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Chronic exposure to haloperidol and olanzapine leads to common and divergent shape changes in the rat hippocampus in the absence of grey-matter volume loss

  • W. R. Crum (a1), F. Danckaers (a2), T. Huysmans (a2), M.-C. Cotel (a3), S. Natesan (a3), M. M. Modo (a4), J. Sijbers (a2), S. C. R. Williams (a1), S. Kapur (a3) and A. C. Vernon (a3) (a4)...
Abstract
Background

One of the most consistently reported brain abnormalities in schizophrenia (SCZ) is decreased volume and shape deformation of the hippocampus. However, the potential contribution of chronic antipsychotic medication exposure to these phenomena remains unclear.

Method

We examined the effect of chronic exposure (8 weeks) to clinically relevant doses of either haloperidol (HAL) or olanzapine (OLZ) on adult rat hippocampal volume and shape using ex vivo structural MRI with the brain retained inside the cranium to prevent distortions due to dissection, followed by tensor-based morphometry (TBM) and elastic surface-based shape deformation analysis. The volume of the hippocampus was also measured post-mortem from brain tissue sections in each group.

Results

Chronic exposure to either HAL or OLZ had no effect on the volume of the hippocampus, even at exploratory thresholds, which was confirmed post-mortem. In contrast, shape deformation analysis revealed that chronic HAL and OLZ exposure lead to both common and divergent shape deformations (q = 0.05, FDR-corrected) in the rat hippocampus. In particular, in the dorsal hippocampus, HAL exposure led to inward shape deformation, whereas OLZ exposure led to outward shape deformation. Interestingly, outward shape deformations that were common to both drugs occurred in the ventral hippocampus. These effects remained significant after controlling for hippocampal volume suggesting true shape changes.

Conclusions

Chronic exposure to either HAL or OLZ leads to both common and divergent effects on rat hippocampal shape in the absence of volume change. The implications of these findings for the clinic are discussed.

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      Chronic exposure to haloperidol and olanzapine leads to common and divergent shape changes in the rat hippocampus in the absence of grey-matter volume loss
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Copyright
This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution licence (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Corresponding author
*Address for correspondence: Dr A. C. Vernon, Department of Basic and Clinical Neuroscience, King's College London, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, Maurice Wohl Institute for Clinical Neuroscience, 5 Cutcombe Road, London SE5 9RT, UK. (Email: anthony.vernon@kcl.ac.uk)
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