDI), we investigated the prevalence of psychotic features and their relationship with life course, demographic, clinical, and cognitive characteristics. We hypothesized that groups of psychotic symptoms (Schneiderian, mood incongruent, thought disorder, delusions, and hallucinations) have distinct relations to risk factors.


In a cross-sectional study of 1342 BDI patients, comprehensive demographical and clinical characteristics were assessed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID-I) interview. In addition, levels of childhood maltreatment and intelligence quotient (IQ) were assessed. The relationships between these characteristics and psychotic symptoms were analyzed using multiple general linear models.


A lifetime history of psychotic symptoms was present in 73.8% of BDI patients and included delusions in 68.9% of patients and hallucinations in 42.6%. Patients with psychotic symptoms showed a significant younger age of disease onset (β = −0.09, t = −3.38, p = 0.001) and a higher number of hospitalizations for manic episodes (F11 338 = 56.53, p < 0.001). Total IQ was comparable between groups. Patients with hallucinations had significant higher levels of childhood maltreatment (β = 0.09, t = 3.04, p = 0.002).


In this large cohort of BDI patients, the vast majority of patients had experienced psychotic symptoms. Psychotic symptoms in BDI were associated with an earlier disease onset and more frequent hospitalizations particularly for manic episodes. The study emphasizes the strength of the relation between childhood maltreatment and hallucinations but did not identify distinct subgroups based on psychotic features and instead reported of a large heterogeneity of psychotic symptoms in BD.

Original Articles
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2018 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


Aleman, A, Kahn, RS and Selten, JP (2003) Sex differences in the risk of schizophrenia: evidence from meta-analysis. Archives of General Psychiatry 60, 565571.Google Scholar
Allardyce, J, Leonenko, G, Hamshere, M, Pardiñas, AF, Forty, L, Knott, S, Gordon-Smith, K, Porteous, DJ, Haywood, C, Di Florio, A, Jones, L, McIntosh, AM, Owen, MJ, Holmans, P, Walters, JTR, Craddock, N, Jones, I, O'Donovan, MC and Escott-Price, V (2018) Association between schizophrenia-related polygenic liability and the occurrence and level of mood-incongruent psychotic symptoms in bipolar disorder. JAMA Psychiatry 75, 2835.Google Scholar
Aminoff, SR, Hellvin, T, Lagerberg, TV, Andreassen, OA and Melle, I (2013) Neurocognitive features in subgroups of bipolar disorder. Bipolar Disorders 15, 272283.Google Scholar
Andreasen, NC, Flaum, M and Arndt, S (1992) The Comprehensive Assessment of Symptoms and History (CASH). An instrument for assessing diagnosis and psychopathology. Archives of General Psychiatry 49, 615623.Google Scholar
Baethge, C, Baldessarini, RJ, Freudenthal, K, Streeruwitz, A, Bauer, M and Bschor, T (2005) Hallucinations in bipolar disorder: characteristics and comparison to unipolar depression and schizophrenia. Bipolar Disorders 7, 136145.Google Scholar
Bauer, SM, Schanda, H, Karakula, H, Olajossy-Hilkesberger, L, Rudaleviciene, P, Okribelashvili, N, Chaudhry, HR, Idemudia, SE, Gscheider, S, Ritter, K and Stompe, T (2011) Culture and the prevalence of hallucinations in schizophrenia. Comprehensive Psychiatry 52, 319325.Google Scholar
Bernstein, DP, Ahluvalia, T, Pogge, D and Handelsman, L (1997) Validity of the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire in an adolescent psychiatric population. Journal of The American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 36, 340348.Google Scholar
Bernstein, DP, Stein, JA, Newcomb, MD, Walker, E, Pogge, D, Ahluvalia, T, Stokes, J, Handelsman, L, Medrano, M, Desmond, D and Zule, W (2003) Development and validation of a brief screening version of the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Child Abuse & Neglect 27, 169190.Google Scholar
Bipolar Disorder and schizophrenia Working Group of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium* (2018) Genomic dissection of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, including 28 subphenotypes. Cell 173, 17051715.Google Scholar
Blyler, CR, Gold, JM, Iannone, VN and Buchanan, RW (2000) Short form of the WAIS-III for use with patients with schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research 46, 209215.Google Scholar
Bora, E, Yücel, M and Pantelis, C (2010) Neurocognitive markers of psychosis in bipolar disorder: a meta-analytic study. Journal of Affective Disorders 127, 19.Google Scholar
Bright, P, Jaldow, E and Kopelman, MD (2002) The National Adult Reading Test as a measure of premorbid intelligence: a comparison with estimates derived from demographic variables. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS 8, 847854.Google Scholar
Carlson, GA, Kotov, R, Chang, SW, Ruggero, C and Bromet, EJ (2012) Early determinants of four-year clinical outcomes in bipolar disorder with psychosis. Bipolar Disorders 14, 1930.Google Scholar
Coryell, W, Leon, AC, Turvey, C, Akiskal, HS, Mueller, T and Endicott, J (2001) The significance of psychotic features in manic episodes: a report from the NIMH collaborative study. Journal of Affective Disorders 67, 7988.Google Scholar
Craddock, N, O'Donovan, MC and Owen, MJ (2005) The genetics of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder: dissecting psychosis. Journal of Medical Genetics 42, 193204.Google Scholar
Currie, C, Molcho, M, Boyce, W, Holstein, B, Torsheim, T and Richter, M (2008) Researching health inequalities in adolescents: the development of the Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) family affluence scale. Social Science & Medicine 66, 14291436.Google Scholar
Dunayevich, E and Keck, PE (2000) Prevalence and description of psychotic features in bipolar mania. Current Psychiatry Reports 2, 286290.Google Scholar
Fennig, S, Bromet, EJ, Tanenberg Karant, M, Ram, R and Jandorf, L (1996) Mood-congruent versus mood-incongruent psychotic symptoms in first-admission patients with affective disorder. Journal of Affective Disorders 37, 2329.Google Scholar
Fergusson, DM, Horwood, LJ and Boden, JM (2011) Structural equation modeling of repeated retrospective reports of childhood maltreatment. International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research 20, 93104.Google Scholar
First, MB, Spitzer, RL, Gibbon, M and Williams, JBW (1997) Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders-Patient Edition (SCID-I/P, version 2.0). Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Press, Inc.Google Scholar
Fisher, H, Morgan, C, Dazzan, P, Craig, TK, Morgan, K, Hutchinson, G, Jones, PB, Doody, GA, Pariante, C, McGuffin, P, Murray, RM, Leff, J and Fearon, P (2009) Gender differences in the association between childhood abuse and psychosis. The British Journal of Psychiatry 194, 319325.Google Scholar
Glahn, DC, Bearden, CE, Cakir, S, Barrett, JA, Najt, P, Monkul, ES, Maples, N, Velligan, DI and Soares, JC (2006) Differential working memory impairment in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia: effects of lifetime history of psychosis. Bipolar Disorders 8, 117123.Google Scholar
Glahn, DC, Bearden, CE, Barguil, M, Barrett, J, Reichenberg, A, Bowden, CL, Soares, JC and Velligan, DI (2007) The neurocognitive signature of psychotic bipolar disorder. Biological Psychiatry 62, 910916.Google Scholar
Goodwin, FK and Jamison, KR (1990) Manic-Depressive Illness. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Green, MF (2006). Cognitive impairment and functional outcome in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 67, 38.Google Scholar
Hammersley, P, Dias, A, Todd, G, Bowen-Jones, K, Reilly, B and Bentall, RP (2003) Childhood trauma and hallucinations in bipolar affective disorder: preliminary investigation. The British Journal of Psychiatry: The Journal of Mental Science 182, 543547.Google Scholar
He, Y (2010) Missing data analysis using multiple imputation: getting to the heart of the matter. Circulation: Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes 3, 98105.Google Scholar
Hendrick, V, Altshuler, LL, Gitlin, MJ, Delrahim, S and Hammen, C (2000) Gender and bipolar illness. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 61, 393396.Google Scholar
Jabben, N, Jabben, N, Arts, B, van Os, J and Krabbendam, L (2010) Neurocognitive functioning as intermediary phenotype and predictor of psychosocial functioning across the psychosis continuum: studies in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 71, 764774.Google Scholar
Kahn, RS and Keefe, RSE (2013) Schizophrenia is a cognitive illness: time for a change in focus. JAMA Psychiatry 70, 11071112.Google Scholar
Keck, PE, McElroy, SL, Havens, JR, Altshuler, LL, Nolen, WA, Frye, MA, Suppes, T, Denicoff, KD, Kupka, R, Leverich, GS, Rush, AJ and Post, RM (2003) Psychosis in bipolar disorder: phenomenology and impact on morbidity and course of illness. Comprehensive Psychiatry 44, 263269.Google Scholar
Krabbendam, L, Arts, B, Os, J and Aleman, A (2005) Cognitive functioning in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder: a quantitative review. Schizophrenia Research 80, 137149.Google Scholar
Lee, PH (2014) Is a cutoff of 10% appropriate for the change-in-estimate criterion of confounder identification? Journal of Epidemiology 24, 161167.Google Scholar
Leverich, GS, Nolen, WA, Rush, AJ, McElroy, SL, Keck, PE Jr, Denicoff, KD, Suppes, T, Altschuler, LL, Kupka, R, Kramlinger, KG and Post, RM (2001) The Stanley Foundation Bipolar Treatment Outcome Network: I. Longitudinal methodology. Journal of Affective Disorders 67, 3344.Google Scholar
Levy, B, Medina, AM and Weiss, RD (2013) Cognitive and psychosocial functioning in bipolar disorder with and without psychosis during early remission from an acute mood episode: a comparative longitudinal study. Comprehensive Psychiatry 54, 618626.Google Scholar
Lewinsohn, PM and Rosenbaum, M (1987) Recall of parental behavior by acute depressives, remitted depressives, and nondepressives. Journal of Pexsonality and Social Psychology 52, 611619.Google Scholar
MacCabe, JH (2008) Population-based cohort studies on premorbid cognitive function in schizophrenia. Epidemiologic Reviews 30, 7783.Google Scholar
MacCabe, JH, Lambe, MP, Cnattingius, S, Sham, PC, David, AS, Reichenberg, A, Murray, RM and Hultman, CM (2010) Excellent school performance at age 16 and risk of adult bipolar disorder: National cohort study. The British Journal of Psychiatry 196, 109115.Google Scholar
Maj, M (2003) The effect of lithium in bipolar disorder: a review of recent research evidence. Bipolar Disorders 5, 180188.Google Scholar
Maj, M, Pirozzi, R, Bartoli, L and Magliano, L (2002) Long-term outcome of lithium prophylaxis in bipolar disorder with mood-incongruent psychotic features: a prospective study. Journal of Affective Disorders 71, 195198.Google Scholar
Martínez-Arán, A, Vieta, E, Colom, F, Torrent, C, Sanchez-Moreno, J, Reinares, M, Benabarre, A, Goikolea, JM, Brugue, E, Daban, C and Salamero, M (2004) Cognitive impairment in euthymic bipolar patients: implications for clinical and functional outcome. Bipolar Disorders 6, 224232.Google Scholar
McElroy, SL, Keck, PE and Strakowski, SM (1996) Mania, psychosis, and antipsychotics. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 57, 1426.Google Scholar
Mueser, KT, Bellack, AS and Brady, EU (1990) Hallucinations in schizophrenia. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 82, 2629.Google Scholar
O'Grady, JC (1990) The prevalence and diagnostic significance of schneiderian first-rank symptoms in a random sample of acute psychiatric in-patients. British Journal of Psychiatry 156, 496500.Google Scholar
Özyildirim, I, Çakir, S and Yazici, O (2010) Impact of psychotic features on morbidity and course of illness in patients with bipolar disorder. European Psychiatry 25, 4751.Google Scholar
Potash, JB, Yen-Feng, C, MacKinnon, DF, Miller, EB, Simpson, SG, McMahon, FJ, McInnis, MG and DePaulo, JR (2003) Familial aggregation of psychotic symptoms in a replication set of 69 bipolar disorder pedigrees. American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics 116B, 9097.Google Scholar
Prescott, A, Bank, L, Reid, JB, Knutson, JF, Burraston, BO and Eddy, JM (2000) The veridicality of punitive childhood experiences reported by adolescents and young adults. Child Abuse and Neglect 24, 411423.Google Scholar
Read, J, van Os, J, Morrison, AP and Ross, CA (2005) Childhood trauma, psychosis and schizophrenia: a literature review with theoretical and clinical implications. Acta psychiatrica Scandinavica 112, 330350.Google Scholar
Rey, JM, Starling, J, Wever, C, Dosseter, DR and Plapp, JM (1995) Inter-rater reliability of global assessment of functioning in a clinical setting. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 36, 787792.Google Scholar
Robins, LN, Wing, J, Wittchen, HU, Helzer, JE, Babor, TF, Burk, J, Farmer, A, Jablenski, A, Pickens, R, Regier, DA, Sartorius, N and Towle, LH (1988) The Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Archiver of General Psychiatry 45, 10691077.Google Scholar
Robinson, LJ, Thompson, JM, Gallagher, P, Goswami, U, Young, AH, Ferrier, IN and Moore, PB (2006) A meta-analysis of cognitive deficits in euthymic patients with bipolar disorder. Journal of Affective Disorders 93, 105115.Google Scholar
Savitz, J, van der Merwe, L, Stein, DJ, Solms, M and Ramesar, R (2009) Neuropsychological status of bipolar I disorder: impact of psychosis. British Journal of Psychiatry 194, 243251.Google Scholar
Schmand, B, Bakker, D, Saan, R and Louman, J (1991) The Dutch Reading Test for Adults: a measure of premorbid intelligence level. Tijdschrift Voor Gerontologie En Geriatrie 22, 1519.Google Scholar
Schreier, A, Wolke, D, Thomas, K, Horwood, J, Hollis, C, Gunnell, D, Lewis, G, AThompson, A, Zammit, S, Duffy, L, Salvi, G and Harrison, G (2009) Prospective study of peer victimization in childhood and psychotic symptoms in a nonclinical population at age 12 years. Archives of General Psychiatry 66, 527536.Google Scholar
Schubart, CD, Sommer, IEC, van Gastel, WA, Goetgebuer, RL, Kahn, RS and Boks, MPM (2011) Cannabis with high cannabidiol content is associated with fewer psychotic experiences. Schizophrenia Research 130, 216221.Google Scholar
Selva, G, Salazar, J, Balanzá-Martínez, V, Martínez-Arán, A, Rubio, C, Daban, C, Sánchez-Moreno, J, Vieta, E and Tabarés-Seisdedos, R (2007) Bipolar I patients with and without a history of psychotic symptoms: do they differ in their cognitive functioning? Journal of Psychiatric Research 41, 265272.Google Scholar
Simonsen, C, Sundet, K, Vaskinn, A, Birkenaes, AB, Engh, JA, Færden, A, Jónsdóttir, H, Ringen, PA, Opjordsmoen, S, Melle, I, Friis, S and Andreassen, OA (2011) Neurocognitive dysfunction in bipolar and schizophrenia spectrum disorders depends on history of psychosis rather than diagnostic group. Schizophrenia Bulletin 37, 7383.Google Scholar
Spreen, O, Strauss, E and Sherman, EM (1998) A Compendium of Neuropsychological Tests. Administration Norms And Commentary. New York: Oxford University Press 2006, 1216.Google Scholar
Startup, M, Jackson, MC and Bendix, S (2002) The concurrent validity of the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF). The British Journal of Clinical Psychology 41, 417422.Google Scholar
Suppes, T, Leverich, GS, Keck, PE Jr, Nolen, WA, Altshuler, LL, McElroy, SL, Rush, AJ, Kupka, R, Frye, MA, Bickel, M and Post, RM (2001) The Stanley Foundation Bipolar Treatment Outcome Network – II. Demographics and illness characteristics of the first 261 patients. Journal of Affective Disorders 67, 4559.Google Scholar
Tandon, R and Greden, JF (1987) Schneiderian first rank symptoms: reconfirmation of high specificity for schizophrenia. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 75, 392396.Google Scholar
The International Schizophrenia Consortium* (2009) Common polygenic variation contributes to risk of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Nature 10, 8192.Google Scholar
Thombs, BD, Bernstein, DP, Lobbestael, J and Arnstz, A (2009) A validation study of the Dutch Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form: factor structure, reliability, and known-groups validity. Child Abuse & Neglect 33, 518523.Google Scholar
Tohen, M, Tsuang, MT and Goodwin, DC (1992) Prediction of outcome in mania by mood-congruent or mood-incongruent psychotic features. American Journal of Psychiatry 149, 15801584.Google Scholar
Toni, A, Perugi, G, Mata, B, Madaro, D, Maremmani, I and Akiskal, HS (2001) Is mood-incongruent manic psychosis a distinct subtype? European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience 251, 1217.Google Scholar
Upthegrove, R, Chard, C, Jones, L, Gordon-Smith, K, Forty, L, Jones, I and Craddock, N (2015) Adverse childhood events and psychosis in bipolar affective disorder. British Journal of Psychiatry 206, 191197.Google Scholar
Vallejo, MA, Jordán, CM, Díaz, MI, Comeche, MI and Ortega, J (2007) Psychological assessment via the internet: a reliability and validity study of online (vs paper-and-pencil) versions of the General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28) and the Symptoms Check-List-90-Revised (SCL-90-R). Journal of Medical Internet Research 9, e2.Google Scholar
van Os, J and Reininghaus, U (2016) Psychosis as a transdiagnostic and extended phenotype in the general population. World Psychiatry 15, 118124.Google Scholar
van Os, J, Hanssen, M, van Bijl, R and Ravelli, R (2000) Strauss (1969) revisited: a psychosis continuum in the general population? Schizophrenia Research 45, 1120.Google Scholar
Varese, F, Smeets, F, Drukker, M, Lieverse, R, Lataster, T, Viechtbauer, W, Read, J, van Os, J and Bentall, RP (2012) Childhood adversities increase the risk of psychosis: a meta-analysis of patient-control, prospective-and cross-sectional cohort studies. Schizophrenia Bulletin 38, 661671.Google Scholar
Vleeschouwer, M, Schubart, CD, Henquet, C, Myin-Germeys, I, van Gastel, WA, Hillegers, MHJ, van Os, J, Boks, MPM and Derks, EM (2014) Does assessment type matter? A measurement invariance analysis of online and paper and pencil assessment of the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences (CAPE). PLoS ONE 9, e84011.Google Scholar
Vreeker, A, Boks, MPM, Abramovic, L, Verkooijen, S, van Bergen, AH, Hillegers, MHJ, Spijker, AT, Hoencamp, E, Regeer, EJ, Riemersma-Van der Lek, RF, Stevens, AW, Schulte, PF, Vonk, R, Hoekstra, R, van Beveren, NJ, Kupka, RW, Brouwer, RM, Bearden, CE, MacCabe, JH and Ophoff, RA and GROUP Investigators*(2016) High educational performance is a distinctive feature of bipolar disorder: a study on cognition in bipolar disorder, schizophrenia patients, relatives and controls. Psychological Medicine 46, 807818.Google Scholar
Wechsler, D (1997) WAIS-III Administration and Scoring Manual, 3rd Edn. San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corporation/Harcourt Brace.Google Scholar
Weissman, MM, Bland, RC, Canino, GJ, Faravelli, C, Greenwald, S, Hwu, H, Joyce, PR, Karam, EG, Lee, C, Lellouch, J, Lépine, J, Newman, SC, Rubio-Stipec, M, Welss, JE, Wickrmamaratne, PJ, Wittchen, H and Yeh, E (1996) Cross-national epidemiology of major depression and bipolar disorder. JAMA 276, 293299.Google Scholar
Zammit, S, Allebeck, P, David, AS, Dalman, C, Hemmingsson, T, Lundberg, J and Lewis, G (2004) A longitudinal study of premorbid IQ score and risk of developing Schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, severe depression, and other nonaffective psychoses. Archives of General Psychiatry 61, 354360.Google Scholar
Supplementary material: File

van Bergen et al. supplementary material

van Bergen et al. supplementary material 1

Download van Bergen et al. supplementary material(File)
File 75.1 KB