Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-684899dbb8-pcn4s Total loading time: 0.57 Render date: 2022-05-27T07:25:10.253Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "useNewApi": true }

Risk and protective factors for anxiety and obsessive-compulsive disorders: an umbrella review of systematic reviews and meta-analyses

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  07 June 2019

Miquel A. Fullana*
Affiliation:
Institute of Neurosciences, Hospital Clinic, Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Salud Mental (CIBERSAM), Barcelona, Spain Department of Psychiatry and Forensic Medicine, School of Medicine, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra, Spain
Miquel Tortella-Feliu
Affiliation:
University Research Institute on Health Sciences (IUNICS), University of the Balearic Islands, Mallorca, Spain
Lorena Fernández de la Cruz
Affiliation:
Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Centre for Psychiatry Research, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
Jacobo Chamorro
Affiliation:
Anxiety Unit, Institute of Neuropsychiatry and Addictions, Parc de Salut Mar, Barcelona, Spain
Ana Pérez-Vigil
Affiliation:
Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Centre for Psychiatry Research, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
John P. A. Ioannidis
Affiliation:
Department of Medicine, Stanford Prevention Research Center, Stanford, CA, USA Department of Health Research and Policy, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA Meta-Research Innovation Center at Stanford, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA Department of Statistics, Stanford University School of Humanities and Sciences, Stanford, CA, USA
Aleix Solanes
Affiliation:
FIDMAG Germanes Hospitalaries, CIBERSAM, Barcelona, Spain Department of Psychiatry and Forensic Medicine, School of Medicine, Autonomous University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
Maria Guardiola
Affiliation:
FIDMAG Germanes Hospitalaries, CIBERSAM, Barcelona, Spain
Carmen Almodóvar
Affiliation:
FIDMAG Germanes Hospitalaries, CIBERSAM, Barcelona, Spain
Romina Miranda-Olivos
Affiliation:
FIDMAG Germanes Hospitalaries, CIBERSAM, Barcelona, Spain
Valentina Ramella-Cravaro
Affiliation:
Early Psychosis: Interventions and Clinical-detection Lab (EPIC), Department of Psychosis Studies, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience, King's College London, London, UK Department of Mental Health, Florence Public Health Center, Florence, Italy
Ana Vilar
Affiliation:
Institut de Neuropsiquiatria i Addiccions, CSMIJ Sant Martí-La Mina, Parc de Salut Mar, Barcelona, Spain Department of Experimental and Health Sciences, Pompeu Fabra University (UPF), Barcelona, Spain
Abraham Reichenberg
Affiliation:
Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience, King's College London, London, UK Department of Psychiatry, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA Department of Preventive Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA Friedman Brain Institute, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA
David Mataix-Cols
Affiliation:
Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Centre for Psychiatry Research, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden Stockholm Health Care Services, Stockholm County Council, Stockholm, Sweden
Eduard Vieta
Affiliation:
Barcelona Bipolar Disorders Program, Institute of Neurosciences, Hospital Clinic, University of Barcelona, Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer, CIBERSAM, Barcelona, Spain
Paolo Fusar-Poli
Affiliation:
Early Psychosis: Interventions and Clinical-detection Lab (EPIC), Department of Psychosis Studies, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience, King's College London, London, UK Department of Brain and Behavioral Sciences, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy
Mar Fatjó-Vilas
Affiliation:
FIDMAG Germanes Hospitalaries, CIBERSAM, Barcelona, Spain Department of Evolutionary Biology, Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Biology, University of Barcelona, Institute of Biomedicine of the University of Barcelona (IBUB), Barcelona, Spain
Joaquim Radua
Affiliation:
Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Centre for Psychiatry Research, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden FIDMAG Germanes Hospitalaries, CIBERSAM, Barcelona, Spain Early Psychosis: Interventions and Clinical-detection Lab (EPIC), Department of Psychosis Studies, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience, King's College London, London, UK Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer, CIBERSAM, Barcelona, Spain
*
Author for correspondence: Miquel A. Fullana, E-mail: mafullana@clinic.cat

Abstract

Background

A multitude of risk/protective factors for anxiety and obsessive-compulsive disorders have been proposed. We conducted an umbrella review to summarize the evidence of the associations between risk/protective factors and each of the following disorders: specific phobia, social anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder, and to assess the strength of this evidence whilst controlling for several biases.

Methods

Publication databases were searched for systematic reviews and meta-analyses examining associations between potential risk/protective factors and each of the disorders investigated. The evidence of the association between each factor and disorder was graded into convincing, highly suggestive, suggestive, weak, or non-significant according to a standardized classification based on: number of cases (>1000), random-effects p-values, 95% prediction intervals, confidence interval of the largest study, heterogeneity between studies, study effects, and excess of significance.

Results

Nineteen systematic reviews and meta-analyses were included, corresponding to 216 individual studies covering 427 potential risk/protective factors. Only one factor association (early physical trauma as a risk factor for social anxiety disorder, OR 2.59, 95% CI 2.17–3.1) met all the criteria for convincing evidence. When excluding the requirement for more than 1000 cases, five factor associations met the other criteria for convincing evidence and 22 met the remaining criteria for highly suggestive evidence.

Conclusions

Although the amount and quality of the evidence for most risk/protective factors for anxiety and obsessive-compulsive disorders is limited, a number of factors significantly increase the risk for these disorders, may have potential prognostic ability and inform prevention.

Type
Original Articles
Copyright
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2019

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

Footnotes

*

Share first authorship.

Share senior authorship.

References

American Psychiatric Association (2013). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edn.Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.Google Scholar
Anttila, V, Bulik-Sullivan, B, Finucane, HK, Walters, RK, Bras, J, Duncan, L, Escott-Price, V, Falcone, GJ, Gormley, P, Malik, R, Patsopoulos, NA, Ripke, S, Wei, Z, Yu, D, Lee, PH, Turley, P, Grenier-Boley, B, Chouraki, V, Kamatani, Y, Berr, C, Letenneur, L, Hannequin, D, Amouyel, P, Boland, A, Deleuze, J-F, Duron, E, Vardarajan, BN, Reitz, C, Goate, AM, Huentelman, MJ, Kamboh, MI, Larson, EB, Rogaeva, E, St George-Hyslop, P, Hakonarson, H, Kukull, WA, Farrer, LA, Barnes, LL, Beach, TG, Demirci, FY, Head, E, Hulette, CM, Jicha, GA, Kauwe, JSK, Kaye, JA, Leverenz, JB, Levey, AI, Lieberman, AP, Pankratz, VS, Poon, WW, Quinn, JF, Saykin, AJ, Schneider, LS, Smith, AG, Sonnen, JA, Stern, RA, Van Deerlin, VM, Van Eldik, LJ, Harold, D, Russo, G, Rubinsztein, DC, Bayer, A, Tsolaki, M, Proitsi, P, Fox, NC, Hampel, H, Owen, MJ, Mead, S, Passmore, P, Morgan, K, Nöthen, MM, Schott, JM, Rossor, M, Lupton, MK, Hoffmann, P, Kornhuber, J, Lawlor, B, McQuillin, A, Al-Chalabi, A, Bis, JC, Ruiz, A, Boada, M, Seshadri, S, Beiser, A, Rice, K, van der Lee, SJ, De Jager, PL, Geschwind, DH, Riemenschneider, M, Riedel-Heller, S, Rotter, JI, Ransmayr, G, Hyman, BT, Cruchaga, C, Alegret, M, Winsvold, B, Palta, P, Farh, K-H, Cuenca-Leon, E, Furlotte, N, Kurth, T, Ligthart, L, Terwindt, GM, Freilinger, T, Ran, C, Gordon, SD, Borck, G, Adams, HHH, Lehtimäki, T, Wedenoja, J, Buring, JE, Schürks, M, Hrafnsdottir, M, Hottenga, J-J, Penninx, B, Artto, V, Kaunisto, M, Vepsäläinen, S, Martin, NG, Montgomery, GW, Kurki, MI, Hämäläinen, E, Huang, H, Huang, J, Sandor, C, Webber, C, Muller-Myhsok, B, Schreiber, S, Salomaa, V, Loehrer, E, Göbel, H, Macaya, A, Pozo-Rosich, P, Hansen, T, Werge, T, Kaprio, J, Metspalu, A, Kubisch, C, Ferrari, MD, Belin, AC, van den Maagdenberg, AMJM, Zwart, J-A, Boomsma, D, Eriksson, N, Olesen, J, Chasman, DI, Nyholt, DR, Anney, R, Avbersek, A, Baum, L, Berkovic, S, Bradfield, J, Buono, R, Catarino, CB, Cossette, P, De Jonghe, P, Depondt, C, Dlugos, D, Ferraro, TN, French, J, Hjalgrim, H, Jamnadas-Khoda, J, Kälviäinen, R, Kunz, WS, Lerche, H, Leu, C, Lindhout, D, Lo, W, Lowenstein, D, McCormack, M, Møller, RS, Molloy, A, Ng, P-W, Oliver, K, Privitera, M, Radtke, R, Ruppert, A-K, Sander, T, Schachter, S, Schankin, C, Scheffer, I, Schoch, S, Sisodiya, SM, Smith, P, Sperling, M, Striano, P, Surges, R, Thomas, GN, Visscher, F, Whelan, CD, Zara, F, Heinzen, EL, Marson, A, Becker, F, Stroink, H, Zimprich, F, Gasser, T, Gibbs, R, Heutink, P, Martinez, M, Morris, HR, Sharma, M, Ryten, M, Mok, KY, Pulit, S, Bevan, S, Holliday, E, Attia, J, Battey, T, Boncoraglio, G, Thijs, V, Chen, W-M, Mitchell, B, Rothwell, P, Sharma, P, Sudlow, C, Vicente, A, Markus, H, Kourkoulis, C, Pera, J, Raffeld, M, Silliman, S, Boraska Perica, V, Thornton, LM, Huckins, LM, William Rayner, N, Lewis, CM, Gratacos, M, Rybakowski, F, Keski-Rahkonen, A, Raevuori, A, Hudson, JI, Reichborn-Kjennerud, T, Monteleone, P, Karwautz, A, Mannik, K, Baker, JH, O'Toole, JK, Trace, SE, Davis, OSP, Helder, SG, Ehrlich, S, Herpertz-Dahlmann, B, Danner, UN, van Elburg, AA, Clementi, M, Forzan, M, Docampo, E, Lissowska, J, Hauser, J, Tortorella, A, Maj, M, Gonidakis, F, Tziouvas, K, Papezova, H, Yilmaz, Z, Wagner, G, Cohen-Woods, S, Herms, S, Julià, A, Rabionet, R, Dick, DM, Ripatti, S, Andreassen, OA, Espeseth, T, Lundervold, AJ, Steen, VM, Pinto, D, Scherer, SW, Aschauer, H, Schosser, A, Alfredsson, L, Padyukov, L, Halmi, KA, Mitchell, J, Strober, M, Bergen, AW, Kaye, W, Szatkiewicz, JP, Cormand, B, Ramos-Quiroga, JA, Sánchez-Mora, C, Ribasés, M, Casas, M, Hervas, A, Arranz, MJ, Haavik, J, Zayats, T, Johansson, S, Williams, N, Elia, J, Dempfle, A, Rothenberger, A, Kuntsi, J, Oades, RD, Banaschewski, T, Franke, B, Buitelaar, JK, Arias Vasquez, A, Doyle, AE, Reif, A, Lesch, K-P, Freitag, C, Rivero, O, Palmason, H, Romanos, M, Langley, K, Rietschel, M, Witt, SH, Dalsgaard, S, Børglum, AD, Waldman, I, Wilmot, B, Molly, N, Bau, CHD, Crosbie, J, Schachar, R, Loo, SK, McGough, JJ, Grevet, EH, Medland, SE, Robinson, E, Weiss, LA, Bacchelli, E, Bailey, A, Bal, V, Battaglia, A, Betancur, C, Bolton, P, Cantor, R, Celestino-Soper, P, Dawson, G, De Rubeis, S, Duque, F, Green, A, Klauck, SM, Leboyer, M, Levitt, P, Maestrini, E, Mane, S, De-Luca, DM, Parr, J, Regan, R, Reichenberg, A, Sandin, S, Vorstman, J, Wassink, T, Wijsman, E, Cook, E, Santangelo, S, Delorme, R, Rogé, B, Magalhaes, T, Arking, D, Schulze, TG, Thompson, RC, Strohmaier, J, Matthews, K, Melle, I, Morris, D, Blackwood, D, McIntosh, A, Bergen, SE, Schalling, M, Jamain, S, Maaser, A, Fischer, SB, Reinbold, CS, Fullerton, JM, Grigoroiu-Serbanescu, M, Guzman-Parra, J, Mayoral, F, Schofield, PR, Cichon, S, Mühleisen, TW, Degenhardt, F, Schumacher, J, Bauer, M, Mitchell, PB, Gershon, ES, Rice, J, Potash, JB, Zandi, PP, Craddock, N, Ferrier, IN, Alda, M, Rouleau, GA, Turecki, G, Ophoff, R, Pato, C, Anjorin, A, Stahl, E, Leber, M, Czerski, PM, Edenberg, HJ, Cruceanu, C, Jones, IR, Posthuma, D, Andlauer, TFM, Forstner, AJ, Streit, F, Baune, BT, Air, T, Sinnamon, G, Wray, NR, MacIntyre, DJ, Porteous, D, Homuth, G, Rivera, M, Grove, J, Middeldorp, CM, Hickie, I, Pergadia, M, Mehta, D, Smit, JH, Jansen, R, de Geus, E, Dunn, E, Li, QS, Nauck, M, Schoevers, RA, Beekman, ATF, Knowles, JA, Viktorin, A, Arnold, P, Barr, CL, Bedoya-Berrio, G, Joseph Bienvenu, O, Brentani, H, Burton, C, Camarena, B, Cappi, C, Cath, D, Cavallini, M, Cusi, D, Darrow, S, Denys, D, Derks, EM, Dietrich, A, Fernandez, T, Figee, M, Freimer, N, Gerber, G, Grados, M, Greenberg, E, Hanna, GL, Hartmann, A, Hirschtritt, ME, Hoekstra, PJ, Huang, A, Huyser, C, Illmann, C, Jenike, M, Kuperman, S, Leventhal, B, Lochner, C, Lyon, GJ, Macciardi, F, Madruga-Garrido, M, Malaty, IA, Maras, A, McGrath, L, Miguel, EC, Mir, P, Nestadt, G, Nicolini, H, Okun, MS, Pakstis, A, Paschou, P, Piacentini, J, Pittenger, C, Plessen, K, Ramensky, V, Ramos, EM, Reus, V, Richter, MA, Riddle, MA, Robertson, MM, Roessner, V, Rosário, M, Samuels, JF, Sandor, P, Stein, DJ, Tsetsos, F, Van Nieuwerburgh, F, Weatherall, S, Wendland, JR, Wolanczyk, T, Worbe, Y, Zai, G, Goes, FS, McLaughlin, N, Nestadt, PS, Grabe, H-J, Depienne, C, Konkashbaev, A, Lanzagorta, N, Valencia-Duarte, A, Bramon, E, Buccola, N, Cahn, W, Cairns, M, Chong, SA, Cohen, D, Crespo-Facorro, B, Crowley, J, Davidson, M, DeLisi, L, Dinan, T, Donohoe, G, Drapeau, E, Duan, J, Haan, L, Hougaard, D, Karachanak-Yankova, S, Khrunin, A, Klovins, J, Kučinskas, V, Chee Keong, JL, Limborska, S, Loughland, C, Lönnqvist, J, Maher, B, Mattheisen, M, McDonald, C, Murphy, KC, Murray, R, Nenadic, I, van Os, J, Pantelis, C, Pato, M, Petryshen, T, Quested, D, Roussos, P, Sanders, AR, Schall, U, Schwab, SG, Sim, K, So, H-C, Stögmann, E, Subramaniam, M, Toncheva, D, Waddington, J, Walters, J, Weiser, M, Cheng, W, Cloninger, R, Curtis, D, Gejman, PV, Henskens, F, Mattingsdal, M, Oh, S-Y, Scott, R, Webb, B, Breen, G, Churchhouse, C, Bulik, CM, Daly, M, Dichgans, M, Faraone, SV, Guerreiro, R, Holmans, P, Kendler, KS, Koeleman, B, Mathews, CA, Price, A, Scharf, J, Sklar, P, Williams, J, Wood, NW, Cotsapas, C, Palotie, A, Smoller, JW, Sullivan, P, Rosand, J, Corvin, A and Neale, BM (2018) Analysis of shared heritability in common disorders of the brain. Science 360, eaap8757.Google ScholarPubMed
Beesdo, K, Knappe, S and Pine, DS (2009) Anxiety and anxiety disorders in children and adolescents: developmental issues and implications for DSM-V. Psychiatric Clinics of North America 32, 483524.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Belbasis, L, Köhler, CA, Stefanis, N, Stubbs, B, van Os, J, Vieta, E, Seeman, MV, Arango, C, Carvalho, AF and Evangelou, E (2018) Risk factors and peripheral biomarkers for schizophrenia spectrum disorders: an umbrella review of meta-analyses. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 137, 8897.10.1111/acps.12847CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bernardini, F, Attademo, L, Cleary, SD, Luther, C, Shim, RS, Quartesan, R and Compton, MT (2017) Risk prediction models in psychiatry. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 78, 572583.10.4088/JCP.15r10003CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Blanco, C, Rubio, J, Wall, M, Wang, S, Jiu, CJ and Kendler, KS (2014) Risk factors for anxiety disorders: common and specific effects in a national sample. Depression and Anxiety 31, 756764.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bortolato, B, Köhler, CA, Evangelou, E, León-Caballero, J, Solmi, M, Stubbs, B, Belbasis, L, Pacchiarotti, I, Kessing, LV, Berk, M, Vieta, E and Carvalho, AF (2017) Systematic assessment of environmental risk factors for bipolar disorder: an umbrella review of systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Bipolar Disorders 19, 8496.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Brander, G, Pérez-Vigil, A, Larsson, H and Mataix-Cols, D (2016 a) Systematic review of environmental risk factors for obsessive-compulsive disorder: a proposed roadmap from association to causation. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews 65, 3662.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Brander, G, Rydell, M, Kuja-Halkola, R, Fernández de la Cruz, LF, Lichtenstein, P, Serlachius, E, Rk, C, Almqvist, C, D'Onofrio, BM, Larsson, H and Mataix-Cols, D (2016 b) Association of perinatal risk factors with obsessive-compulsive disorder a population-based birth cohort, sibling control study. JAMA Psychiatry 73, 11351144.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Brown, ES, Fulton, MK, Wilkeson, A and Petty, F (2000) The psychiatric sequelae of civilian trauma. Comprehensive Psychiatry 41, 1923.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Clarner, A, Graessel, E, Scholz, J, Niedermeier, A, Uter, W and Drexler, H (2015) Work-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other emotional diseases as consequence of traumatic events in public transportation: a systematic review. International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health 88, 549564.10.1007/s00420-014-0980-3CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Clauss, JA and Blackford, JU (2012) Behavioral inhibition and risk for developing social anxiety disorder: a meta-analytic study. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 51, 10661075.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Colonnesi, C, Draijer, EM, Stams, GJJM, van der Bruggen, CO, Bögels, SM and Noom, MJ (2011) The relation between insecure attachment and child anxiety: a meta-analytic review. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology 40, 630645.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Craske, MG and Stein, MB (2016) Anxiety. The Lancet 388, 30483059.10.1016/S0140-6736(16)30381-6CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Craske, MG, Stein, MB, Eley, TC, Milad, MR, Holmes, A, Rapee, RM and Wittchen, H-U (2017) Anxiety disorders. Nature Reviews Disease Primers 3, 17024.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
D'Onofrio, BM, Lahey, BB, Turkheimer, E and Lichtenstein, P (2013) Critical need for family-based, quasi-experimental designs in integrating genetic and social science research. American Journal of Public Health 103, S46S55.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Egger, M, Davey Smith, G, Schneider, M and Minder, C (1997) Bias in meta-analysis detected by a simple, graphical test. British Medical Journal 315, 629634.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fernandes, V, Osório, FL, Osó rio, F, Preto, R and Paulo, S (2015) Are there associations between early emotional trauma and anxiety disorders? Evidence from a systematic literature review and meta-analysis. European Psychiatry 30, 756764.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fusar-Poli, P, Hijazi, Z, Stahl, D and Steyerberg, EW (2018) The science of prognosis in psychiatry. JAMA Psychiatry 75, 12891297.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fusar-Poli, P and Radua, J (2018) Ten simple rules for conducting umbrella reviews. Evidence Based Mental Health 21, 95100.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gariepy, G, Nitka, D and Schmitz, N (2010) The association between obesity and anxiety disorders in the population: a systematic review and meta-analysis. International Journal of Obesity (2005) 34, 407419.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ginsburg, GS, Drake, KL, Tein, J-Y, Teetsel, R and Riddle, MA (2015) Preventing onset of anxiety disorders in offspring of anxious parents: a randomized controlled trial of a family-based intervention HHS public access. American Journal of Psychiatry 172, 12071214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Guo, X, Meng, Z, Huang, G, Fan, J, Zhou, W, Ling, W, Jiang, J, Long, J and Su, L (2016) Meta-analysis of the prevalence of anxiety disorders in mainland China from 2000 to 2015. Scientific Reports 6, 28033.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Higgings, JPT and Green, S (2009). Cochrane {H}andbook for {S}ystematic {R}eviews of {I}nterventions. Version 5.1.0.Google Scholar
International Schizophrenia Consortium IS, Purcell, SM, Wray, NR, Stone, JL, Visscher, PM, O'Donovan, MC, Sullivan, PF and Sklar, P (2009). Common polygenic variation contributes to risk of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Nature 460, 748752.Google ScholarPubMed
Ioannidis, JPA (2009) Integration of evidence from multiple meta-analyses: a primer on umbrella reviews, treatment networks and multiple treatments meta-analyses. Canadian Medical Association Journal 181, 488493.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ioannidis, JPA, Patsopoulos, NA and Evangelou, E (2007) Uncertainty in heterogeneity estimates in meta-analyses. BMJ 335, 914916.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ioannidis, JPA, Boffetta, P, Little, J, O'Brien, TR, Uitterlinden, AG, Vineis, P, Balding, DJ, Chokkalingam, A, Dolan, SM, Flanders, WD, Higgins, JPT, Mccarthy, MI, McDermott, DH, Page, GP, Rebbeck, TR, Seminara, D and Khoury, MJ (2008) Assessment of cumulative evidence on genetic associations: interim guidelines. International Journal of Epidemiology 37, 120132.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Jacobson, NC and Newman, MG (2017) Anxiety and depression as bidirectional risk factors for one another: a meta-analysis of longitudinal studies. Psychological Bulletin 143, 11551200.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kapur, S, Phillips, AG and Insel, TR (2012) Why has it taken so long for biological psychiatry to develop clinical tests and what to do about it? Molecular Psychiatry 17, 11741179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kedzior, KK and Laeber, LT (2014) A positive association between anxiety disorders and cannabis use or cannabis use disorders in the general population--a meta-analysis of 31 studies. BMC Psychiatry 14, 136.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kessler, RC, Ruscio, AM, Shear, K and Wittchen, H-U (2010) Epidemiology of anxiety disorders. Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences 2, 2135.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kessler, RC, Rose, S, Koenen, KC, Karam, EG, Stang, PE, Stein, DJ, Heeringa, SG, Hill, ED, Liberzon, I, McLaughlin, KA, McLean, SA, Pennell, BE, Petukhova, M, Rosellini, AJ, Ruscio, AM, Shahly, V, Shalev, AY, Silove, D, Zaslavsky, AM, Angermeyer, MC, Bromet, EJ, De Almeida, JMC, De Girolamo, G, De Jonge, P, Demyttenaere, K, Florescu, SE, Gureje, O, Haro, JM, Hinkov, H, Kawakami, N, Kovess-Masfety, V, Lee, S, Medina-Mora, ME, Murphy, SD, Navarro-Mateu, F, Piazza, M, Posada-Villa, J, Scott, K, Torres, Y and Viana, MC (2014) How well can post-traumatic stress disorder be predicted from pre-trauma risk factors? An exploratory study in the WHO World Mental Health Surveys. World Psychiatry 13, 265274.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kisely, S, Alichniewicz, KK, Black, EB, Siskind, D, Spurling, G and Toombs, M (2017) The prevalence of depression and anxiety disorders in indigenous people of the Americas: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Psychiatric Research 84, 137152.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Köhler, CA, Evangelou, E, Stubbs, B, Solmi, M, Veronese, N, Belbasis, L, Bortolato, B, Melo, MCA, Coelho, CA, Fernandes, BS, Olfson, M, Ioannidis, JPA and Carvalho, AF (2018) Mapping risk factors for depression across the lifespan: an umbrella review of evidence from meta-analyses and Mendelian randomization studies. Journal of Psychiatric Research 103, 189207.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kossowsky, J, Pfaltz, MC, Schneider, S, Taeymans, J, Locher, C and Gaab, J (2013) The separation anxiety hypothesis of panic disorder revisited: a meta-analysis. American Journal of Psychiatry 170, 768781.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kotov, R, Gamez, W, Schmidt, F and Watson, D (2010) Linking ‘ Big ’ personality traits to anxiety, depressive, and substance use disorders: a meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin 136, 768821.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kraemer, HC, Kazdin, AE, Offord, DR, Kessler, RC, Jensen, PS and Kupfer, DJ (1997) Coming to terms with the terms of risk. Archives of General Psychiatry 54, 337343.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Leonardo, ED and Hen, R (2008) Anxiety as a developmental disorder. Neuropsychopharmacology 33, 134140.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Li, M, D'Arcy, C and Meng, X (2016) Maltreatment in childhood substantially increases the risk of adult depression and anxiety in prospective cohort studies: systematic review, meta-analysis, and proportional attributable fractions. Psychological Medicine 46, 717730.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Micco, JA, Henin, A, Mick, E, Kim, S, Hopkins, CA, Biederman, J and Hirshfeld-Becker, DR (2009) Anxiety and depressive disorders in offspring at high risk for anxiety: a meta-analysis. Journal of Anxiety Disorders 23, 11581164.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Moffitt, TE, Caspi, A and Rutter, M (2005) Strategy for investigating interactions between measured genes and measured environments. Archives of General Psychiatry 62, 473481.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Moher, D, Liberati, A, Tetzlaff, J and Altman, DG (2009) Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: the PRISMA statement. BMJ 339, b2535b2535.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Moreno-Peral, P, Conejo-Cerón, S, Motrico, E, Rodríguez-Morejón, A, Fernández, A, García-Campayo, J, Roca, M, Serrano-Blanco, A, Rubio-Valera, M and Bellón, (2014) Risk factors for the onset of panic and generalised anxiety disorders in the general adult population: a systematic review of cohort studies. Journal of Affective Disorders 168, 337348.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Moreno-Peral, P, Conejo-Cerón, S, Rubio-Valera, M, Fernández, A, Navas-Campaña, D, Rodríguez-Morejón, A, Motrico, E, Rigabert, A, De Dios Luna, J, Martín-Pérez, C, Rodríguez-Bayón, A, Ballesta-Rodríguez, MI, Luciano, JV and Bellón, (2017) Effectiveness of psychological and/or educational interventions in the prevention of anxiety: a systematic review, meta-analysis, and meta-regression. JAMA Psychiatry 74, 10211029.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Moylan, S, Jacka, FN, Pasco, JA and Berk, M (2012) Cigarette smoking, nicotine dependence and anxiety disorders: a systematic review of population-based, epidemiological studies. BMC Medicine 10, 123.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mrazek, PJ and Haggerty, RJ (1994) Reducing Risks for Mental Disorders: Frontiers for Preventive Intervention Research. vol. 636. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.Google Scholar
Osborn, A, Mathias, J and Fairweather-Schmidt, A (2016) Prevalence of anxiety following adult traumatic brain injury: a meta-analysis comparing measures, samples and postinjury intervals. Neuropsychology 30, 247261.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Padmanabhan, JL, Shah, JL, Tandon, N and Keshavan, MS (2017) The “polyenviromic risk score”: aggregating environmental risk factors predicts conversion to psychosis in familial high-risk subjects. Schizophrenia Research 181, 1722.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Paulus, MP (2015) Pragmatism instead of mechanism: a call for impactful biological psychiatry. JAMA Psychiatry 72, 631632.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Radua, J, Ramella-Cravaro, V, Ioannidis, JPA, Reichenberg, A, Phiphopthatsanee, N, Amir, T, Yenn Thoo, H, Oliver, D, Davies, C, Morgan, C, McGuire, P, Murray, RM and Fusar-Poli, P (2018) What causes psychosis? An umbrella review of risk and protective factors. World Psychiatry 17, 4966.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Reich, J, Noyes, R, Hirschfeld, R, Coryell, W and O'Gorman, T (1987) State and personality in depressed and panic patients. American Journal of Psychiatry 144, 181187.Google ScholarPubMed
Shalev, AY, Gevonden, M, Ratanatharathorn, A, Laska, E, van der Mei, WF, Qi, W, Lowe, S, Lai, BS, Bryant, RA, Delahanty, D, Matsuoka, YJ, Olff, M, Schnyder, U, Seedat, S, DeRoon-Cassini, TA, Kessler, RC and Koenen, KC (2019) Estimating the risk of PTSD in recent trauma survivors: results of the International Consortium to Predict PTSD (ICPP). World Psychiatry 18, 7787.10.1002/wps.20608CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sharma, S, Powers, A, Bradley, B and Ressler, KJ (2016) Gene × environment determinants of stress- and anxiety-related disorders. Annual Review of Psychology 67, 239261.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Shea, BJ, Grimshaw, JM, Wells, GA, Boers, M, Andersson, N, Hamel, C, Porter, AC, Tugwell, P, Moher, D and Bouter, LM (2007) Development of AMSTAR: a measurement tool to assess the methodological quality of systematic reviews. BMC Medical Research Methodology 7, 10.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Stroup, DF, Berlin, JA, Morton, SC, Olkin, I, Williamson, GD, Rennie, D, Moher, D, Becker, BJ, Sipe, TA and Thacker, SB (2000) Meta-analysis of observational studies in epidemiology: a proposal for reporting. Journal of the American Medical Association 283, 20082012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sullivan, PF, Agrawal, A, Bulik, CM, Andreassen, OA, Børglum, AD, Breen, G, Cichon, S, Edenberg, HJ, Faraone, SV, Gelernter, J, Mathews, CA, Nievergelt, CM, Smoller, JW and O'Donovan, MC (2018) Psychiatric genomics: an update and an agenda. American Journal of Psychiatry 175, 1527.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tarricone, I, Stivanello, E, Poggi, F, Castorini, V, Marseglia, MV, Fantini, MP and Berardi, D (2012) Ethnic variation in the prevalence of depression and anxiety in primary care: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Psychiatry Research 195, 91106.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Uher, R and Zwicker, A (2017) Etiology in psychiatry: embracing the reality of poly-gene-environmental causation of mental illness. World Psychiatry 16, 121129.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
van Steensel, FJA, Bögels, SM and Perrin, S (2011) Anxiety disorders in children and adolescents with autistic spectrum disorders: a meta-analysis. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review 14, 302317.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Supplementary material: File

Fullana et al. supplementary material

Fullana et al. supplementary material 1

Download Fullana et al. supplementary material(File)
File 259 KB
Supplementary material: File

Fullana et al. supplementary material

Fullana et al. supplementary material 2

Download Fullana et al. supplementary material(File)
File 750 KB
15
Cited by

Save article to Kindle

To save this article to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Risk and protective factors for anxiety and obsessive-compulsive disorders: an umbrella review of systematic reviews and meta-analyses
Available formats
×

Save article to Dropbox

To save this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Risk and protective factors for anxiety and obsessive-compulsive disorders: an umbrella review of systematic reviews and meta-analyses
Available formats
×

Save article to Google Drive

To save this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Risk and protective factors for anxiety and obsessive-compulsive disorders: an umbrella review of systematic reviews and meta-analyses
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *