Hostname: page-component-7dc689bd49-rf6jd Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2023-03-21T12:30:02.589Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "useRatesEcommerce": false } hasContentIssue true

A systematic review on mediators between adversity and psychosis: potential targets for treatment

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  03 August 2020

Luis Alameda*
Department of Psychosis Studies, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King's College London, London, UK Service of General Psychiatry, Treatment and Early Intervention in Psychosis Program, Lausanne University Hospital (CHUV), CH-1008Lausanne, Switzerland Department of Psychiatry, Hospital Universitario Virgen del Rocío, Universidad de Sevilla, Spain Instituto de Investigacion Sanitaria de Sevilla, IBiS, Spain
Victoria Rodriguez
Department of Psychosis Studies, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King's College London, London, UK
Ewan Carr
Department of Biostatistics and Health Informatics, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King's College London, London, UK
Monica Aas
Department of Psychosis Studies, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King's College London, London, UK Division of Mental Health and Addiction, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway
Giulia Trotta
Department of Psychosis Studies, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King's College London, London, UK
Paolo Marino
Department of Psychosis Studies, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King's College London, London, UK
Natasha Vorontsova
Department of Psychology, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King's College London, London, UK
Andrés Herane-Vives
Department of Psychological Medicine, Centre for Affective Disorders, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King's College London, London, UK Departamento de Clínicas, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Católica del Norte, Coquimbo, Chile
Romayne Gadelrab
Department of Psychological Medicine, Centre for Affective Disorders, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King's College London, London, UK
Edoardo Spinazzola
Department of Psychosis Studies, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King's College London, London, UK Psychiatry Residency Training Program, Faculty of Medicine and Psychology, Sapienza University of Rome, Italy
Marta Di Forti
Department of Psychosis Studies, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King's College London, London, UK Social, Genetic and Developmental Psychiatry Centre, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King's College London, London, UK
Craig Morgan
ESRC Centre for Society and Mental Health, King's College London, UK
Robin M Murray
Department of Psychosis Studies, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King's College London, London, UK
Author for correspondence: Luis Alameda, E-mail:


Various psychological and biological pathways have been proposed as mediators between childhood adversity (CA) and psychosis. A systematic review of the evidence in this domain is needed. Our aim is to systematically review the evidence on psychological and biological mediators between CA and psychosis across the psychosis spectrum. This review followed PRISMA guidelines. Articles published between 1979 and July 2019 were identified through a literature search in OVID (PsychINFO, Medline and Embase) and Cochrane Libraries. The evidence by each analysis and each study is presented by group of mediator categories found. The percentage of total effect mediated was calculated. Forty-eight studies were included, 21 in clinical samples and 27 in the general population (GP) with a total of 82 352 subjects from GP and 3189 from clinical studies. The quality of studies was judged as ‘fair’. Our results showed (i) solid evidence of mediation between CA and psychosis by negative cognitive schemas about the self, the world and others (NS); by dissociation and other post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms; and through an affective pathway in GP but not in subjects with disorder; (iii) lack of studies exploring biological mediators. We found evidence suggesting that various overlapping and not competing pathways involving post-traumatic and mood symptoms, as well as negative cognitions contribute partially to the link between CA and psychosis. Experiences of CA, along with relevant mediators should be routinely assessed in patients with psychosis. Evidence testing efficacy of interventions targeting such mediators through cognitive behavioural approaches and/or pharmacological means is needed in future.

Review Article
Copyright © The Author(s) 2020. Published by Cambridge University Press

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


Aas, M., Haukvik, U. K., Djurovic, S., Tesli, M., Athanasiu, L., Bjella, T., … Melle, I. (2014). Interplay between childhood trauma and BDNF val66met variants on blood BDNF mRNA levels and on hippocampus subfields volumes in schizophrenia spectrum and bipolar disorders. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 59, 1421.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ajnakina, O., Trotta, A., Oakley-Hannibal, E., Di Forti, M., Stilo, S. A., Kolliakou, A., … Fisher, H. L. (2016). Impact of childhood adversities on specific symptom dimensions in first-episode psychosis. Psychological Medicine, 46, 317326.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Alameda, L., Fournier, M., Khadimallah, I., Griffa, A., Cleusix, M., Jenni, R., … Do, K. Q. (2018). Redox dysregulation as a link between childhood trauma and psychopathological and neurocognitive profile in patients with early psychosis. National Academy of Sciences Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 115, 1249512500.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Alameda, L., Golay, P., Baumann, P. S., Ferrari, C., Do, K. Q., & Conus, P. (2016). Age at the time of exposure to trauma modulates the psychopathological profile in patients with early psychosis. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 77, e612e618.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Allen, J. G., Coyne, L., & Console, D. A. (1997). Dissociative detachment relates to psychotic symptoms and personality decompensation. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 38, 327334.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
American Psychiatric Association (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders: DSM-IV (4th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.Google Scholar
Appiah-Kusi, E., Fisher, H. L., Petros, N., Wilson, R., Mondelli, V., Garety, P. A., … Bhattacharyya, S. (2017). Do cognitive schema mediate the association between childhood trauma and being at ultra-high risk for psychosis? Journal of Psychiatric Research, 88, 8996.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ashford, C. D., Ashcroft, K., & Maguire, N. (2012). Emotions, traits and negative beliefs as possible mediators in the relationship between childhood experiences of being bullied and paranoid thinking in a Non-clinical sample. Journal of Experimental Psychopathology, 3, 624638.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bebbington, P. (2015). Unravelling psychosis: Psychosocial epidemiology, mechanism, and meaning. Editorial Department of the Shanghai Archives of Psychiatry Shanghai Archives of Psychiatry, 27, 7081.Google ScholarPubMed
Bentall, R. P., De Sousa, P., Varese, F., Wickham, S., Sitko, K., Haarmans, M., & Read, J. (2014). From adversity to psychosis: Pathways and mechanisms from specific adversities to specific symptoms. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 49, 10111022.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bortolon, C., & Raffard, S. (2018). Dissociation mediates the relationship between childhood trauma and experiences of seeing visions in a French sample. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 206, 850858.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bortolon, C., Seillé, J., & Raffard, S. (2017). Exploration of trauma, dissociation, maladaptive schemas and auditory hallucinations in a French sample. Taylor & Francis Cognitive Neuropsychiatry, 22, 468485.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Boyda, D., & McFeeters, D. (2015). Childhood maltreatment and social functioning in adults with sub-clinical psychosis. Psychiatry Research, 226, 376382.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Boyda, D., McFeeters, D., Dhingra, K., & Rhoden, L. (2018). Childhood maltreatment and psychotic experiences: Exploring the specificity of early maladaptive schemas. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 74, 22872301.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Brand, R. M., McEnery, C., Rossell, S., Bendall, S., & Thomas, N. (2018). Do trauma-focussed psychological interventions have an effect on psychotic symptoms? A systematic review and meta-analysis. Schizophrenia Research, 195, 1322.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cancel, A., Comte, M., Truillet, R., Boukezzi, S., Rousseau, P. F., Zendjidjian, X. Y., … Fakra, E. (2015). Childhood neglect predicts disorganization in schizophrenia through grey matter decrease in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 132, 244256.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Chatziioannidis, S., Andreou, C., Agorastos, A., Kaprinis, S., Malliaris, Y., Garyfallos, G., & Bozikas, V. P. (2019). The role of attachment anxiety in the relationship between childhood trauma and schizophrenia-spectrum psychosis. Psychiatry Research, 276, 223231.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Choi, J. Y., Choi, Y. M., Kim, B., Lee, D. W., Gim, M. S., & Park, S. H. (2015). The effects of childhood abuse on self-reported psychotic symptoms in severe mental illness: Mediating effects of posttraumatic stress symptoms. Psychiatry Research, 229, 389393.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cole, C. L., Newman-Taylor, K., & Kennedy, F. (2016). Dissociation mediates the relationship between childhood maltreatment and subclinical psychosis. Journal of Trauma and Dissociation, 17, 577592.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Evans, G. J., Reid, G., Preston, P., Palmier-Claus, J., & Sellwood, W. (2015). Trauma and psychosis: The mediating role of self-concept clarity and dissociation. Psychiatry Research, 228, 626632.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fisher, H. L., Appiah-Kusi, E., & Grant, C. (2012). Anxiety and negative self-schemas mediate the association between childhood maltreatment and paranoia. Psychiatry Research, 196, 323324.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fisher, H. L., Schreier, A., Zammit, S., Maughan, B., Munafò, M. R., Lewis, G., & Wolke, D. (2013). Pathways between childhood victimization and psychosis-like symptoms in the ALSPAC birth cohort. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 39, 10451055.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Freeman, D., & Garety, P. (2014). Advances in understanding and treating persecutory delusions: A review. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 49, 11791189.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Garety, P. A., Bebbington, P., Fowler, D., Freeman, D., & Kuipers, E. (2007). Implications for neurobiological research of cognitive models of psychosis: A theoretical paper. Psychological Medicine, 37, 13771391.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Garety, P. A., Kuipers, E., Fowler, D., Freeman, D., & Bebbington, P. E. (2001). A cognitive model of the positive symptoms of psychosis. Psychological Medicine, 31, 189195.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gawęda, Ł, Göritz, A. S., & Moritz, S. (2019). Mediating role of aberrant salience and self-disturbances for the relationship between childhood trauma and psychotic-like experiences in the general population. Schizophrenia Research, 206, 149156.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gibson, L. E., Alloy, L. B., & Ellman, L. M. (2016). Trauma and the psychosis spectrum: A review of symptom specificity and explanatory mechanisms. Clinical Psychology Review, 49, 92105.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gibson, L. E., Reeves, L. E., Cooper, S., Olino, T. M., & Ellman, L. M. (2019). Traumatic life event exposure and psychotic-like experiences: A multiple mediation model of cognitive-based mechanisms. Schizophrenia Research, 205, 1522.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Goodall, K., Rush, R., Grünwald, L., Darling, S., & Tiliopoulos, N. (2015). Attachment as a partial mediator of the relationship between emotional abuse and schizotypy. Psychiatry Research, 230, 531536.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gumley, A. I., Taylor, H. E. F., Schwannauer, M., & MacBeth, A. (2014). A systematic review of attachment and psychosis: Measurement, construct validity and outcomes. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 129, 257274.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hardy, A. (2017). Pathways from trauma to psychotic experiences: A theoretically informed model of posttraumatic stress in psychosis. Frontiers Research Foundation Frontiers in Psychology, 8, 697.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hardy, A., Emsley, R., Freeman, D., Bebbington, P., Garety, P. A., Kuipers, E. E., … Fowler, D. (2016). Psychological mechanisms mediating effects between trauma and psychotic symptoms: The role of affect regulation, intrusive trauma memory, beliefs, and depression. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 42, S34S43.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hayes, A. F. (2009). Beyond Baron and Kenny: Statistical mediation analysis in the new millennium. Communication Monographs, 76, 408420.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Howes, O. D., McCutcheon, R., Owen, M. J., & Murray, R. M. (2017). The role of genes, stress, and dopamine in the development of schizophrenia. USA Biological Psychiatry, 81, 920.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Howes, O. D., & Murray, R. M. (2014). Schizophrenia: An integrated sociodevelopmental-cognitive model. The Lancet, 383, 16771687.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Isvoranu, A. M., Van Borkulo, C. D., Lou, B. L., Wigman, J. T. W., Vinkers, C. H., Borsboom, D., … Myin-Germeys, I. (2017). A network approach to psychosis: Pathways between childhood trauma and psychotic symptoms. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 43, 187196.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Jaya, E. S., Ascone, L., & Lincoln, T. M. (2017). Social adversity and psychosis: The mediating role of cognitive vulnerability. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 43, 557565.Google ScholarPubMed
Keen, N., Hunter, E. C. M., & Peters, E. (2017). Integrated trauma-focused cognitive-behavioural therapy for post-traumatic stress and psychotic symptoms: A case-series study using imaginal reprocessing strategies. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 8, 92.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lincoln, T. M., Marin, N., & Jaya, E. S. (2017). Childhood trauma and psychotic experiences in a general population sample: A prospective study on the mediating role of emotion regulation. Masson SAS European Psychiatry, 42, 111119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Marwaha, S., & Bebbington, P. (2015). Mood as a mediator of the link between child sexual abuse and psychosis. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 50, 661663.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Marwaha, S., Broome, M. R., Bebbington, P. E., Kuipers, E., & Freeman, D. (2014). Mood instability and psychosis: Analyses of British national survey data. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 40, 269277.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McCarthy-Jones, S. (2018). Post-traumatic symptomatology and compulsions as potential mediators of the relation between child sexual abuse and auditory verbal hallucinations. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 46, 318331.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McDonnell, J., Stahl, D., Day, F., McGuire, P., & Valmaggia, L. R. (2018). Interpersonal sensitivity in those at clinical high risk for psychosis mediates the association between childhood bullying victimisation and paranoid ideation: A virtual reality study. Schizophrenia Research, 192, 8995.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McGrath, J. J., Saha, S., Lim, C. C. W., Aguilar-Gaxiola, S., Alonso, J., Andrade, L. H., … Wojtyniak, B. (2017). Trauma and psychotic experiences: Transnational data from the World Mental Health survey. British Journal of Psychiatry, 211, 373380.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mętel, D., Arciszewska, A., Daren, A., Pionke, R., Cechnicki, A., Frydecka, D., & Gawęda, Ł (2020). Mediating role of cognitive biases, resilience and depressive symptoms in the relationship between childhood trauma and psychotic-like experiences in young adults. Early Intervention in Psychiatry, 14, 8796.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Misiak, B., Krefft, M., Bielawski, T., Moustafa, A. A., Sąsiadek, M. M., & Frydecka, D. (2017). Toward a unified theory of childhood trauma and psychosis: A comprehensive review of epidemiological, clinical, neuropsychological and biological findings. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 75, 393406.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Moher, D., Booth, A., & Stewart, L. (2014). How to reduce unnecessary duplication: Use PROSPERO. BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 121, 784786.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Moher, D., Liberati, A., Tetzlaff, J., Altman, D. G., Altman, D., Antes, G., … Tugwell, P. (2009). Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: The PRISMA statement. American College of Physicians Annals of Internal Medicine, 151, 264269.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Morgan, C., & Gayer-Anderson, C. (2016). Childhood adversities and psychosis: Evidence, challenges, implications. World Psychiatry, 15, 93102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Morgan, C., Reininghaus, U., Fearon, P., Hutchinson, G., Morgan, K., Dazzan, P., … Craig, T. (2014). Modelling the interplay between childhood and adult adversity in pathways to psychosis: Initial evidence from the AESOP study. Psychological Medicine, 44, 407419.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Morrison, A. P., Frame, L., & Larkin, W. (2003). Relationships between trauma and psychosis: A review and integration. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 42, 331353.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Moskowitz, A., Schäfer, I., & Dorahy, M. J. (2009). Psychosis, trauma and dissociation: Emerging perspectives on severe psychopathology. Hoboken, NJ, USA: John Wiley and Sons.Google Scholar
Murphy, S., Murphy, J., & Shevlin, M. (2015). Negative evaluations of self and others, and peer victimization as mediators of the relationship between childhood adversity and psychotic experiences in adolescence: The moderating role of loneliness. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 54, 326344.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Myin-Germeys, I., & van Os, J. (2007). Stress-reactivity in psychosis: Evidence for an affective pathway to psychosis. Clinical Psychology Review, 27, 409424.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Peach, N., Alvarez-Jimenez, M., Cropper, S. J., Sun, P., & Bendall, S. (2019). Testing models of post-traumatic intrusions, trauma-related beliefs, hallucinations, and delusions in a first episode psychosis sample. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 58, 154172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Perona-Garcelán, S., Carrascoso- López, F., García-Montes, J. M., Ductor-Recuerda, M. J., López Jiménez, A. M., Vallina-Fernández, O., … Gómez-Gómez, M. T. (2012). Dissociative experiences as mediators between childhood trauma and auditory hallucinations. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 25, 323329.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Perona-Garcelán, S., García-Montes, J. M., Rodríguez-Testal, J. F., López-Jiménez, A. M., Ruiz-Veguilla, M., Ductor-Recuerda, M. J., … Pérez-Álvarez, M. (2014). Relationship between childhood trauma, mindfulness, and dissociation in subjects with and without hallucination proneness. Journal of Trauma and Dissociation, 15, 3551.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pinto-Gouveia, J., Matos, M., Castilho, P., & Xavier, A. (2014). Differences between depression and paranoia: The role of emotional memories, shame and subordination. Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, 21, 4961.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Quidé, Y., O'Reilly, N., Watkeys, O. J., Carr, V. J., & Green, M. J. (2018). Effects of childhood trauma on left inferior frontal gyrus function during response inhibition across psychotic disorders. Psychological Medicine, 48, 14541463.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Read, J., Fosse, R., Moskowitz, A., & Perry, B. (2014). The traumagenic neurodevelopmental model of psychosis revisited. Neuropsychiatry, 4, 6579.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Read, J., & Gumley, A. (2010). Can attachment theory help explain the relationship between childhood adversity and psychosis?. In Benamer, S. (Ed.), Telling stories? Attachment-based approaches to the treatment of psychosis (pp. 5194). Karnac Books. Scholar
Ross, C. A. (2006). Dissociation and psychosis: The need for integration of theory and practice. In Johannessen, J. O., Martindale, B. V. & Cullberg, J. (Ed.), Evolving psychosis (pp. 238254). Routledge/Taylor & Francis Group. Scholar
Rössler, W., Ajdacic-Gross, V., Rodgers, S., Haker, H., & Müller, M. (2016). Childhood trauma as a risk factor for the onset of subclinical psychotic experiences: Exploring the mediating effect of stress sensitivity in a cross-sectional epidemiological community study. Schizophrenia Research, 172, 4653.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ruby, E., Polito, S., McMahon, K., Gorovitz, M., Corcoran, C., & Malaspina, D. (2014). Pathways associating childhood trauma to the neurobiology of schizophrenia. NIH Public Access Frontiers in Psychological and Behavioral Science, 3, 117.Google ScholarPubMed
Schalinski, I., Breinlinger, S., Hirt, V., Teicher, M. H., Odenwald, M., & Rockstroh, B. (2019). Environmental adversities and psychotic symptoms: The impact of timing of trauma, abuse, and neglect. Schizophrenia Research, 205, 49.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sheinbaum, T., Kwapil, T. R., & Barrantes-Vidal, N. (2014). Fearful attachment mediates the association of childhood trauma with schizotypy and psychotic-like experiences. Psychiatry Research, 220, 691693.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Shevlin, M., McElroy, E., & Murphy, J. (2015). Loneliness mediates the relationship between childhood trauma and adult psychopathology: Evidence from the adult psychiatric morbidity survey. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 50, 591601.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sin, J., & Spain, D. (2017). Psychological interventions for trauma in individuals who have psychosis: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Routledge Psychosis, 9, 6781.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sitko, K., Bentall, R. P., Shevlin, M., O'Sullivan, N., & Sellwood, W. (2014). Associations between specific psychotic symptoms and specific childhood adversities are mediated by attachment styles: An analysis of the National Comorbidity Survey. Psychiatry Research, 217, 202209.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Stang, A. (2010). Critical evaluation of the Newcastle-Ottawa scale for the assessment of the quality of nonrandomized studies in meta-analyses. European Journal of Epidemiology, 25, 603605.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Steckler, T., & Risbrough, V. (2012). Pharmacological treatment of PTSD – established and new approaches. Neuropharmacology, 62, 617627.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Steel, C., Hardy, A., Smith, B., Wykes, T., Rose, S., Enright, S., … Mueser, K. T. (2017). Cognitive-behaviour therapy for post-traumatic stress in schizophrenia. A randomized controlled trial. Psychological Medicine, 47, 4351.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Steenkamp, L., Weijers, J., Gerrmann, J., Eurelings-Bontekoe, E., & Selten, J. P. (2019). The relationship between childhood abuse and severity of psychosis is mediated by loneliness: An experience sampling study. Schizophrenia Research, in press.Google Scholar
Steullet, P., Cabungcal, J. H., Monin, A., Dwir, D., O'Donnell, P., Cuenod, M., & Do, K. Q. (2016). Redox dysregulation, neuroinflammation, and NMDA receptor hypofunction: A ‘central hub’ in schizophrenia pathophysiology? Schizophrenia Research, 176, 4151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Styła, R., Stolarski, M., & Szymanowska, A. (2019). Linking childhood adversities with schizophrenia: A mediating role of the balanced time perspective. Schizophrenia Research, 209, 281283.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sun, P., Alvarez-Jimenez, M., Simpson, K., Lawrence, K., Peach, N., & Bendall, S. (2018). Does dissociation mediate the relationship between childhood trauma and hallucinations, delusions in first episode psychosis? Comprehensive Psychiatry, 84, 6874.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Swan, S., Keen, N., Reynolds, N., & Onwumere, J. (2017). Psychological interventions for post-traumatic stress symptoms in psychosis: A systematic review of outcomes. Frontiers Research Foundation Frontiers in Psychology, 8, 341.Google ScholarPubMed
Teicher, M. H., Anderson, C. M., & Polcari, A. (2012). Childhood maltreatment is associated with reduced volume in the hippocampal subfields CA3, dentate gyrus, and subiculum. National Academy of Sciences Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 109, E563E572.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Thompson, A., Marwaha, S., Nelson, B., Wood, S. J., McGorry, P. D., Yung, A. R., & Lin, A. (2016). Do affective or dissociative symptoms mediate the association between childhood sexual trauma and transition to psychosis in an ultra-high risk cohort? Psychiatry Research, 236, 182185.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Thompson, A., Sullivan, S., Lewis, G., Zammit, S., Heron, J., Horwood, J., … Harrison, G. (2011). Association between locus of control in childhood and psychotic symptoms in early adolescence: Results from a large birth cohort. Cognitive Neuropsychiatry, 16, 385402.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Van Dam, D. S., Korver-Nieberg, N., Velthorst, E., Meijer, C. J., & de Haan, L. (2014). Childhood maltreatment, adult attachment and psychotic symptomatology: A study in patients, siblings and controls. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 49, 17591767.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
van Nierop, M., van Os, J., Gunther, N., van Zelst, C., de Graaf, R., ten Have, M., … Van Winkel, R. (2014). Does social defeat mediate the association between childhood trauma and psychosis? Evidence from the NEMESIS-2 Study. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 129, 467476.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Van Os, J., Linscott, R. J., Myin-Germeys, I., Delespaul, P., & Krabbendam, L. (2009). A systematic review and meta-analysis of the psychosis continuum: Evidence for a psychosis proneness-persistence-impairment model of psychotic disorder. Psychological Medicine, 39, 179195.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Van Winkel, R., Van Nierop, M., Myin-Germeys, I., & Van Os, J. (2013). Childhood trauma as a cause of psychosis: Linking genes, psychology, and biology. Canadian Psychiatric Association Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 58, 4451.Google ScholarPubMed
Varese, F., Barkus, E., & Bentall, R. P. (2012 a). Dissociation mediates the relationship between childhood trauma and hallucination-proneness. Psychological Medicine, 42, 10251036.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Varese, F., Smeets, F., Drukker, M., Lieverse, R., Lataster, T., Viechtbauer, W., … Bentall, R. P. (2012 b). Childhood adversities increase the risk of psychosis: A meta-analysis of patient-control, prospective-and cross-sectional cohort studies. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 38, 661671.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Waller, H., Garety, P. A., Jolley, S., Fornells-Ambrojo, M., Kuipers, E., Onwumere, J., … Craig, T. (2013). Low intensity cognitive behavioural therapy for psychosis: A pilot study. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 44, 98104.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Weijers, J., Fonagy, P., Eurelings-Bontekoe, E., Termorshuizen, F., Viechtbauer, W., & Selten, J. P. (2018). Mentalizing impairment as a mediator between reported childhood abuse and outcome in nonaffective psychotic disorder. Psychiatry Research, 259, 463469.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wickham, S., & Bentall, R. (2016). Are specific early-life adversities associated with specific symptoms of psychosis?: A patient study considering just world beliefs as a mediator. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 204, 606613.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Williams, J., Bucci, S., Berry, K., & Varese, F. (2018). Psychological mediators of the association between childhood adversities and psychosis: A systematic review. Clinical Psychology Review, 65, 175196.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wolke, D., Lereya, S. T., Fisher, H. L., Lewis, G., & Zammit, S. (2014). Bullying in elementary school and psychotic experiences at 18 years: A longitudinal, population-based cohort study. Psychological Medicine, 44, 21992211.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
World Health Organization (1992). The ICD-10 classification of mental and behavioural disorders: Clinical descriptions and diagnostic guidelines. Geneva: World Health Organization.Google Scholar
Yamasaki, S., Ando, S., Koike, S., Usami, S., Endo, K., French, P., … Nishida, A. (2016). Dissociation mediates the relationship between peer victimization and hallucinatory experiences among early adolescents. The Authors Schizophrenia Research: Cognition, 4, 1823.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Yung, A. R., Yung, A. R., Pan Yuen, H., Mcgorry, P. D., Phillips, L. J., Kelly, D., … Buckby, J. (2005). Mapping the onset of psychosis: The comprehensive assessment of at-risk mental states. Journal of Psychiatry, 39, 964971.Google ScholarPubMed
Supplementary material: File

Alameda et al. supplementary material

Alameda et al. supplementary material

Download Alameda et al. supplementary material(File)
File 607 KB