Hostname: page-component-5db6c4db9b-cfm7h Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2023-03-24T12:28:14.274Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "useRatesEcommerce": false } hasContentIssue true

Psychosocial and pharmacological treatments for cannabis use disorder and mental health comorbidities: a narrative review

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  04 February 2021

Rachel Lees*
Addiction and Mental Health Group (AIM), Department of Psychology, University of Bath, Bath, UK
Lindsey A. Hines
Population Health Science, Bristol Medical School, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK
Deepak Cyril D'Souza
Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA
George Stothart
Department of Psychology, University of Bath, Bath, UK
Marta Di Forti
Social, Genetic and Developmental Psychiatry Centre, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King's College London, London, UK
Eva Hoch
Cannabinoid Research and Treatment Group, Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University Hospital, LMU Munich, Munich, Germany Department of Psychiatry, Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, Munich, Germany
Tom P. Freeman
Addiction and Mental Health Group (AIM), Department of Psychology, University of Bath, Bath, UK
Author for correspondence: Rachel Lees, E-mail:


Cannabis is the most widely used illicit drug worldwide, and it is estimated that up to 30% of people who use cannabis will develop a cannabis use disorder (CUD). Demand for treatment of CUD is increasing in almost every region of the world and cannabis use is highly comorbid with mental disorders, where sustained use can reduce treatment compliance and increase risk of relapse. In this narrative review, we outline evidence for psychosocial and pharmacological treatment strategies for CUD, both alone and when comorbid with psychosis, anxiety or depression. Psychosocial treatments such as cognitive behavioural therapy, motivational enhancement therapy and contingency management are currently the most effective strategy for treating CUD but are of limited benefit when comorbid with psychosis. Pharmacological treatments targeting the endocannabinoid system have the potential to reduce cannabis withdrawal and cannabis use in CUD. Mental health comorbidities including anxiety, depression and psychosis hinder effective treatment and should be addressed in treatment provision and clinical decision making to reduce the global burden of CUDs. Antipsychotic medication may decrease cannabis use and cannabis craving as well as psychotic symptoms in patients with CUD and psychosis. Targeted treatments for anxiety and depression when comorbid with CUD are feasible.

Review Article
Copyright © The Author(s) 2021. Published by Cambridge University Press

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


Albertella, L., Gibson, L., Rooke, S., Norberg, M. M., & Copeland, J. (2019). A smartphone app intervention for adult cannabis users wanting to quit or reduce their use: A pilot evaluation. Journal of Cannabis Research, 1, 9.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Allsop, D. J., Copeland, J., Lintzeris, N., Dunlop, A. J., Montebello, M., Sadler, C., … McGregor, I. S. (2014). Nabiximols as an agonist replacement therapy during cannabis withdrawal: A randomized clinical trial. JAMA Psychiatry, 71, 281291.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-5®). Arlington,VA: Author.Google Scholar
Batalla, A., Janssen, H., Gangadin, S. S., & Bossong, M. G. (2019). The potential of cannabidiol as a treatment for psychosis and addiction: Who benefits most? A systematic review. Journal of Clinical Medicine, 8, 1058.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Brzozowska, N. I., de Tonnerre, E. J., Li, K. M., Wang, X. S., Boucher, A. A., Callaghan, P. D., … Arnold, J. C. (2017). The differential binding of antipsychotic drugs to the ABC transporter p-glycoprotein predicts cannabinoid–antipsychotic drug interactions. Neuropsychopharmacology, 42, 22222231.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Buckner, J. D., & Carroll, K. M. (2010). Effect of anxiety on treatment presentation and outcome: Results from the marijuana treatment project. Psychiatry Research, 178, 493500.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Buckner, J. D., Walukevich, K. A., Zvolensky, M. J., & Gallagher, M. W. (2017). Emotion regulation and coping motives serially affect cannabis cessation problems among dually diagnosed outpatients. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 31, 839845.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Buckner, J. D., Zvolensky, M. J., Ecker, A. H., Schmidt, N. B., Lewis, E. M., Paulus, D. J., … Bakhshaie, J. (2019). Integrated cognitive behavioral therapy for comorbid cannabis use and anxiety disorders: A pilot randomized controlled trial. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 115, 3845.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Budney, A. J., Moore, B. A., Rocha, H. L., & Higgins, S. T. (2006). Clinical trial of abstinence-based vouchers and cognitive-behavioral therapy for cannabis dependence. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 74, 307316.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Budney, A. J., Sofis, M. J., & Borodovsky, J. T. (2019). An update on cannabis use disorder with comment on the impact of policy related to therapeutic and recreational cannabis use. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, 269, 7386.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cornelius, J. R., Bukstein, O. G., Douaihy, A. B., Clark, D. B., Chung, T. A., Daley, D. C., … Brown, S. J. (2010). Double-blind fluoxetine trial in comorbid MDD–CUD youth and young adults. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 112, 3945.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Crocker, C. E., & Tibbo, P. G. (2018). The interaction of gender and cannabis in early phase psychosis. Addictions and Schizophrenia, 194, 1825.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Curran, H. V., Freeman, T. P., Mokrysz, C., Lewis, D. A., Morgan, C. J. A., & Parsons, L. H. (2016). Keep off the grass? Cannabis, cognition and addiction. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 17, 293306.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Degenhardt, L., Charlson, F., Ferrari, A., Santomauro, D., Erskine, H., Mantilla-Herrara, A., … Vos, T. (2018). The global burden of disease attributable to alcohol and drug use in 195 countries and territories, 1990–2016: A systematic analysis for the global burden of disease study 2016. The Lancet Psychiatry, 5, 9871012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
D'Souza, D. C., Cortes-Briones, J., Creatura, G., Bluez, G., Thurnauer, H., Deaso, E., … Skosnik, P. D. (2019). Efficacy and safety of a fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibitor (PF-04457845) in the treatment of cannabis withdrawal and dependence in men: A double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group, phase 2a single-site randomised controlled trial. The Lancet Psychiatry, 6, 3545.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction. (2019). European Drug Report 2019: Trends and Developments.Google Scholar
Freeman, T. P., Craft, S., Wilson, J., Stylianou, S., ElSohly, M., Di Forti, M., & Lynskey, M. T. (2020a). Changes in delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) concentrations in cannabis over time: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Addiction.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Freeman, T. P., Hindocha, C., Baio, G., Shaban, N. D. C., Thomas, E. M., Astbury, D., … Curran, H. V. (2020b). Cannabidiol for the treatment of cannabis use disorder: A phase 2a, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised, adaptive Bayesian trial. The Lancet Psychiatry, 7, 865874. doi: 10.1016/S2215-0366(20)30290-X.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Freeman, T. P., van der Pol, P., Kuijpers, W., Wisselink, J., Das, R. K., Rigter, S., … Niesink, R. (2018). Changes in cannabis potency and first-time admissions to drug treatment: A 16-year study in the Netherlands. Psychological Medicine, 48, 23462352.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Furukawa, T. A., Noma, H., Caldwell, D. M., Honyashiki, M., Shinohara, K., Imai, H., … Churchill, R. (2014). Waiting list may be a nocebo condition in psychotherapy trials: A contribution from network meta-analysis. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 130, 181192.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gates, P., Copeland, J., Swift, W., & Martin, G. (2012). Barriers and facilitators to cannabis treatment. Drug and Alcohol Review, 31, 311319.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gates, P. J., Sabioni, P., Copeland, J., Le Foll, B., & Gowing, L. (2016). Psychosocial interventions for cannabis use disorder. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Issue 5. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD005336.pub4.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gray, K. M., Carpenter, M. J., Baker, N. L., DeSantis, S. M., Kryway, E., Hartwell, K. J., … Brady, K. T. (2012). A double-blind randomized controlled trial of N-acetylcysteine in Cannabis-dependent adolescents. American Journal of Psychiatry, 169, 805812.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gray, K. M., Sonne, S. C., McClure, E. A., Ghitza, U. E., Matthews, A. G., McRae-Clark, A. L., … Levin, F. R. (2017). A randomized placebo-controlled trial of N-acetylcysteine for cannabis use disorder in adults. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 177, 249257.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hasin, D. S. (2018). US Epidemiology of Cannabis Use and associated problems. Neuropsychopharmacology, 43, 195212.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hasin, D. S., Kerridge, B. T., Saha, T. D., Huang, B., Pickering, R., Smith, S. M., … Grant, B. F. (2016). Prevalence and correlates of DSM-5 Cannabis Use disorder, 2012–2013: Findings from the national epidemiologic survey on alcohol and related conditions–III. American Journal of Psychiatry, 173, 588599.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hasin, D. S., Saha, T. D., Kerridge, B. T., Goldstein, R. B., Chou, S. P., Zhang, H., … Grant, B. F. (2015). Prevalence of marijuana use disorders in the United States between 2001–2002 and 2012–2013. JAMA Psychiatry, 72, 12351242.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Herrmann, E. S., Weerts, E. M., & Vandrey, R. (2015). Sex differences in cannabis withdrawal symptoms among treatment-seeking cannabis users. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, 23, 415.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hides, L., Baker, A., Norberg, M., Copeland, J., Quinn, C., Walter, Z., … Kavanagh, D. (2020). A web-based program for Cannabis use and psychotic experiences in young people (keep it real): Protocol for a randomized controlled trial. JMIR Research Protocols, 9, e15803.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hjorthoj, C. R., Fohlmann, A., Larsen, A.-M., Gluud, C., Arendt, M., & Nordentoft, M. (2013). Specialized psychosocial treatment plus treatment as usual (TAU) versus TAU for patients with cannabis use disorder and psychosis: The CapOpus randomized trial. Psychological Medicine, 43, 14991510.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hoch, E., Bühringer, G., Pixa, A., Dittmer, K., Henker, J., Seifert, A., & Wittchen, H. U. (2014). CANDIS treatment program for cannabis use disorders: Findings from a randomized multi-site translational trial. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 134, 185193.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hoch, E., Preuss, U. W., Ferri, M., & Simon, R. (2016). Digital interventions for problematic Cannabis users in non-clinical settings: Findings from a systematic review and meta-analysis. European Addiction Research, 22, 233242.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kadden, R. M., Litt, M. D., Kabela-Cormier, E., & Petry, N. M. (2007). Abstinence rates following behavioral treatments for marijuana dependence. Addictive Behaviors, 32, 12201236.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kay-Lambkin, F. J., Baker, A. L., Lewin, T. J., & Carr, V. J. (2009). Computer-based psychological treatment for comorbid depression and problematic alcohol and/or cannabis use: A randomized controlled trial of clinical efficacy. Addiction, 104, 378388.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kerridge, B. T., Mauro, P. M., Chou, S. P., Saha, T. D., Pickering, R. P., Fan, A. Z., … Hasin, D. S. (2017). Predictors of treatment utilization and barriers to treatment utilization among individuals with lifetime cannabis use disorder in the United States. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 181, 223228.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Keyes, K. M., Wall, M., Cerdá, M., Schulenberg, J., O'Malley, P. M., Galea, S., … Hasin, D. S. (2016). How does state marijuana policy affect US youth? Medical marijuana laws, marijuana use and perceived harmfulness: 1991–2014. Addiction, 111, 21872195.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Khan, S. S., Secades-Villa, R., Okuda, M., Wang, S., Pérez-Fuentes, G., Kerridge, B. T., & Blanco, C. (2013). Gender differences in cannabis use disorders: Results from the national epidemiologic survey of alcohol and related conditions. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 130, 101108.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Leadbeater, B. J., Ames, M. E., & Linden-Carmichael, A. N. (2019). Age-varying effects of cannabis use frequency and disorder on symptoms of psychosis, depression and anxiety in adolescents and adults. Addiction, 114, 278293.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Levin, F. R., Mariani, J. J., Brooks, D. J., Pavlicova, M., Cheng, W., & Nunes, E. V. (2011). Dronabinol for the treatment of cannabis dependence: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 116, 142150.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Levin, F. R., Mariani, J., Brooks, D. J., Pavlicova, M., Nunes, E. V., Agosti, V., … Carpenter, K. M. (2013). A randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of venlafaxine-extended release for co-occurring cannabis dependence and depressive disorders. Addiction, 108, 10841094.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Leweke, F. M., Piomelli, D., Pahlisch, F., Muhl, D., Gerth, CW., Hoyer, C., … Koethe, D. (2012). Cannabidiol enhances anandamide signaling and alleviates psychotic symptoms of schizophrenia. Translational Psychiatry, 2, e94e94.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lintzeris, N., Bhardwaj, A., Mills, L., Dunlop, A., Copeland, J., McGregor, I., … for the Agonist Replacement for Cannabis Dependence (ARCD) study group. (2019). Nabiximols for the treatment of Cannabis dependence: A randomized clinical trial. JAMA Internal Medicine, 179, 12421253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lintzeris, N., Mills, L., Dunlop, A., Copeland, J., Mcgregor, I., Bruno, R., … Bhardwaj, A. (2020). Cannabis use in patients 3 months after ceasing nabiximols for the treatment of cannabis dependence: Results from a placebo-controlled randomised trial. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 215, 108220.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Loflin, M. J. E., Kiluk, B. D., Huestis, M. A., Aklin, W. M., Budney, A. J., Carroll, K. M., … Strain, E. C. (2020). The state of clinical outcome assessments for cannabis use disorder clinical trials: A review and research agenda. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 212, 107993.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Machielsen, M., Beduin, A. S., Dekker, N., Kahn, R. S., Linszen, D. H., van Os, J., … Myin-Germeys, I. (2011). Differences in craving for cannabis between schizophrenia patients using risperidone, olanzapine or clozapine. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 26, 189195.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Marel, C., Sunderland, M., Mills, K. L., Slade, T., Teesson, M., & Chapman, C. (2019). Conditional probabilities of substance use disorders and associated risk factors: Progression from first use to use disorder on alcohol, cannabis, stimulants, sedatives and opioids. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 194, 136142.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mason, B. J. (2017). Gabapentin Treatment of Cannabis Dependence. Available at Scholar
Mason, B. J., Crean, R., Goodell, V., Light, J. M., Quello, S., Shadan, F., … Rao, S. (2012). A proof-of-concept randomized controlled study of gabapentin: Effects on Cannabis use, withdrawal and executive function deficits in Cannabis-dependent adults. Neuropsychopharmacology, 37, 16891698.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mason, M. J., Zaharakis, N. M., Moore, M., Brown, A., Garcia, C., Seibers, A., & Stephens, C. (2018). Who responds best to text-delivered cannabis use disorder treatment? A randomized clinical trial with young adults. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 32, 699709.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McClure, E. A., Rabin, R. A., Lee, D. C., & Hindocha, C. (2020). Treatment Implications Associated With Cannabis and Tobacco Co-use. Current Addiction Reports.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McGuire, P., Robson, P., Cubala, W. J., Vasile, D., Morrison, P. D., Barron, R., … Wright, S. (2017). Cannabidiol (CBD) as an adjunctive therapy in schizophrenia: A multicenter randomized controlled trial. American Journal of Psychiatry, 175, 225231.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McLoughlin, B., Pushpa-Rajah, J., Gillies, D., Rathbone, J., Variend, H., Kalakouti, E., … Kyprianou, K. (2014). Cannabis and schizophrenia. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Issue 10. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD004837.pub3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McRae-Clark, A. L., Baker, N. L., Gray, K. M., Killeen, T., Hartwell, K. J., & Simonian, S. J. (2016). Vilazodone for cannabis dependence: A randomized, controlled pilot trial. The American Journal on Addictions, 25, 6975.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Minichino, A., Senior, M., Brondino, N., Zhang, S. H., Godwlewska, B. R., Burnet, P. W. J., … Lennox, BR. (2019). Measuring disturbance of the endocannabinoid system in psychosis: A systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA Psychiatry, 76, 914923.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Montanari, L., Guarita, B., Mounteney, J., Zipfel, N., & Simon, R. (2017). Cannabis use among people entering drug treatment in Europe: A growing phenomenon? European Addiction Research, 23, 113121.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Myles, H., Myles, N., & Large, M. (2016). Cannabis use in first episode psychosis: Meta-analysis of prevalence, and the time course of initiation and continued use. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 50, 208219.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Nielsen, S., Gowing, L., Sabioni, P., & Le Foll, B. (2019). Pharmacotherapies for cannabis dependence. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Issue 1. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD008940.pub3.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Parsons, L. H., & Hurd, Y. L. (2015). Endocannabinoid signalling in reward and addiction. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 16, 579594.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Patton, G. C., Coffey, C., Carlin, J. B., Degenhardt, L., Lynskey, M., & Hall, W. (2002). Cannabis use and mental health in young people: Cohort study. BMJ, 325, 11951198.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rabin, R. A., Kozak, K., Zakzanis, K. K., Remington, G., Stefan, C., Budney, A. J., & George, T. P. (2018). A method to achieve extended cannabis abstinence in cannabis dependent patients with schizophrenia and non-psychiatric controls. Addictions and Schizophrenia, 194, 4754.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rigter, H., Henderson, C. E., Pelc, I., Tossmann, P., Phan, O., Hendriks, V., … Rowe, C. L. (2013). Multidimensional family therapy lowers the rate of cannabis dependence in adolescents: A randomised controlled trial in Western European outpatient settings. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 130, 8593.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Schettino, J., Leuschner, F., Kasten, L., Tossmann, P., & Hoch, E. (2015) Treatment of cannabis-related disorders in Europe,. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union.Google Scholar
Schnell, T., Koethe, D., Krasnianski, A., Gairing, S., Schnell, K., Daumann, J., & Gouzoulis-Mayfrank, E. (2014). Ziprasidone versus clozapine in the treatment of dually diagnosed (DD) patients with schizophrenia and cannabis use disorders: A randomized study. The American Journal on Addictions, 23, 308312.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Schoeler, T., Monk, A., Sami, M. B., Klamerus, E., Foglia, E., Brown, R., … Bhattacharyya, S. (2016). Continued versus discontinued cannabis use in patients with psychosis: A systematic review and meta-analysis. The Lancet Psychiatry, 3, 215225.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Schoeler, T., Petros, N., Di Forti, M., Klamerus, E., Foglia, E., Murray, R., & Bhattacharyya, S. (2017). Poor medication adherence and risk of relapse associated with continued cannabis use in patients with first-episode psychosis: A prospective analysis. The Lancet Psychiatry, 4, 627633.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sheridan Rains, L., Marston, L., Hinton, M., Marwaha, S., Craig, T., Fowler, D., … Johnson, S. (2019). Clinical and cost-effectiveness of contingency management for cannabis use in early psychosis: The CIRCLE randomised clinical trial. BMC Medicine, 17, 161.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Smeerdijk, M., Keet, R., Dekker, N., van Raaij, B., Krikke, M., Koeter, M., … Linszen, D. (2012). Motivational interviewing and interaction skills training for parents to change cannabis use in young adults with recent-onset schizophrenia: A randomized controlled trial. Psychological Medicine, 42, 1627.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Smeerdijk, M., Keet, R., Van Raaij, B., Koeter, M., Linszen, D., De Haan, L., & Schippers, G. (2015). Motivational interviewing and interaction skills training for parents of young adults with recent-onset schizophrenia and co-occurring cannabis use: 15-month follow-up. Psychological Medicine, 45, 2839.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tomko, R. L., Baker, N. L., Hood, C. O., Gilmore, A. K., McClure, E. A., Squeglia, L. M., … Gray, K. M. (2020). Depressive symptoms and cannabis use in a placebo-controlled trial of N-acetylcysteine for adult cannabis use disorder. Psychopharmacology, 237, 479490.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tossmann, Dr. H.-P., Jonas, B., Tensil, M.-D., Lang, P., & Strüber, E. (2011). A controlled trial of an internet-based intervention program for Cannabis users. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 14, 673679.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Trigo, J. M., Soliman, A., Quilty, L. C., Fischer, B., Rehm, J., Selby, P., … Le Foll, B. (2018). Nabiximols combined with motivational enhancement/cognitive behavioral therapy for the treatment of cannabis dependence: A pilot randomized clinical trial. PLoS ONE, 13, e0190768.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
UNODC. (2019). World Drug Report 2019.Google Scholar
van der Pol, P., Liebregts, N., de Graaf, R., Korf, D. J., van den Brink, W., & van Laar, M. (2013). Facilitators and barriers in treatment seeking for cannabis dependence. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 133, 776780.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Walker, D. D., Stephens, R. S., Blevins, C. E., Banes, K. E., Matthews, L., & Roffman, R. A. (2016). Augmenting brief interventions for adolescent marijuana users: The impact of motivational check-ins. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 84, 983992.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Walker, D. D., Stephens, R., Roffman, R., DeMarce, J., Lozano, B., Towe, S., & Berg, B. (2011). Randomized controlled trial of motivational enhancement therapy with nontreatment-seeking adolescent cannabis users: A further test of the teen marijuana check-up. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 25, 474484.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Weinstein, A. M., Miller, H., Bluvstein, I., Rapoport, E., Schreiber, S., Bar-Hamburger, R., & Bloch, M. (2014). Treatment of cannabis dependence using escitalopram in combination with cognitive-behavior therapy: A double-blind placebo-controlled study. The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 40, 1622.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wilson, R. P., & Bhattacharyya, S. (2015). Antipsychotic efficacy in psychosis with co-morbid cannabis misuse: A systematic review. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 30, 99111.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wisdom, J. P., Manuel, J. I., & Drake, R. E. (2011). Substance use disorder among people with first-episode psychosis: A systematic review of course and treatment. Psychiatric Services, 62, 10071012.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wu, L.-T., Zhu, H., Mannelli, P., & Swartz, M. S. (2017). Prevalence and correlates of treatment utilization among adults with cannabis use disorder in the United States. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 177, 153162.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Zuardi, A. W., Rodrigues, N. P., Silva, A. L., Bernardo, S. A., Hallak, J. E. C., Guimarães, F. S., & Crippa, J. A. S. (2017). Inverted U-shaped dose-response curve of the anxiolytic effect of cannabidiol during public speaking in real life. Frontiers in Pharmacology, 8, 259.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed