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Dynamic cerebral reorganization in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia: a MRI-derived cortical thickness study

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  27 May 2016

S. Guo
Affiliation:
Key Laboratory of High Performance Computing and Stochastic Information Processing (Ministry of Education of China), College of Mathematics and Computer Science, Hunan Normal University, Changsha, People's Republic of China Department of Computer Science, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK
L. Palaniyappan*
Affiliation:
Division of Psychiatry & Applied Psychology, Centre for Translational Neuroimaging in Mental Health, Institute of Mental Health, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK Departments of Psychiatry, Medical Biophysics and Neuroscience, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry & Robarts Research Institute, Western University, London, Ontario, Canada Lawson Health Research Institute, London, Ontario, Canada
P. F. Liddle
Affiliation:
Division of Psychiatry & Applied Psychology, Centre for Translational Neuroimaging in Mental Health, Institute of Mental Health, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK
J. Feng*
Affiliation:
Department of Computer Science, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK Centre for Computational Systems Biology, College of Mathematical Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai, People's Republic of China School of Life Sciences and Collaborative Innovation Center for Brain Science, Fudan University, Shanghai, People's Republic of China Shanghai Center for Mathematical Sciences, Shanghai, People's Republic of China
*
*Address for correspondence: Dr L. Palaniyappan MBBS, PhD, Robarts Research Institute, Western University, Room 3208, 100 Perth Drive, London, ON, N6A 5K8, Canada. (Email: lpalaniy@uwo.ca) [L.P.] (Email: jianfeng64@gmail.com) [J.F.]
*Address for correspondence: Dr L. Palaniyappan MBBS, PhD, Robarts Research Institute, Western University, Room 3208, 100 Perth Drive, London, ON, N6A 5K8, Canada. (Email: lpalaniy@uwo.ca) [L.P.] (Email: jianfeng64@gmail.com) [J.F.]

Abstract

Background

A structural neuroanatomical change indicating a reduction in brain tissue is a notable feature of schizophrenia. Several pathophysiological processes such as aberrant cortical maturation, progressive tissue loss and compensatory tissue increase could contribute to the structural changes seen in schizophrenia.

Method

We studied cortical thickness using surface-based morphometry in 98 clinically stable patients with schizophrenia and 83 controls. Using a pattern classification approach, we studied whether the features that discriminate patients from controls vary across the different stages of the illness. Using a covariance analysis, we also investigated if concurrent increases accompany decreases in cortical thickness.

Results

Very high levels of accuracy (96.3%), specificity (98.8%) and sensitivity (88%) were noted when classifying patients with <2 years of illness from controls. Within the patient group, reduced thickness was consistently accompanied by increased thickness in distributed brain regions. A pattern of cortical amelioration or normalization (i.e. reduced deviation from controls) was noted with increasing illness duration. While temporo-limbic and fronto-parietal regions showed reduced thickness, the occipital cortex showed increased thickness, especially in those with a long-standing illness.

Conclusion

A compensatory remodelling process might contribute to the cortical thickness variations in different stages of schizophrenia. Subtle cerebral reorganization reflecting the inherent plasticity of brain may occur concomitantly with processes contributing to tissue reduction in adult patients with schizophrenia.

Type
Original Articles
Copyright
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2016 

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