Gobbi, Gabriella Ghabrash, Maykel F. Nuñez, Nicolas Tabaka, John Di Sante, Jessica Saint-Laurent, Marie Vida, Stephen Kolivakis, Theodore Low, Nancy Cervantes, Pablo Booij, Linda and Comai, Stefano 2018. Antidepressant combination versus antidepressants plus second-generation antipsychotic augmentation in treatment-resistant unipolar depression. International Clinical Psychopharmacology, Vol. 33, Issue. 1, p. 34.
Freeman, Tom P Pope, Rebecca A Wall, Matthew B Bisby, James A Luijten, Maartje Hindocha, Chandni Mokrysz, Claire Lawn, Will Moss, Abigail Bloomfield, Michael A P Morgan, Celia J A Nutt, David J and Curran, H Valerie 2018. Cannabis Dampens the Effects of Music in Brain Regions Sensitive to Reward and Emotion. International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology, Vol. 21, Issue. 1, p. 21.
Dierker, Lisa Selya, Arielle Lanza, Stephanie Li, Runze and Rose, Jennifer 2018. Depression and marijuana use disorder symptoms among current marijuana users. Addictive Behaviors, Vol. 76, p. 161.
Augustyn, Megan Bears Fulco, Celia J. and Henry, Kimberly L. 2018. Intergenerational Continuity in Depression: The Importance of Time-Varying Effects, Maternal Co-morbid Health Risk Behaviors and Child’s Gender. Journal of Youth and Adolescence,
Lovell, M.E. Bruno, R. Johnston, J. Matthews, A. McGregor, I. Allsop, D.J. and Lintzeris, N. 2018. Cognitive, physical, and mental health outcomes between long-term cannabis and tobacco users. Addictive Behaviors, Vol. 79, p. 178.
Hanna, Rebecca C. Perez, Jessica M. and Ghose, Subroto 2017. Cannabis and development of dual diagnoses: A literature review. The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, Vol. 43, Issue. 4, p. 442.
Ruggles, Kelly V. Fang, Yixin Tate, Janet Mentor, Sherry M. Bryant, Kendall J. Fiellin, David A. Justice, Amy C. and Braithwaite, R. Scott 2017. What are the Patterns Between Depression, Smoking, Unhealthy Alcohol Use, and Other Substance Use Among Individuals Receiving Medical Care? A Longitudinal Study of 5479 Participants. AIDS and Behavior, Vol. 21, Issue. 7, p. 2014.
Twomey, Conal D 2017. Association of cannabis use with the development of elevated anxiety symptoms in the general population: a meta-analysis. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, Vol. 71, Issue. 8, p. 811.
Steenkamp, Maria M. Blessing, Esther M. Galatzer-Levy, Isaac R. Hollahan, Laura C. and Anderson, William T. 2017. Marijuana and other cannabinoids as a treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder: A literature review. Depression and Anxiety, Vol. 34, Issue. 3, p. 207.
Walsh, Zach Gonzalez, Raul Crosby, Kim S. Thiessen, Michelle Carroll, Chris and Bonn-Miller, Marcel O. 2017. Medical cannabis and mental health: A guided systematic review. Clinical Psychology Review, Vol. 51, p. 15.
Caouette, Justin D. and Feldstein Ewing, Sarah W. 2017. Four Mechanistic Models of Peer Influence on Adolescent Cannabis Use. Current Addiction Reports, Vol. 4, Issue. 2, p. 90.
Marwaha, Steven Winsper, Catherine Bebbington, Paul and Smith, Daniel 2017. Cannabis Use and Hypomania in Young People: A Prospective Analysis. Schizophrenia Bulletin,
Guttmannova, Katarina Kosterman, Rick White, Helene R. Bailey, Jennifer A. Lee, Jungeun Olivia Epstein, Marina Jones, Tiffany M. and Hawkins, J. David 2017. The association between regular marijuana use and adult mental health outcomes. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, Vol. 179, p. 109.
Brooks, Elizabeth Gundersen, Doris C Flynn, Erin Brooks-Russell, Ashley and Bull, Sheana 2017. The clinical implications of legalizing marijuana: Are physician and non-physician providers prepared?. Addictive Behaviors, Vol. 72, p. 1.
Lucchese, Roselma Silva, Paloma Cinthia Duarte Denardi, Tainara Catozzi Felipe, Rodrigo Lopes de Vera, Ivânia Castro, Paulo Alexandre de Bueno, Alexandre de Assis and Fernandes, Inaina Lara 2017. COMMON MENTAL DISORDER AMONG ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSERS: A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY. Texto & Contexto - Enfermagem, Vol. 26, Issue. 1,
Bertholet, Nicolas Cheng, Debbie M. Palfai, Tibor P. Lloyd-Travaglini, Christine Samet, Jeffrey H. and Saitz, Richard 2017. Anxiety, Depression, and Pain Symptoms. Journal of Addiction Medicine, p. 1.
Fischer, Benedikt Russell, Cayley Sabioni, Pamela van den Brink, Wim Le Foll, Bernard Hall, Wayne Rehm, Jürgen and Room, Robin 2017. Lower-Risk Cannabis Use Guidelines: A Comprehensive Update of Evidence and Recommendations. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 107, Issue. 8, p. e1.
Longitudinal studies reporting the association between cannabis use and developing depression provide mixed results. The objective of this study was to establish the extent to which different patterns of use of cannabis are associated with the development of depression using meta-analysis of longitudinal studies.
Peer-reviewed publications reporting the risk of developing depression in cannabis users were located using searches of EMBASE, Medline, PsychINFO and ISI Web of Science. Only longitudinal studies that controlled for depression at baseline were included. Data on several study characteristics, including measures of cannabis use, measures of depression and control variables, were extracted. Odds ratios (ORs) were extracted by age and length of follow-up.
After screening for 4764 articles, 57 articles were selected for full-text review, of which 14 were included in the quantitative analysis (total number of subjects = 76058). The OR for cannabis users developing depression compared with controls was 1.17 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.05–1.30]. The OR for heavy cannabis users developing depression was 1.62 (95% CI 1.21–2.16), compared with non-users or light users. Meta-regression revealed no significant differences in effect based on age of subjects and marginal difference in effect based on length of follow-up in the individual studies. There was large heterogeneity in the number and type of control variables in the different studies.
Cannabis use, and particularly heavy cannabis use, may be associated with an increased risk for developing depressive disorders. There is need for further longitudinal exploration of the association between cannabis use and developing depression, particularly taking into account cumulative exposure to cannabis and potentially significant confounding factors.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.
Full text views reflects the number of PDF downloads, PDFs sent to Google Drive, Dropbox and Kindle and HTML full text views.
* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 20th March 2018. This data will be updated every 24 hours.