Hostname: page-component-7d684dbfc8-jr2wd Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2023-10-01T16:14:36.544Z Has data issue: false Feature Flags: { "corePageComponentGetUserInfoFromSharedSession": true, "coreDisableEcommerce": false, "coreDisableSocialShare": false, "coreDisableEcommerceForArticlePurchase": false, "coreDisableEcommerceForBookPurchase": false, "coreDisableEcommerceForElementPurchase": false, "coreUseNewShare": true, "useRatesEcommerce": true } hasContentIssue false

Comparative meta-analyses of brain structural and functional abnormalities during cognitive control in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorder

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  27 March 2020

Steve Lukito*
Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King's College London, London, UK
Luke Norman
Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King's College London, London, UK Department of Psychiatry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA The Social and Behavioral Research Branch, National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institute of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
Christina Carlisi
Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King's College London, London, UK Division of Psychology and Language Sciences, University College London, London, UK
Joaquim Radua
Department of Psychosis Studies, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King's College London, London, UK Imaging of Mood- and Anxiety-Related Disorders (IMARD) Group, Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), CIBERSAM, Barcelona, Spain Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Centre for Psychiatric Research and Education, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
Heledd Hart
Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King's College London, London, UK
Emily Simonoff
Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King's College London, London, UK
Katya Rubia
Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King's College London, London, UK
Author for correspondence: Steve Lukito, E-mail:



People with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have abnormalities in frontal, temporal, parietal and striato-thalamic networks. It is unclear to what extent these abnormalities are distinctive or shared. This comparative meta-analysis aimed to identify the most consistent disorder-differentiating and shared structural and functional abnormalities.


Systematic literature search was conducted for whole-brain voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies of cognitive control comparing people with ASD or ADHD with typically developing controls. Regional gray matter volume (GMV) and fMRI abnormalities during cognitive control were compared in the overall sample and in age-, sex- and IQ-matched subgroups with seed-based d mapping meta-analytic methods.


Eighty-six independent VBM (1533 ADHD and 1295 controls; 1445 ASD and 1477 controls) and 60 fMRI datasets (1001 ADHD and 1004 controls; 335 ASD and 353 controls) were identified. The VBM meta-analyses revealed ADHD-differentiating decreased ventromedial orbitofrontal (z = 2.22, p < 0.0001) but ASD-differentiating increased bilateral temporal and right dorsolateral prefrontal GMV (zs ⩾ 1.64, ps ⩽ 0.002). The fMRI meta-analyses of cognitive control revealed ASD-differentiating medial prefrontal underactivation but overactivation in bilateral ventrolateral prefrontal cortices and precuneus (zs ⩾ 1.04, ps ⩽ 0.003). During motor response inhibition specifically, ADHD relative to ASD showed right inferior fronto-striatal underactivation (zs ⩾ 1.14, ps ⩽ 0.003) but shared right anterior insula underactivation.


People with ADHD and ASD have mostly distinct structural abnormalities, with enlarged fronto-temporal GMV in ASD and reduced orbitofrontal GMV in ADHD; and mostly distinct functional abnormalities, which were more pronounced in ASD.

Review Article
Copyright © The Author(s), 2020. Published by Cambridge University Press

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


Abell, F., Krams, M., Ashburner, J., Passingham, R., Friston, K., Frackowiak, R., … Frith, U. (1999). The neuroanatomy of autism: A voxel-based whole brain analysis of structural scans. Neuroreport, 10(8), 16471651. doi: 10.1097/00001756-199906030-00005CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ahrendts, J., Rüsch, N., Wilke, M., Philipsen, A., Eickhoff, S. B., Glauche, V., … Tebartz Van Elst, L. (2011). Visual cortex abnormalities in adults with ADHD: A structural MRI study. The World Journal of Biological Psychiatry, 12(4), 260270. doi: 10.3109/15622975.2010.518624CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Albaugh, M. D., Orr, C., Chaarani, B., Althoff, R. R., Allgaier, N., D'Alberto, N., … Potter, A. S. (2017). Inattention and reaction time variability are linked to ventromedial prefrontal volume in adolescents. Biological Psychiatry, 82(9), 660668. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2017.01.003CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ambrosino, S., Bos, D. J., van Raalten, T. R., Kobussen, N. A., van Belle, J., Oranje, B., & Durston, S. (2014). Functional connectivity during cognitive control in children with autism spectrum disorder: An independent component analysis. Journal of Neural Transmission, 121(9), 11451155. doi: 10.1007/s00702-014-1237-8CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
American Psychiatric Association (APA) (Ed.) (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-IV-TR). Washington, DC: APA.Google Scholar
American Psychiatric Association (APA). (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders: DSM-5 (5th ed.). Washington, DC: APA.Google Scholar
Amico, F., Stauber, J., Koutsouleris, N., & Frodl, T. (2011). Anterior cingulate cortex gray matter abnormalities in adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: A voxel-based morphometry study. Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging, 191(1), 3135. doi: 10.1016/j.pscychresns.2010.08.011CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Aron, A. R., Herz, D. M., Brown, P., Forstmann, B. U., & Zaghloul, K. (2016). Frontosubthalamic circuits for control of action and cognition. Journal of Neuroscience, 36(45), 1148911495. doi: 10.1523/jneurosci.2348-16.2016CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Banich, M. T., Burgess, G. C., Depue, B. E., Ruzic, L., Bidwell, L. C., Hitt-Laustsen, S., … Willcutt, E. G. (2009). The neural basis of sustained and transient attentional control in young adults with ADHD. Neuropsychologia, 47(14), 30953104. doi: 10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2009.07.005CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bari, A., & Robbins, T. W. (2013). Inhibition and impulsivity: Behavioral and neural basis of response control. Progress in Neurobiology, 108, 4479. doi: 10.1016/j.pneurobio.2013.06.005CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bhaijiwala, M., Chevrier, A., & Schachar, R. (2014). Withholding and canceling a response in ADHD adolescents. Brain and Behavior, 4(5), 602614. doi: 10.1002/brb3.244CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Binder, J. R., Gross, W. L., Allendorfer, J. B., Bonilha, L., Chapin, J., Edwards, J. C., … Weaver, K. E. (2011). Mapping anterior temporal lobe language areas with fMRI: A multicenter normative study. NeuroImage, 54(2), 14651475. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2010.09.048CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Boddaert, N., Chabane, N., Gervais, H., Good, C. D., Bourgeois, M., Plumet, M. H., … Zilbovicius, M. (2004). Superior temporal sulcus anatomical abnormalities in childhood autism: A voxel-based morphometry MRI study. NeuroImage, 23(1), 364369. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2004.06.016CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bonath, B., Tegelbeckers, J., Wilke, M., Flechtner, H. H., & Krauel, K. (2016). Regional gray matter volume differences between adolescents with ADHD and typically developing controls: Further evidence for anterior cingulate involvement. Journal of Attention Disorders, 22(7), 627638. doi: 10.1177/1087054715619682.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bonilha, L., Cendes, F., Rorden, C., Eckert, M., Dalgalarrondo, P., Li, L. M., & Steiner, C. E. (2008). Gray and white matter imbalance – Typical structural abnormality underlying classic autism? Brain and Development, 30(6), 396401. doi: 10.1016/j.braindev.2007.11.006CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Booth, J. R., Burman, D. D., Meyer, J. R., Lei, Z., Trommer, B. L., Davenport, N. D., … Mesulam, M. M. (2005). Larger deficits in brain networks for response inhibition than for visual selective attention in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 46(1), 94111. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7610.2004.00337.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bralten, J., Greven, C. U., Franke, B., Mennes, M., Zwiers, M. P., Rommelse, N. N. J., … Buitelaar, J. K. (2016). Voxel-based morphometry analysis reveals frontal brain differences in participants with ADHD and their unaffected siblings. Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience, 41(4), 272279. doi: 10.1503/jpn.140377CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Breyer, J. L., Botzet, A. M., Winters, K. C., Stinchfield, R. D., August, G., & Realmuto, G. (2009). Young adult gambling behaviors and their relationship with the persistence of ADHD. Journal of Gambling Studies, 25(2), 227238. doi: 10.1007/s10899-009-9126-zCrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Brieber, S., Neufang, S., Bruning, N., Kamp-Becker, I., Remschmidt, H., Herpertz-Dahlmann, B., … Konrad, K. (2007). Structural brain abnormalities in adolescents with autism spectrum disorder and patients with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 48(12), 12511258. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7610.2007.01799.xCrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cai, J., Hu, X., Guo, K., Yang, P., Situ, M., & Huang, Y. (2018). Increased left inferior temporal gyrus was found in both low function autism and high function autism. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 9, 542. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2018.00542CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Carlisi, C. O., Norman, L. J., Lukito, S. S., Radua, J., Mataix-Cols, D., & Rubia, K. (2017). Comparative multimodal meta-analysis of structural and functional brain abnormalities in autism spectrum disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 82(2), 83102. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2016.10.006CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Carmona, S., Hoekzema, E., Antoni Ramos-Quiroga, J., Richarte, V., Canals, C., Bosch, R., … Vilarroya, O. (2012). Response inhibition and reward anticipation in medication-naive adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A within-subject case-control neuroimaging study. Human Brain Mapping, 33(10), 23502361. doi: 10.1002/hbm.21368CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Carmona, S., Vilarroya, O., Bielsa, A., Tremols, V., Soliva, J. C., Rovira, M., … Bulbena, A. (2005). Global and regional gray matter reductions in ADHD: A voxel-based morphometric study. Neuroscience Letters, 389(2), 8893. doi: 10.1016/j.neulet.2005.07.020CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Carper, R. A., & Courchesne, E. (2005). Localized enlargement of the frontal cortex in early autism. Biological Psychiatry, 57(2), 126133. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2004.11.005CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cauda, F., Geda, E., Sacco, K., D'Agata, F., Duca, S., Geminiani, G., & Keller, R. (2011). Grey matter abnormality in autism spectrum disorder: An activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis study. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry, 82(12), 13041313. doi: 10.1136/jnnp.2010.239111CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Chantiluke, K., Barrett, N., Giampietro, V., Brammer, M., Simmons, A., Murphy, D. G., & Rubia, K. (2015a). Inverse effect of fluoxetine on medial prefrontal cortex activation during reward reversal in ADHD and autism. Cerebral Cortex, 25(7), 17571770. doi: 10.1093/cercor/bht365CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chantiluke, K., Barrett, N., Giampietro, V., Brammer, M., Simmons, A., & Rubia, K. (2015b). Disorder-dissociated effects of fluoxetine on brain function of working memory in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorder. Psychological Medicine, 45(6), 11951205. doi: 10.1017/s0033291714002232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chantiluke, K., Barrett, N., Giampietro, V., Santosh, P., Brammer, M., Simmons, A., … Rubia, K. (2015c). Inverse fluoxetine effects on inhibitory brain activation in non-comorbid boys with ADHD and with ASD. Psychopharmacology, 232(12), 20712082. doi: 10.1007/s00213-014-3837-2CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chantiluke, K., Christakou, A., Murphy, C. M., Giampietro, V., Daly, E. M., Ecker, C., … Rubia, K. (2014). Disorder-specific functional abnormalities during temporal discounting in youth with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism and comorbid ADHD and autism. Psychiatry Research, 223(2), 113120. doi: 10.1016/j.pscychresns.2014.04.006CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Charman, T., Pickles, A., Simonoff, E., Chandler, S., Loucas, T., & Baird, G. (2011). IQ In children with autism spectrum disorders: Data from the Special Needs and Autism Project (SNAP). Psychological Medicine, 41(03), 619627. doi: 10.1017/s0033291710000991CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chen, C.-Y., Yen, J.-Y., Yen, C.-F., Chen, C.-S., Liu, G.-C., Liang, C.-Y., & Ko, C.-H. (2015). Aberrant brain activation of error processing among adults with attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder. Kaohsiung Journal of Medical Sciences, 31(4), 179187. doi: 10.1016/j.kjms.2015.01.001CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cheng, Y., Chou, K. H., Fan, Y. T., & Lin, C. P. (2011). ANS: Aberrant neurodevelopment of the social cognition network in adolescents with autism spectrum disorders. PLoS ONE, 6(4), e18905. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0018905.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Chou, T.-L., Chia, S., Shang, C.-Y., & Gau, S. S.-F. (2015). Differential therapeutic effects of 12-week treatment of atomoxetine and methylphenidate on drug-naive children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A counting Stroop functional MRI study. European Neuropsychopharmacology, 25(12), 23002310. doi: 10.1016/j.euroneuro.2015.08.024CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Christakou, A., Murphy, C. M., Chantiluke, K., Cubillo, A. I., Smith, A. B., Giampietro, V., … Rubia, K. (2013). Disorder-specific functional abnormalities during sustained attention in youth with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and with autism. Molecular Psychiatry, 18(2), 236244. doi: 10.1038/mp.2011.185CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Congdon, E., Mumford, J. A., Cohen, J. R., Galvan, A., Aron, A. R., Xue, G., … Poldrack, R. A. (2010). Engagement of large-scale networks is related to individual differences in inhibitory control. NeuroImage, 53(2), 653663. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2010.06.062CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Contarino, V. E., Bulgheroni, S., Annunziata, S., Erbetta, A., & Riva, D. (2016). Widespread focal cortical alterations in autism spectrum disorder with intellectual disability detected by threshold-free cluster enhancement. American Journal of Neuroradiology, 37(9), 17211726. doi: 10.3174/ajnr.A4779CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Courchesne, E., Campbell, K., & Solso, S. (2011a). Brain growth across the life span in autism: Age-specific changes in anatomical pathology. Brain Research, 1380, 138145. doi: 10.1016/j.brainres.2010.09.101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Courchesne, E., Mouton, P. R., Calhoun, M. E., Semendeferi, K., Ahrens-Barbeau, C., Hallet, M. J., … Pierce, K. (2011b). Neuron number and size in prefrontal cortex of children with autism. JAMA, 306(18), 20012010. doi: 10.1001/jama.2011.1638CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Craig, F., Margari, F., Legrottaglie, A. R., Palumbi, R., de Giambattista, C., & Margari, L. (2016). A review of executive function deficits in autism spectrum disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, 12, 11911202. doi: 10.2147/ndt.s104620Google ScholarPubMed
Craig, M., Zaman, S. H., Daly, E. M., Cutter, W. J., Robertson, D. M. W., Hallahan, B., … Murphy, D. G. M. (2007). Women with autistic-spectrum disorder: Magnetic resonance imaging study of brain anatomy. British Journal of Psychiatry, 191, 224228. doi: 10.1192/bjp.bp.106.034603CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cubillo, A., Halari, R., Ecker, C., Giampietro, V., Taylor, E., & Rubia, K. (2010). Reduced activation and inter-regional functional connectivity of fronto-striatal networks in adults with childhood attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and persisting symptoms during tasks of motor inhibition and cognitive switching. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 44(10), 629639. doi: 10.1016/j.jpsychires.2009.11.016CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cubillo, A., Halari, R., Giampietro, V., Taylor, E., & Rubia, K. (2011). Fronto-striatal underactivation during interference inhibition and attention allocation in grown up children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and persistent symptoms. Psychiatry Research, 193(1), 1727. doi: 10.1016/j.pscychresns.2010.12.014CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cubillo, A., Halari, R., Smith, A., Taylor, E., & Rubia, K. (2012). A review of fronto-striatal and fronto-cortical brain abnormalities in children and adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and new evidence for dysfunction in adults with ADHD during motivation and attention. Cortex, 48(2), 194215. doi: 10.1016/j.cortex.2011.04.007CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cubillo, A., Smith, A. B., Barrett, N., Giampietro, V., Brammer, M. J., Simmons, A., & Rubia, K. (2014). Shared and drug-specific effects of atomoxetine and methylphenidate on inhibitory brain dysfunction in medication-naive ADHD boys. Cerebral Cortex, 24(1), 174185. doi: 10.1093/cercor/bhs296CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Daly, E. M., Ecker, C., Hallahan, B., Deeley, Q., Craig, M., Murphy, C., … Murphy, D. G. M. (2014). Response inhibition and serotonin in autism: A functional MRI study using acute tryptophan depletion. Brain, 137, 26002610. doi: 10.1093/brain/awu178CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Denisova, K., Zhao, G., Wang, Z., Goh, S., Huo, Y., & Peterson, B. S. (2017). Cortical interactions during the resolution of information processing demands in autism spectrum disorders. Brain and Behavior, 7(2), e00596. doi: 10.1002/brb3.596CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dennis, M., Francis, D. J., Cirino, P. T., Schachar, R., Barnes, M. A., & Fletcher, J. M. (2009). Why IQ is not a covariate in cognitive studies of neurodevelopmental disorders. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 15(03), 331. doi: 10.1017/s1355617709090481CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Depue, B. E., Burgess, G. C., Bidwell, L. C., Willcutt, E. G., & Banich, M. T. (2010). Behavioral performance predicts grey matter reductions in the right inferior frontal gyrus in young adults with combined type ADHD. Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging, 182(3), 231237. doi: 10.1016/j.pscychresns.2010.01.012CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
DeRamus, T. P., & Kana, R. K. (2015). Anatomical likelihood estimation meta-analysis of grey and white matter anomalies in autism spectrum disorders. NeuroImage: Clinical, 7, 525536. doi: 10.1016/j.nicl.2014.11.004CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Desmond, J. E., & Glover, G. H. (2002). Estimating sample size in functional MRI (fMRI) neuroimaging studies: Statistical power analyses. Journal of Neuroscience Methods, 118(2), 115128. doi: 10.1016/s0165-0270(02)00121-8CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dibbets, P., Evers, E. A. T., Hurks, P. P. M., Bakker, K., & Jolles, J. (2010). Differential brain activation patterns in adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) associated with task switching. Neuropsychology, 24(4), 413423. doi: 10.1037/a0018997CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dibbets, P., Evers, L., Hurks, P., Marchetta, N., & Jolles, J. (2009). Differences in feedback- and inhibition-related neural activity in adult ADHD. Brain and Cognition, 70(1), 7383. doi: 10.1016/j.bandc.2009.01.001CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dichter, G. S. (2012). Functional magnetic resonance imaging of autism spectrum disorders. Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience, 14(3), 319351. Retrieved from ScholarPubMed
Di Martino, A., Ross, K., Uddin, L. Q., Sklar, A. B., Castellanos, F. X., & Milham, M. P. (2009). Functional brain correlates of social and nonsocial processes in autism spectrum disorders: An activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis. Biological Psychiatry, 65(1), 6374. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2008.09.022CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Di Martino, A., Zuo, X.-N., Kelly, C., Grzadzinski, R., Mennes, M., Schvarcz, A., … Milham, M. P. (2013). Shared and distinct intrinsic functional network centrality in autism and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 74(8), 623632. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2013.02.011CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
D'Mello, A. M., Crocetti, D., Mostofsky, S. H., & Stoodley, C. J. (2015). Cerebellar gray matter and lobular volumes correlate with core autism symptoms. NeuroImage: Clinical, 7, 631639. doi: 10.1016/j.nicl.2015.02.007CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Duerden, E. G., Mak-Fan, K. M., Taylor, M. J., & Roberts, S. W. (2012). Regional differences in grey and white matter in children and adults with autism spectrum disorders: An activation likelihood estimate (ALE) meta-analysis. Autism Research, 5(1), 4966. doi: 10.1002/aur.235CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Duerden, E. G., Taylor, M. J., Soorya, L. V., Wang, T., Fan, J., & Anagnostou, E. (2013). Neural correlates of inhibition of socially relevant stimuli in adults with autism spectrum disorder. Brain Research, 1533, 8090. doi: 10.1016/j.brainres.2013.08.021CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Durston, S., Mulder, M., Casey, B. J., Ziermans, T., & van Engeland, H. (2006). Activation in ventral prefrontal cortex is sensitive to genetic vulnerability for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 60(10), 10621070. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2005.12.020CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ecker, C. (2017). The neuroanatomy of autism spectrum disorder: An overview of structural neuroimaging findings and their translatability to the clinical setting. Autism, 21(1), 1828. doi: 10.1177/1362361315627136CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ecker, C., Schmeisser, M. J., Loth, E., & Murphy, D. G. (2017). Neuroanatomy and neuropathology of autism spectrum disorder in humans. Advances in Anatomy, Embryology and Cell Biology, 224, 2748. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-52498-6_2CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ecker, C., Suckling, J., Deoni, S. C., Lombardo, M. V., Bullmore, E. T., Baron-Cohen, S., … Murphy, D. G. M. (2012). Brain anatomy and its relationship to behavior in adults with autism spectrum disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry, 69(2), 195209. doi: 10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2011.1251CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Elsabbagh, M., Divan, G., Koh, Y.-J., Kim, Y. S., Kauchali, S., Marcín, C., … Fombonne, E. (2012). Global prevalence of autism and other pervasive developmental disorders: Global epidemiology of autism. Autism Research, 5(3), 160179. doi: 10.1002/aur.239CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fan, J., Bernardi, S., Van Dam, N. T., Anagnostou, E., Gu, X., Martin, L., … Hof, P. R. (2012). Functional deficits of the attentional networks in autism. Brain and Behavior, 2(5), 647660. doi: 10.1002/brb3.90CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fan, L. Y., Chou, T. L., & Gau, S. S. (2017). Neural correlates of atomoxetine improving inhibitory control and visual processing in drug-naive adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Human Brain Mapping, 38(10), 48504864. doi: 10.1002/hbm.23683CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fan, L. Y., Shang, C. Y., Tseng, W. I., Gau, S. S., & Chou, T. L. (2018). Visual processing as a potential endophenotype in youths with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A sibling study design using the counting Stroop functional MRI. Human Brain Mapping, 39(10), 38273835. doi: 10.1002/hbm.24214CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Floris, D. L., & Howells, H. (2018). Atypical structural and functional motor networks in autism. Progress in Brain Research, 238, 207248. doi: 10.1016/bs.pbr.2018.06.010CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Foster, N. E. V., Doyle-Thomas, K. A. R., Tryfon, A., Ouimet, T., Anagnostou, E., Evans, A. C., … Hyde, K. L. (2015). Structural gray matter differences during childhood development in autism spectrum disorder: A multimetric approach. Pediatric Neurology, 53(4), 350359. doi: 10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2015.06.013CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Freitag, C. M., Konrad, C., Häberlen, M., Kleser, C., von Gontard, A., Reith, W., … Krick, C. (2008). Perception of biological motion in autism spectrum disorders. Neuropsychologia, 46(5), 14801494. doi: 10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2007.12.025CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Friston, K. J., Rotshtein, P., Geng, J. J., Sterzer, P., & Henson, R. N. (2006). A critique of functional localisers. NeuroImage, 30(4), 10771087. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2005.08.012CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Frodl, T., & Skokauskas, N. (2012). Meta-analysis of structural MRI studies in children and adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder indicates treatment effects. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 125(2), 114126. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0447.2011.01786.xCrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fuentes, P., Barros-Loscertales, A., Bustamante, J. C., Rosell, P., Costumero, V., & Avila, C. (2012). Individual differences in the behavioral inhibition system are associated with orbitofrontal cortex and precuneus gray matter volume. Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience, 12(3), 491498. doi: 10.3758/s13415-012-0099-5CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gehricke, J. G., Kruggel, F., Thampipop, T., Alejo, S. D., Tatos, E., Fallon, J., & Muftuler, L. T. (2017). The brain anatomy of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in young adults – A magnetic resonance imaging study. PLoS ONE, 12(4), e0175433. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0175433CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Geurts, H. M., van den Bergh, S. F. W. M., & Ruzzano, L. (2014). Prepotent response inhibition and interference control in autism spectrum disorders: Two meta-analyses. Autism Research, 7(4), 407420. doi: 10.1002/aur.1369CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gjevik, E., Eldevik, S., Fjæran-Granum, T., & Sponheim, E. (2011). Kiddie-SADS reveals high rates of DSM-IV disorders in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 41(6), 761769. doi: 10.1007/s10803-010-1095-7CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gooskens, B., Bos, D. J., Mensen, V. T., Shook, D. A., Bruchhage, M. M. K., & Naaijen, J., … consortium, T. (2018). No evidence of differences in cognitive control in children with autism spectrum disorder or obsessive-compulsive disorder: An fMRI study. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, 36, 100602. doi: 10.1016/j.dcn.2018.11.004CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Greimel, E., Nehrkorn, B., Schulte-Ruether, M., Fink, G. R., Nickl-Jockschat, T., Herpertz-Dahlmann, B., … Eickhoff, S. B. (2013). Changes in grey matter development in autism spectrum disorder. Brain Structure and Function, 218(4), 929942. doi: 10.1007/s00429-012-0439-9CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Griebling, J., Minshew, N. J., Bodner, K., Libove, R., Bansal, R., Konasale, P., … Hardan, A. (2010). Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex magnetic resonance imaging measurements and cognitive performance in autism. Journal of Child Neurology, 25(7), 856863. doi: 10.1177/0883073809351313CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Groen, W. B., Buitelaar, J. K., van der Gaag, R. J., & Zwiers, M. P. (2011). Pervasive microstructural abnormalities in autism: A DTI study. Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience, 36(1), 3240. doi: 10.1503/jpn.090100CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hart, H., Radua, J., Nakao, T., Mataix-Cols, D., & Rubia, K. (2013). Meta-analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging studies of inhibition and attention in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: Exploring task-specific, stimulant medication, and age effects. JAMA Psychiatry, 70(2), 185198. doi: 10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2013.277CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hazlett, H. C., Gu, H., Munsell, B. C., Kim, S. H., Styner, M., Wolff, J. J., … Statistical, A. (2017). Early brain development in infants at high risk for autism spectrum disorder. Nature, 542(7641), 348351. doi: 10.1038/nature21369CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
He, N., Li, F., Li, Y., Guo, L., Chen, L., Huang, X., … Gong, Q. (2015). Neuroanatomical deficits correlate with executive dysfunction in boys with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Neuroscience Letters, 600, 4549. doi: 10.1016/j.neulet.2015.05.062CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hollingdale, J., Woodhouse, E., Young, S., Fridman, A., & Mandy, W. (2019). Autistic spectrum disorder symptoms in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A meta-analytical review. Psychological Medicine, 18, 114. doi: 10.1017/S0033291719002368Google Scholar
Hoogman, M., Bralten, J., Hibar, D. P., Mennes, M., Zwiers, M. P., Schweren, L. S., … Franke, B. (2017). Subcortical brain volume differences in participants with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children and adults: A cross-sectional mega-analysis. The Lancet. Psychiatry, 4(4), 310319. doi: 10.1016/S2215-0366(17)30049-4CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hoogman, M., Muetzel, R., Guimaraes, J. P., Shumskaya, E., Mennes, M., Zwiers, M. P., … Franke, B. (2019). Brain imaging of the cortex in ADHD: A coordinated analysis of large-scale clinical and population-based samples. American Journal of Psychiatry, 176(7), 531542. doi: 10.1176/appi.ajp.2019.18091033CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hwang, S., White, S. F., Nolan, Z. T., Craig Williams, W., Sinclair, S., & Blair, R. J. R. (2015). Executive attention control and emotional responding in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder – A functional MRI study. NeuroImage: Clinical, 9, 545554. doi: 10.1016/j.nicl.2015.10.005CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hyde, K. L., Samson, F., Evans, A. C., & Mottron, L. (2010). Neuroanatomical differences in brain areas implicated in perceptual and other core features of autism revealed by cortical thickness analysis and voxel-based morphometry. Human Brain Mapping, 31(4), 556566. doi: 10.1002/hbm.20887Google ScholarPubMed
Iannaccone, R., Hauser, T. U., Ball, J., Brandeis, D., Walitza, S., & Brem, S. (2015). Classifying adolescent attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) based on functional and structural imaging. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 24(10), 12791289. doi: 10.1007/s00787-015-0678-4CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Itahashi, T., Yamada, T., Nakamura, M., Watanabe, H., Yamagata, B., Jimbo, D., … Hashimoto, R. (2015). Linked alterations in gray and white matter morphology in adults with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder: A multimodal brain imaging study. NeuroImage. Clinical, 7, 155169. doi: 10.1016/j.nicl.2014.11.019CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Jagger-Rickels, A. C., Kibby, M. Y., & Constance, J. M. (2018). Global gray matter morphometry differences between children with reading disability, ADHD, and comorbid reading disability/ADHD. Brain and Language, 185, 5466. doi: 10.1016/j.bandl.2018.08.004CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Janssen, T. W. P., Heslenfeld, D. J., Mourik, R. V., Logan, G. D., & Oosterlaan, J. (2015). Neural correlates of response inhibition in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A controlled version of the stop-signal task. Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging, 233(2), 278284. doi: 10.1016/j.pscychresns.2015.07.007CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Johnston, B. A., Mwangi, B., Matthews, K., Coghill, D., Konrad, K., & Steele, J. D. (2014). Brainstem abnormalities in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder support high accuracy individual diagnostic classification. Human Brain Mapping, 35(10), 51795189. doi: 10.1002/hbm.22542CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kana, R. K., Keller, T. A., Minshew, N. J., & Just, M. A. (2007). Inhibitory control in high-functioning autism: Decreased activation and underconnectivity in inhibition networks. Biological Psychiatry, 62(3), 198206. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2006.08.004CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kana, R. K., Maximo, J. O., Williams, D. L., Keller, T. A., Schipul, S. E., Cherkassky, V. L., … Just, M. A. (2015). Aberrant functioning of the theory-of-mind network in children and adolescents with autism. Molecular Autism, 6, 59. doi: 10.1186/s13229-015-0052-xCrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kana, R. K., Patriquin, M. A., Black, B. S., Channell, M. M., & Wicker, B. (2016). Altered medial frontal and superior temporal response to implicit processing of emotions in autism. Autism Research, 9(1), 5566. doi: 10.1002/aur.1496CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kappel, V., Lorenz, R. C., Streifling, M., Renneberg, B., Lehmkuhl, U., Stroehle, A., … Beck, A. (2015). Effect of brain structure and function on reward anticipation in children and adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder combined subtype. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 10(7), 945951. doi: 10.1093/scan/nsu135CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Katz, J., d'Albis, M. A., Boisgontier, J., Poupon, C., Mangin, J. F., Guevara, P., … Houenou, J. (2016). Similar white matter but opposite grey matter changes in schizophrenia and high-functioning autism. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 134(1), 3139. doi: 10.1111/acps.12579CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kaufmann, L., Zotter, S., Pixner, S., Starke, M., Haberlandt, E., Steinmayr-Gensluckner, M., … Marksteiner, J. (2013). Brief report: CANTAB performance and brain structure in pediatric patients with Asperger syndrome. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 43(6), 14831490. doi: 10.1007/s10803-012-1686-6CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kaya, B. S., Metin, B., Tas, Z. C., Buyukaslan, A., Soysal, A., Hatiloglu, D., & Tarhan, N. (2018). Gray matter increase in motor cortex in pediatric ADHD: A voxel-based morphometry study. Journal of Attention Disorders, 22(7), 611618. doi: 10.1177/1087054716659139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ke, X., Hong, S., Tang, T., Zou, B., Li, H., Hang, Y., … Liu, Y. (2008). Voxel-based morphometry study on brain structure in children with high-functioning autism. Neuroreport, 19(9), 921925. doi: 10.1097/wnr.0b013e328300edf3CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kennedy, D. P., Redcay, E., & Courchesne, E. (2006). Failing to deactivate: Resting functional abnormalities in autism. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 103(21), 82758280. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0600674103CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kleinhans, N. M., Muller, R. A., Cohen, D. N., & Courchesne, E. (2008). Atypical functional lateralization of language in autism spectrum disorders. Brain Research, 1221, 115125. doi: 10.1016/j.brainres.2008.04.080CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kobel, M., Bechtel, N., Specht, K., Klarhoefer, M., Weber, P., Scheffler, K., … Penner, I.-K. (2010). Structural and functional imaging approaches in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: Does the temporal lobe play a key role? Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging, 183(3), 230236. doi: 10.1016/j.pscychresns.2010.03.010CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kohls, G., Thönessen, H., Bartley, G. K., Grossheinrich, N., Fink, G. R., Herpertz-Dahlmann, B., & Konrad, K. (2014). Differentiating neural reward responsiveness in autism versus ADHD. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, 10, 104116. doi: 10.1016/j.dcn.2014.08.003CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Konrad, K., Neufang, S., Hanisch, C., Fink, G. R., & Herpertz-Dahlmann, B. (2006). Dysfunctional attentional networks in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: Evidence from an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging study. Biological Psychiatry, 59(7), 643651. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2005.08.013CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kooistra, L., van der Meere, J. J., Edwards, J. D., Kaplan, B. J., Crawford, S., & Goodyear, B. G. (2010). Preliminary fMRI findings on the effects of event rate in adults with ADHD. Journal of Neural Transmission, 117(5), 655662. doi: 10.1007/s00702-010-0374-yCrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Korponay, C., Dentico, D., Kral, T., Ly, M., Kruis, A., Goldman, R., … Davidson, R. J. (2017). Neurobiological correlates of impulsivity in healthy adults: Lower prefrontal gray matter volume and spontaneous eye-blink rate but greater resting-state functional connectivity in basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical circuitry. NeuroImage, 157, 288296. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2017.06.015CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kosaka, H., Omori, M., Munesue, T., Ishitobi, M., Matsumura, Y., Takahashi, T., … Wada, Y. (2010). Smaller insula and inferior frontal volumes in young adults with pervasive developmental disorders. NeuroImage, 50(4), 13571363. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2010.01.085CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Koshino, H., Carpenter, P. A., Minshew, N. J., Cherkassky, V. L., Keller, T. A., & Just, M. A. (2005). Functional connectivity in an fMRI working memory task in high-functioning autism. NeuroImage, 24(3), 810821. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2004.09.028CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Krall, S. C., Rottschy, C., Oberwelland, E., Bzdok, D., Fox, P. T., Eickhoff, S. B., … Konrad, K. (2015). The role of the right temporoparietal junction in attention and social interaction as revealed by ALE meta-analysis. Brain Structure and Function, 220(2), 587604. doi: 10.1007/s00429-014-0803-zCrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kuiper, M. W. M., Verhoeven, E. W. M., & Geurts, H. M. (2016). The role of interstimulus interval and ‘stimulus-type’ in prepotent response inhibition abilities in people with ASD: A quantitative and qualitative review. Autism Research, 9(11), 11241141. doi: 10.1002/aur.1631CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kumar, U., Arya, A., & Agarwal, V. (2017). Neural alterations in ADHD children as indicated by voxel-based cortical thickness and morphometry analysis. Brain and Development, 39(5), 403410. doi: 10.1016/j.braindev.2016.12.002CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kurth, F., Narr, K. L., Woods, R. P., O'Neill, J., Alger, J. R., Caplan, R., … Levitt, J. G. (2011). Diminished gray matter within the hypothalamus in autism disorder: A potential link to hormonal effects? Biological Psychiatry, 70(3), 278282. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2011.03.026CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kwon, H., Ow, A. W., Pedatella, K. E., Lotspeich, L. J., & Reiss, A. L. (2004). Voxel-based morphometry elucidates structural neuroanatomy of high-functioning autism and Asperger syndrome. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, 46(11), 760764. doi: 10.1017/s0012162204001306CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lange, N., Travers, B. G., Bigler, E. D., Prigge, M. B. D., Froehlich, A. L., Nielsen, J. A., … Lainhart, J. E. (2015). Longitudinal volumetric brain changes in autism spectrum disorder ages 6–35 years. Autism Research, 8(1), 8293. doi: 10.1002/aur.1427CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Langen, M., Schnack, H. G., Nederveen, H., Bos, D., Lahuis, B. E., de Jonge, M. V., … Durston, S. (2009). Changes in the developmental trajectories of striatum in autism. Biological Psychiatry, 66(4), 327333. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2009.03.017CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Li, X., Cao, Q., Pu, F., Li, D., Fan, Y., An, L., … Wang, Y. (2015). Abnormalities of structural covariance networks in drug-naïve boys with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Psychiatry Research, 231(3), 273278. doi: 10.1016/j.pscychresns.2015.01.006CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Liddle, E. B., Hollis, C., Batty, M. J., Groom, M. J., Totman, J. J., Liotti, M., … Liddle, P. F. (2011). Task-related default mode network modulation and inhibitory control in ADHD: Effects of motivation and methylphenidate. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 52(7), 761771. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7610.2010.02333.xCrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lim, L., Chantiluke, K., Cubillo, A. I., Smith, A. B., Simmons, A., Mehta, M. A., & Rubia, K. (2015). Disorder-specific grey matter deficits in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder relative to autism spectrum disorder. Psychological Medicine, 45(5), 965976. doi: 10.1017/s0033291714001974CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lin, H. Y., Ni, H.-C., Lai, M.-C., Tseng, W.-Y. I., & Gau, S. S.-F. (2015). Regional brain volume differences between males with and without autism spectrum disorder are highly age-dependent. Molecular Autism, 6, 29. doi: 10.1186/s13229-015-0022-3CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lin, H. Y., Tseng, W. I., Lai, M. C., Chang, Y. T., & Gau, S. S. (2017). Shared atypical brain anatomy and intrinsic functional architecture in male youth with autism spectrum disorder and their unaffected brothers. Psychological Medicine, 47(4), 639654. doi: 10.1017/S0033291716002695CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lipszyc, J., & Schachar, R. (2010). Inhibitory control and psychopathology: A meta-analysis of studies using the stop signal task. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 16(06), 10641076. doi: 10.1017/s1355617710000895CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lombardo, M. V., Chakrabarti, B., Bullmore, E. T., & Baron-Cohen, S. (2011). Specialization of right temporo-parietal junction for mentalizing and its relation to social impairments in autism. NeuroImage, 56(3), 18321838. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2011.02.067CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ma, J., Lei, D., Jin, X., Du, X., Jiang, F., Li, F., … Shen, X. (2012). Compensatory brain activation in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder during a simplified go/no-go task. Journal of Neural Transmission, 119(5), 613619. doi: 10.1007/s00702-011-0744-0CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ma, I., van Holstein, M., Mies, G. W., Mennes, M., Buitelaar, J., Cools, R., … Scheres, A. (2016). Ventral striatal hyperconnectivity during rewarded interference control in adolescents with ADHD. Cortex, 82, 225236. doi: 10.1016/j.cortex.2016.05.021CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Maier, S., Perlov, E., Graf, E., Dieter, E., Sobanski, E., Rump, M., … Elst, L. T. V. (2015). Discrete global but no focal gray matter volume reductions in unmedicated adult patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 80(12), 905915. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2015.05.012CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Martinez-Sanchis, S. (2014). Neurobiological foundations of multisensory integration in people with autism spectrum disorders: The role of the medial prefrontal cortex. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 8, 970. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2014.00970Google ScholarPubMed
Massat, I., Slama, H., Villemonteix, T., Mary, A., Baijot, S., Albajara Saenz, A., … Peigneux, P. (2018). Hyperactivity in motor response inhibition networks in unmedicated children with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder. The World Journal of Biological Psychiatry, 19(2), 101111. doi: 10.1080/15622975.2016.1237040CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McAlonan, G. M., Cheung, V., Cheung, C., Chua, S. E., Murphy, D. G. M., Suckling, J., … Ho, T. P. (2007). Mapping brain structure in attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder: A voxel-based MRI study of regional grey and white matter volume. Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging, 154(2), 171180. doi: 10.1016/j.pscychresns.2006.09.006CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McAlonan, G. M., Daly, E., Kumari, V., Critchley, H. D., van Amelsvoort, T., Suckling, J., … Murphy, D. G. M. (2002). Brain anatomy and sensorimotor gating in Asperger's syndrome. Brain, 125, 15941606. doi: 10.1093/brain/awf150CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McAlonan, G. M., Suckling, J., Wong, N., Cheung, V., Lienenkaemper, N., Cheung, C., & Chua, S. E. (2008). Distinct patterns of grey matter abnormality in high-functioning autism and Asperger's syndrome. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 49(12), 12871295. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7610.2008.01933.xCrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McCarthy, H., Skokauskas, N., & Frodl, T. (2014). Identifying a consistent pattern of neural function in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: A meta-analysis. Psychological Medicine, 44(4), 869880. doi: 10.1017/s0033291713001037CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McGrath, L. M., & Stoodley, C. J. (2019). Are there shared neural correlates between dyslexia and ADHD? A meta-analysis of voxel-based morphometry studies. Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders, 11(1), 31. doi: 10.1186/s11689-019-9287-8CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mengotti, P., D'Agostini, S., Terlevic, R., De Colle, C., Biasizzo, E., Londero, D., … Brambilla, P. (2011). Altered white matter integrity and development in children with autism: A combined voxel-based morphometry and diffusion imaging study. Brain Research Bulletin, 84(2), 189195. doi: 10.1016/j.brainresbull.2010.12.002CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Menon, V., & Uddin, L. Q. (2010). Saliency, switching, attention and control: A network model of insula function. Brain Structure and Function, 214(5-6), 655667. doi: 10.1007/s00429-010-0262-0CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Miller, G. M., & Chapman, J. P. (2001). Misunderstanding analysis of covariance. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 110(1), 4048. doi: 10.1037//0021-843x.110.1.40CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mitchell, S. R., Reiss, A. L., Tatusko, D. H., Ikuta, I., Kazmerski, D. B., Botti, J. A., … Kates, W. R. (2009). Neuroanatomic alterations and social and communication deficits in monozygotic twins discordant for autism disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 166(8), 917925. doi: 10.1176/appi.ajp.2009.08101538CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Montes, L. G. A., Ricardo-Garcell, J., de la Torre, L. B., Alcántara, H. P., García, R. B. M., Fernández-Bouzas, A., & Acosta, D. A. (2010). Clinical correlations of grey matter reductions in the caudate nucleus of adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience, 35(4), 238246. doi: 10.1503/jpn.090099Google Scholar
Moreno-Alcázar, A., Ramos-Quiroga, J. A., Radua, J., Salavert, J., Palomar, G., Bosch, R., … Pomarol-Clotet, E. (2016). Brain abnormalities in adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder revealed by voxel-based morphometry. Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging, 254, 4147. doi: 10.1016/j.pscychresns.2016.06.002.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mueller, S., Keeser, D., Samson, A. C., Kirsch, V., Blautzik, J., Grothe, M., … Meindl, T. (2013). Convergent findings of altered functional and structural brain connectivity in individuals with high functioning autism: A multimodal MRI study. PLoS ONE, 8(6), e67329. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0067329CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Murdaugh, D. L., Shinkareva, S. V., Deshpande, H. R., Wang, J., Pennick, M. R., & Kana, R. K. (2012). Differential deactivation during mentalizing and classification of autism based on default mode network connectivity. PLoS ONE, 7(11), e50064. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0050064CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Murphy, C. M., Christakou, A., Daly, E. M., Ecker, C., Giampietro, V., Brammer, M., … Rubia, K. (2014). Abnormal functional activation and maturation of fronto-striato-temporal and cerebellar regions during sustained attention in autism spectrum disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 171(10), 11071116. doi: 10.1176/appi.ajp.2014.12030352CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Nakao, T., Radua, J., Rubia, K., & Mataix-Cols, D. (2011). Gray matter volume abnormalities in ADHD: Voxel-based meta-analysis exploring the effects of age and stimulant medication. American Journal of Psychiatry, 168(11), 11541163. doi: 10.1176/appi.ajp.2011.11020281CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ni, H. C., Lin, H. Y., Tseng, W. I., Chiu, Y. N., Wu, Y. Y., Tsai, W. C., & Gau, S. S. (2018). Neural correlates of impaired self-regulation in male youths with autism spectrum disorder: A voxel-based morphometry study. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry, 82, 233241. doi: 10.1016/j.pnpbp.2017.11.008CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Nickl-Jockschat, T., Habel, U., Michel, T. M., Manning, J., Laird, A. R., Fox, P. T., … Eickhoff, S. B. (2012). Brain structure anomalies in autism spectrum disorder – a meta-analysis of VBM studies using anatomic likelihood estimation. Human Brain Mapping, 33(6), 14701489. doi: 10.1002/hbm.21299CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Nordahl, C. W., Lange, N., Li, D. D., Barnett, L. A., Lee, A., Buonocore, M. H., … Amaral, D. G. (2011). Brain enlargement is associated with regression in preschool-age boys with autism spectrum disorders. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 108(50), 2019520200. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1107560108CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Norman, L. J., Carlisi, C. O., Christakou, A., Chantiluke, K., Murphy, C., Simmons, A., … Rubia, K. (2017). Neural dysfunction during temporal discounting in paediatric attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging, 269, 97105. doi: 10.1016/j.pscychresns.2017.09.008CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Norman, L. J., Carlisi, C., Lukito, S., Hart, H., Mataix-Cols, D., Radua, J., & Rubia, K. (2016). Structural and functional brain abnormalities in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder: A comparative meta-analysis. JAMA Psychiatry, 73(8), 815–825. doi: 10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2016.0700CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Onnink, A. M. H., Zwiers, M. P., Hoogman, M., Mostert, J. C., Kan, C. C., Buitelaar, J., & Franke, B. (2014). Brain alterations in adult ADHD: Effects of gender, treatment and comorbid depression. European Neuropsychopharmacology, 24(3), 397409. doi: 10.1016/j.euroneuro.2013.11.011CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ortal, S., van de Glind, G., Johan, F., Itai, B., Nir, Y., Iliyan, I., & van den Brink, W. (2015). The role of different aspects of impulsivity as independent risk factors for substance use disorders in patients with ADHD: A review. Current Drug Abuse Review, 8(2), 119133. doi: 10.2174/1874473708666150916112913CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Overmeyer, S., Bullmore, E. T., Suckling, J., Simmons, A., Williams, S. C., Santosh, P. J., & Taylor, E. (2001). Distributed grey and white matter deficits in hyperkinetic disorder: MRI evidence for anatomical abnormality in an attentional network. Psychological Medicine, 31(8), 14251435. doi: 10.1017/s0033291701004706CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Passarotti, A. M., Sweeney, J. A., & Pavuluri, M. N. (2010). Neural correlates of response inhibition in pediatric bipolar disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging, 181(1), 3643. doi: 10.1016/j.pscychresns.2009.07.002CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pereira, A. M., Campos, B. M., Coan, A. C., Pegoraro, L. F., de Rezende, T. J. R., Obeso, I., … Cendes, F. (2018). Differences in cortical structure and functional MRI connectivity in high functioning autism. Frontiers in Neurology, 9, 539. doi: 10.3389/fneur.2018.00539CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Peterson, B. S., Potenza, M. N., Wang, Z., Zhu, H., Martin, A., Marsh, R., … Yu, S. (2009). An fMRI study of the effects of psychostimulants on default-mode processing during Stroop task performance in youths with ADHD. American Journal of Psychiatry, 166(11), 12861294. doi: 10.1176/appi.ajp.2009.08050724CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Philip, R. C. M., Dauvermann, M. R., Whalley, H. C., Baynham, K., Lawrie, S. M., & Stanfield, A. C. (2012). A systematic review and meta-analysis of the fMRI investigation of autism spectrum disorders. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 36(2), 901942. doi: 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2011.10.008CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Polanczyk, G., Willcutt, E. G., Salum, G. A., Kieling, C., & Rohde, L. A. (2014). ADHD prevalence estimates across three decades: An updated systematic review and meta-regression analysis. International Journal of Epidemiology, 43(2), 434442. doi: 10.1093/ije/dyt261CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Poulin-Lord, M. P., Barbeau, E. B., Soulières, I., Monchi, O., Doyon, J., Benali, H., & Mottron, L. (2014). Increased topographical variability of task-related activation in perceptive and motor associative regions in adult autistics. NeuroImage: Clinical, 4, 444453. doi: 10.1016/j.nicl.2014.02.008CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Poustka, L., Jennen-Steinmetz, C., Henze, R., Vomstein, K., Haffner, J., & Sieltjes, B. (2012). Fronto-temporal disconnectivity and symptom severity in children with autism spectrum disorder. The World Journal of Biological Psychiatry, 13(4), 269280. doi: 10.3109/15622975.2011.591824CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Prat, C. S., Stocco, A., Neuhaus, E., & Kleinhans, N. M. (2016). Basal ganglia impairments in autism spectrum disorder are related to abnormal signal gating to prefrontal cortex. Neuropsychologia, 91, 268281. doi: 10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2016.08.007CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Radeloff, D., Ciaramidaro, A., Siniatchkin, M., Hainz, D., Schlitt, S., Weber, B., … Freitag, C. M. (2014). Structural alterations of the social brain: A comparison between schizophrenia and autism. PLoS ONE, 9(9), e106539. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0106539CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Radua, J., Borgwardt, S., Crescini, A., Mataix-Cols, D., Meyer-Lindenberg, A., McGuire, P. K., & Fusar-Poli, P. (2012a). Multimodal meta-analysis of structural and functional brain changes in first episode psychosis and the effects of antipsychotic medication. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 36(10), 23252333. doi: 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2012.07.012CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Radua, J., & Mataix-Cols, D. (2009). Voxel-wise meta-analysis of grey matter changes in obsessive-compulsive disorder. British Journal of Psychiatry, 195(5), 393402. doi: 10.1192/bjp.bp.108.055046CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Radua, J., Mataix-Cols, D., Phillips, M. L., El-Hage, W., Kronhaus, D. M., Cardoner, N., & Surguladze, S. (2012b). A new meta-analytic method for neuroimaging studies that combines reported peak coordinates and statistical parametric maps. European Psychiatry, 27(8), 605611. doi: 10.1016/j.eurpsy.2011.04.001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rae, C. L., Hughes, L. E., Weaver, C., Anderson, M. C., & Rowe, J. B. (2014). Selection and stopping in voluntary action: A meta-analysis and combined fMRI study. NeuroImage, 86, 381391. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2013.10.012CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ramesh, M. G., & Rai, K. S. (2013). Region-wise gray matter volume alterations in brain of adolescents with attention deficit hyperactive disorder: A voxel based morphometric analysis. Indian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology, 57(3), 270279. Retrieved from Scholar
Rasmussen, J., Casey, B. J., van Erp, T. G., Tamm, L., Epstein, J. N., Buss, C., … Group, M. T. A. N. (2016). ADHD and cannabis use in young adults examined using fMRI of a Go/NoGo task. Brain Imaging and Behavior, 10(3), 761771. doi: 10.1007/s11682-015-9438-9CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Raznahan, A., Wallace, G. L., Antezana, L., Greenstein, D., Lenroot, R., Thurm, A., … Giedd, J. N. (2013). Compared to what? Early brain overgrowth in autism and the perils of population norms. Biological Psychiatry, 74(8), 563575. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2013.03.022CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Redcay, E., & Courchesne, E. (2005). When is the brain enlarged in autism? A meta-analysis of all brain size reports. Biological Psychiatry, 58(1), 19. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2005.03.026CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Retico, A., Giuliano, A., Tancredi, R., Cosenza, A., Apicella, F., Narzisi, A., … Calderoni, S. (2016). The effect of gender on the neuroanatomy of children with autism spectrum disorders: A support vector machine case-control study. Molecular Autism, 7, 5. doi: 10.1186/s13229-015-0067-3CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Riddle, K., Cascio, C. J., & Woodward, N. D. (2017). Brain structure in autism: A voxel-based morphometry analysis of the Autism Brain Imaging Database Exchange (ABIDE). Brain Imaging and Behavior, 11(2), 541551. doi: 10.1007/s11682-016-9534-5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Riedel, A., Maier, S., Ulbrich, M., Biscaldi, M., Ebert, D., Fangmeier, T., … Elst, L. T. V. (2014). No significant brain volume decreases or increases in adults with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder and above average intelligence: A voxel-based morphometric study. Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging, 223(2), 6774. doi: 10.1016/j.pscychresns.2014.05.013CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Riva, D., Annunziata, S., Contarino, V., Erbetta, A., Aquino, D., & Bulgheroni, S. (2013). Gray matter reduction in the vermis and CRUS-II is associated with social and interaction deficits in low-functioning children with autistic spectrum disorders: A VBM-DARTEL study. Cerebellum (London, England), 12(5), 676685. doi: 10.1007/s12311-013-0469-8CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rojas, D. C., Peterson, E., Winterrowd, E., Reite, M. L., Rogers, S. J., & Tregellas, J. R. (2006). Regional gray matter volumetric changes in autism associated with social and repetitive behavior symptoms. BMC Psychiatry, 6, 56. doi: 10.1186/1471-244x-6-56CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Roman-Urrestarazu, A., Lindholm, P., Moilanen, I., Kiviniemi, V., Miettunen, J., Jaaskelainen, E., … Murray, G. K. (2016). Brain structural deficits and working memory fMRI dysfunction in young adults who were diagnosed with ADHD in adolescence. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 25(5), 529538. doi: 10.1007/s00787-015-0755-8CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rubia, K. (2018). Cognitive neuroscience of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and its clinical translation. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 12, 100. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2018.00100CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rubia, K., Alegria, A. A., Cubillo, A. I., Smith, A. B., Brammer, M. J., & Radua, J. (2014). Effects of stimulants on brain function in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Biological Psychiatry, 76(8), 616628. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2013.10.016CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rubia, K., Cubillo, A., Smith, A. B., Woolley, J., Heyman, I., & Brammer, M. J. (2010a). Disorder-specific dysfunction in right inferior prefrontal cortex during two inhibition tasks in boys with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder compared to boys with obsessive-compulsive disorder. Human Brain Mapping, 31(2), 287299. doi: 10.1002/hbm.20864CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rubia, K., Halari, R., Cubillo, A., Mohammad, A. M., Scott, S., & Brammer, M. (2010b). Disorder-specific inferior prefrontal hypofunction in boys with pure attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder compared to boys with pure conduct disorder during cognitive flexibility. Human Brain Mapping, 31(12), 18231833. doi: 10.1002/hbm.20975CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rubia, K., Halari, R., Cubillo, A., Smith, A. B., Mohammad, A. M., Brammer, M., & Taylor, E. (2011a). Methylphenidate normalizes fronto-striatal underactivation during interference inhibition in medication-naive boys with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Neuropsychopharmacology, 36(8), 15751586. doi: 10.1038/npp.2011.30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rubia, K., Halari, R., Mohammad, A. M., Taylor, E., & Brammer, M. (2011b). Methylphenidate normalizes frontocingulate underactivation during error processing in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 70(3), 255262. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2011.04.018CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rubia, K., Halari, R., Smith, A. B., Mohammad, M., Scott, S., & Brammer, M. J. (2009). Shared and disorder-specific prefrontal abnormalities in boys with pure attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder compared to boys with pure CD during interference inhibition and attention allocation. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 50(6), 669678. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7610.2008.02022.xCrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rubia, K., Smith, A. B., Brammer, M. J., Toone, B., & Taylor, E. (2005). Abnormal brain activation during inhibition and error detection in medication-naive adolescents with ADHD. American Journal of Psychiatry, 162(6), 10671075. doi: 10.1176/appi.ajp.162.6.1067CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Saad, J. F., Griffiths, K. R., Kohn, M. R., Clarke, S., Williams, L. M., & Korgaonkar, M. S. (2017). Regional brain network organization distinguishes the combined and inattentive subtypes of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. NeuroImage: Clinical, 15, 383390. doi: 10.1016/j.nicl.2017.05.016CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Salazar, F., Baird, G., Chandler, S., Tseng, E., O'sullivan, T., Howlin, P., … Simonoff, E. (2015). Co-occurring psychiatric disorders in preschool and elementary school-aged children with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 45(8), 22832294. doi: 10.1007/s10803-015-2361-5CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sasayama, D., Hayashida, A., Yamasue, H., Harada, Y., Kaneko, T., Kasai, K., … Amano, N. (2010). Neuroanatomical correlates of attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder accounting for comorbid oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 64(4), 394402. doi: 10.1111/j.1440-1819.2010.02102.xCrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sato, W., Uono, S., Kochiyama, T., Yoshimura, S., Sawada, R., Kubota, Y., … Toichi, M. (2017). Structural correlates of reading the mind in the eyes in autism spectrum disorder. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 11, 361. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2017.00361CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Schmitz, N., Rubia, K., Daly, E., Smith, A., Williams, S., & Murphy, D. G. (2006). Neural correlates of executive function in autistic spectrum disorders. Biological Psychiatry, 59(1), 716. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2005.06.007CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Schulz, K. P., Bédard, A. C. V., Fan, J., Clerkin, S. M., Dima, D., Newcorn, J. H., & Halperin, J. M. (2014). Emotional bias of cognitive control in adults with childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. NeuroImage: Clinical, 5, 19. doi: 10.1016/j.nicl.2014.05.016CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Schulz, K. P., Fan, J., Tang, C. Y., Newcorn, J. H., Buchsbaum, M. S., Cheung, A. M., & Halperin, J. M. (2004). Response inhibition in adolescents diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder during childhood: An event-related fMRI study. American Journal of Psychiatry, 161(9), 16501657. doi: 10.1176/appi.ajp.161.9.1650CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schulz, K. P., Li, X., Clerkin, S. M., Fan, J., Berwid, O. G., Newcorn, J. H., & Halperin, J. M. (2017). Prefrontal and parietal correlates of cognitive control related to the adult outcome of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder diagnosed in childhood. Cortex, 90, 111. doi: 10.1016/j.cortex.2017.01.019CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Schumann, C. M., Bloss, C. S., Barnes, C. C., Wideman, G. M., Carper, R. A., Akshoomoff, N., … Courchesne, E. (2010). Longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging study of cortical development through early childhood in autism. Journal of Neuroscience, 30(12), 44194427. doi: 10.1523/jneurosci.5714-09.2010CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sebastian, A., Gerdes, B., Feige, B., Kloeppel, S., Lange, T., Philipsen, A., … Tuescher, O. (2012). Neural correlates of interference inhibition, action withholding and action cancelation in adult ADHD. Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging, 202(2), 132141. doi: 10.1016/j.pscychresns.2012.02.010CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Seidman, L. J., Biederman, J., Liang, L., Valera, E. M., Monuteaux, M. C., Brown, A., … Makris, N. (2011). Gray matter alterations in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder identified by voxel based morphometry. Biological Psychiatry, 69(9), 857866. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2010.09.053CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sethi, A., Evelyn-Rahr, E., Dowell, N., Jain, S., Voon, V., Critchley, H. D., … Cercignani, M. (2017). Magnetization transfer imaging identifies basal ganglia abnormalities in adult ADHD that are invisible to conventional T1 weighted voxel-based morphometry. NeuroImage: Clinical, 15, 814. doi: 10.1016/j.nicl.2017.03.012CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Shafritz, K. M., Bregman, J. D., Ikuta, T., & Szeszko, P. R. (2015). Neural systems mediating decision-making and response inhibition for social and nonsocial stimuli in autism. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry, 60, 112120. doi: 10.1016/j.pnpbp.2015.03.001CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Shafritz, K. M., Dichter, G. S., Baranek, G. T., & Belger, A. (2008). The neural circuitry mediating shifts in behavioral response and cognitive set in autism. Biological Psychiatry, 63(10), 974980. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2007.06.028CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Shang, C. Y., Sheng, C., Yang, L. K., Chou, T. L., & Gau, S. S. (2018). Differential brain activations in adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder subtypes: A counting Stroop functional MRI study. Brain Imaging and Behavior, 12(3), 882890. doi: 10.1007/s11682-017-9749-0CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Shaw, P., Eckstrand, K., Sharp, W., Blumenthal, J., Lerch, J. P., Greenstein, D., … Rapoport, J. L. (2007). Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder is characterized by a delay in cortical maturation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 104(49), 1964919654. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0707741104CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Shimada, K., Fujisawa, T. X., Takiguchi, S., Naruse, H., Kosaka, H., Okazawa, H., & Tomoda, A. (2015). Ethnic differences in COMT genetic effects on striatal grey matter alterations associated with childhood ADHD: A voxel-based morphometry study in a Japanese sample. The World Journal of Biological Psychiatry, 18(4), 17. doi: 10.3109/15622975.2015.1102325Google Scholar
Simonoff, E., Pickles, A., Charman, T., Chandler, S., Loucas, T., & Baird, G. (2008). Psychiatric disorders in children with autism spectrum disorders: Prevalence, comorbidity, and associated factors in a population-derived sample. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 47(8), 921929. doi: 10.1097/CHI.0b013e318179964fCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Siniatchkin, M., Glatthaar, N., von Mueller, G. G., Prehn-Kristensen, A., Wolff, S., Knoechel, S., … Gerber, W.-D. (2012). Behavioural treatment increases activity in the cognitive neuronal networks in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Brain Topography, 25(3), 332344. doi: 10.1007/s10548-012-0221-6CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sizoo, B., van den Brink, W., Koeter, M., Gorissen van Eenige, M., van Wijngaarden-Cremers, P., & van der Gaag, R. J. (2010). Treatment seeking adults with autism or ADHD and co-morbid substance use disorder: Prevalence, risk factors and functional disability. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 107(1), 4450. doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2009.09.003CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Smith, A. B., Taylor, E., Brammer, M., Toone, B., & Rubia, K. (2006). Task-specific hypoactivation in prefrontal and temporoparietal brain regions during motor inhibition and task switching in medication-naive children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 163(6), 10441051. doi: 10.1176/ajp.2006.163.6.1044CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Solberg, B. S., Zayats, T., Posserud, M. B., Halmoy, A., Engeland, A., Haavik, J., & Klungsoyr, K. (2019). Patterns of psychiatric comorbidity and genetic correlations provide new insights into differences between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 86(8), 587598. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2019.04.021CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Solomon, M., Yoon, J. H., Ragland, J. D., Niendam, T. A., Lesh, T. A., Fairbrother, W., & Carter, C. S. (2014). The development of the neural substrates of cognitive control in adolescents with autism spectrum disorders. Biological Psychiatry, 76(5), 412421. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2013.08.036CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
South, M., & Rodgers, J. (2017). Sensory, emotional and cognitive contributions to anxiety in autism spectrum disorders. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 11, 20. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2017.00020CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Spencer, M. D., Chura, L. R., Holt, R. J., Suckling, J., Calder, A. J., Bullmore, E. T., & Baron-Cohen, S. (2012). Failure to deactivate the default mode network indicates a possible endophenotype of autism. Molecular Autism, 3(1), 15. doi: 10.1186/2040-2392-3-15CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Spinelli, S., Joel, S., Nelson, T. E., Vasa, R. A., Pekar, J. J., & Mostofsky, S. H. (2011). Different neural patterns are associated with trials preceding inhibitory errors in children with and without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 50(7), 705715. doi: 10.1016/j.jaac.2011.03.014CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sripada, C. S., Kessler, D., & Angstadt, M. (2014). Lag in maturation of the brain's intrinsic functional architecture in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 111(39), 1425914264. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1407787111CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
StataCorp, L. P. (2015). Stata: Release 14 base reference manual. College Station, TX: Stata Press.Google Scholar
Stevens, M. C., & Haney-Caron, E. (2012). Comparison of brain volume abnormalities between ADHD and conduct disorder in adolescence. Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience, 37(6), 389398. doi: 10.1503/jpn.110148CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Stroup, D. F., Berlin, J. A., Morton, S. C., Olkin, I., Williamson, G. D., Rennie, D., … Thacker, S. B. (2000). Meta-analysis of observational studies in epidemiology: A proposal for reporting. Meta-analysis Of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) group. JAMA, 283(15), 20082012. doi: 10.1001/jama.283.15.2008CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Szczepanski, S. M., & Knight, R. T. (2014). Insights into human behavior from lesions to the prefrontal cortex. Neuron, 83(5), 10021018. doi: 10.1016/j.neuron.2014.08.011CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Szekely, E., Schwantes-An, T. L., Justice, C. M., Sabourin, J. A., Jansen, P. R., Muetzel, R. L., … Shaw, P. (2018). Genetic associations with childhood brain growth, defined in two longitudinal cohorts. Genetic Epidemiology, 42(4), 405414. doi: 10.1002/gepi.22122CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tamm, L., Menon, V., Ringel, J., & Reiss, A. L. (2004). Event-related fMRI evidence of frontotemporal involvement in aberrant response inhibition and task switching in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 43(11), 14301440. doi: 10.1097/01.chi.0000140452.51205.8dCrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tegelbeckers, J., Kanowski, M., Krauel, K., Haynes, J. D., Breitling, C., Flechtner, H. H., & Kahnt, T. (2018). Orbitofrontal signaling of future reward is associated with hyperactivity in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Neuroscience, 38(30), 67796786. doi: 10.1523/jneurosci.0411-18.2018CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Thirion, B., Pinel, P., Mériaux, S., Roche, A., Dehaene, S., & Poline, J.-B. (2007). Analysis of a large fMRI cohort: Statistical and methodological issues for group analyses. NeuroImage, 35(1), 105120. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2006.11.054CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Thornton, S., Bray, S., Langevin, L. M., & Dewey, D. (2018). Functional brain correlates of motor response inhibition in children with developmental coordination disorder and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Human Movement Science, 59, 134142. doi: 10.1016/j.humov.2018.03.018CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Toal, F., Daly, E. M., Page, L., Deeley, Q., Hallahan, B., Bloemen, O., … Murphy, D. G. M. (2010). Clinical and anatomical heterogeneity in autistic spectrum disorder: A structural MRI study. Psychological Medicine, 40(7), 11711181. doi: 10.1017/s0033291709991541CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Vaidya, C. J., Foss-Feig, J., Shook, D., Kaplan, L., Kenworthy, L., & Gaillard, W. D. (2011). Controlling attention to gaze and arrows in childhood: An fMRI study of typical development and autism spectrum disorders. Developmental Science, 14(4), 911924. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-7687.2011.01041.xCrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
van Dongen, E. V., von Rhein, D., O'Dwyer, L., Franke, B., Hartman, C. A., Heslenfeld, D. J., … Buitelaar, J. (2015). Distinct effects of ASD and ADHD symptoms on reward anticipation in participants with ADHD, their unaffected siblings and healthy controls: A cross-sectional study. Molecular Autism, 6, 48. doi: 10.1186/s13229-015-0043-yCrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
van Hulst, B. M., de Zeeuw, P., Rijks, Y., Neggers, S. F. W., & Durston, S. (2017). What to expect and when to expect it: An fMRI study of expectancy in children with ADHD symptoms. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 26(5), 583590. doi: 10.1007/s00787-016-0921-7CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
van Rooij, D., Anagnostou, E., Arango, C., Auzias, G., Behrmann, M., Busatto, G. F., … Buitelaar, J. K. (2018). Cortical and subcortical brain morphometry differences between patients with autism spectrum disorder and healthy individuals across the lifespan: Results from the ENIGMA ASD working group. American Journal of Psychiatry, 175(4), 359369. doi: 10.1176/appi.ajp.2017.17010100CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
van Rooij, D., Hoekstra, P. J., Mennes, M., von Rhein, D., Thissen, A. J. A. M., Hestenfeld, D., … Hartman, C. A. (2015). Distinguishing adolescents with ADHD from their unaffected siblings and healthy comparison subjects by neural activation patterns during response inhibition. American Journal of Psychiatry, 172(7), 674683. doi: 10.1176/appi.ajp.2014.13121635CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
van Wingen, G. A., van den Brink, W., Veltman, D. J., Schmaal, L., Dom, G., Booij, J., & Crunelle, C. L. (2013). Reduced striatal brain volumes in non-medicated adult ADHD patients with comorbid cocaine dependence. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 131(3), 198203. doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2013.05.007CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Velasquez, F., Qin, X. A., Reilly, M. A., Neuhaus, E., Estes, A., Aylward, E., & Kleinhans, N. M. (2017). Neural correlates of emotional inhibitory control in autism spectrum disorders. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 64, 6477. doi: 10.1016/j.ridd.2017.03.008CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Via, E., Radua, J., Cardoner, N., Happe, F., & Mataix-Cols, D. (2011). Meta-analysis of gray matter abnormalities in autism spectrum disorder: Should Asperger disorder be subsumed under a broader umbrella of autistic spectrum disorder? Archives of General Psychiatry, 68(4), 409418. doi: 10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2011.27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Vilgis, V., Sun, L., Chen, J., Silk, T. J., & Vance, A. (2016). Global and local grey matter reductions in boys with ADHD combined type and ADHD inattentive type. Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging, 254, 119126. doi: 10.1016/j.pscychresns.2016.06.008CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Villemonteix, T., De Brito, S. A., Kavec, M., Baleriaux, D., Metens, T., Slama, H., … Massat, I. (2015). Grey matter volumes in treatment naive v. chronically treated children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A combined approach. European Neuropsychopharmacology, 25(8), 11181127. doi: 10.1016/j.euroneuro.2015.04.015CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Vogan, V. M., Morgan, B. R., Lee, W., Powell, T. L., Smith, M. L., & Taylor, M. J. (2014). The neural correlates of visuo-spatial working memory in children with autism spectrum disorder: Effects of cognitive load. Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders, 6, 19. doi: 10.1186/1866-1955-6-19CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Waiter, G. D., Williams, J. H. G., Murray, A. D., Gilchrist, A., Perrett, D. I., & Whiten, A. (2004). A voxel-based investigation of brain structure in male adolescents with autistic spectrum disorder. NeuroImage, 22(2), 619625. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2004.02.029CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wang, J., Fu, K., Chen, L., Duan, X., Guo, X., Chen, H., … Chen, H. (2017). Increased gray matter volume and resting-state functional connectivity in somatosensory cortex and their relationship with autistic symptoms in young boys with autism spectrum disorder. Frontiers in Physiology, 8, 588. doi: 10.3389/fphys.2017.00588CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wang, J., Jiang, T., Cao, Q., & Wang, Y. (2007). Characterizing anatomic differences in boys with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder with the use of deformation-based morphometry. American Journal of Neuroradiology, 28(3), 543547. Retrieved from ScholarPubMed
White, S. J., Frith, U., Rellecke, J., Al-Noor, Z., & Gilbert, S. J. (2014). Autistic adolescents show atypical activation of the brain's mentalizing system even without a prior history of mentalizing problems. Neuropsychologia, 56, 1725. doi: 10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2013.12.013CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Willcutt, E. G., Sonuga-Barke, E. J. S., Nigg, J. T., & Sergeant, J. A. (2008). Recent developments in neuropsychological models of childhood psychiatric disorders. In Banaschewski, T. & Rohde, L. A. (Eds.), Advances in biological psychiatry (pp. 195226). Basel: Karger. Retrieved from Scholar
Wilson, L. B., Tregellas, J. R., Hagerman, R. J., Rogers, S. J., & Rojas, D. C. (2009). A voxel-based morphometry comparison of regional gray matter between fragile X syndrome and autism. Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging, 174(2), 138145. doi: 10.1016/j.pscychresns.2009.04.013CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Yang, Q., Huang, P., Li, C., Fang, P., Zhao, N., Nan, J., … Cui, L. B. (2018). Mapping alterations of gray matter volume and white matter integrity in children with autism spectrum disorder: Evidence from fMRI findings. Neuroreport, 29(14), 11881192. doi: 10.1097/wnr.0000000000001094CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Yang, P., Wang, P.-N., Chuang, K.-H., Jong, Y.-J., Chao, T.-C., & Wu, M.-T. (2008). Absence of gender effect on children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder as assessed by optimized voxel-based morphometry. Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging, 164(3), 245253. doi: 10.1016/j.pscychresns.2007.12.013CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Yerys, B. E., Antezana, L., Weinblatt, R., Jankowski, K. F., Strang, J., Vaidya, C. J., … Kenworthy, L. (2015). Neural correlates of set-shifting in children with autism. Autism Research, 8(4), 386397. doi: 10.1002/aur.1454CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Zamorano, F., Billeke, P., Kausel, L., Larrain, J., Stecher, X., Hurtado, J. M., … Aboitiz, F. (2017). Lateral prefrontal activity as a compensatory strategy for deficits of cortical processing in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Scientific Reports, 7(1), 7181. doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-07681-zCrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Zhang, R., Geng, X., & Lee, T. M. C. (2017). Large-scale functional neural network correlates of response inhibition: An fMRI meta-analysis. Brain Structure and Function, 222(9), 39733990. doi: 10.1007/s00429-017-1443-xCrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Supplementary material: PDF

Lukito et al. supplementary material

Lukito et al. supplementary material

Download Lukito et al. supplementary material(PDF)