Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Cigarette smoking and personality: interrogating causality using Mendelian randomisation

  • Hannah M. Sallis (a1) (a2) (a3) (a4), George Davey Smith (a1) (a3) and Marcus R. Munafò (a1) (a2)
Abstract
Background

Despite the well-documented association between smoking and personality traits such as neuroticism and extraversion, little is known about the potential causal nature of these findings. If it were possible to unpick the association between personality and smoking, it may be possible to develop tailored smoking interventions that could lead to both improved uptake and efficacy.

Methods

Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified variants robustly associated with both smoking phenotypes and personality traits. Here we use publicly available GWAS summary statistics in addition to individual-level data from UK Biobank to investigate the link between smoking and personality. We first estimate genetic overlap between traits using LD score regression and then use bidirectional Mendelian randomisation methods to unpick the nature of this relationship.

Results

We found clear evidence of a modest genetic correlation between smoking behaviours and both neuroticism and extraversion. We found some evidence that personality traits are causally linked to certain smoking phenotypes: among current smokers each additional neuroticism risk allele was associated with smoking an additional 0.07 cigarettes per day (95% CI 0.02–0.12, p = 0.009), and each additional extraversion effect allele was associated with an elevated odds of smoking initiation (OR 1.015, 95% CI 1.01–1.02, p = 9.6 × 10−7).

Conclusion

We found some evidence for specific causal pathways from personality to smoking phenotypes, and weaker evidence of an association from smoking initiation to personality. These findings could be used to inform future smoking interventions or to tailor existing schemes.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Cigarette smoking and personality: interrogating causality using Mendelian randomisation
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Cigarette smoking and personality: interrogating causality using Mendelian randomisation
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Cigarette smoking and personality: interrogating causality using Mendelian randomisation
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution licence (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Corresponding author
Author for correspondence: Hannah M. Sallis, E-mail: hannah.sallis@bristol.ac.uk
References
Hide All
Arnold, M, Raffler, J, Pfeufer, A, Suhre, K and Kastenmüller, G (2015) SNiPA: an interactive, genetic variant-centered annotation browser. Bioinformatics (Oxford, England) 31, 13341336.
Bowden, J, Davey Smith, G and Burgess, S (2015) Mendelian randomization with invalid instruments: effect estimation and bias detection through Egger regression. International Journal of Epidemiology 44, 512525.
Bowden, J, Davey Smith, G, Haycock, PC and Burgess, S (2016) Consistent estimation in Mendelian randomization with some invalid instruments using a weighted median estimator. Genetic Epidemiology 40, 304314.
Bowden, J, Del Greco, MF, Minelli, C, Davey Smith, G, Sheehan, N and Thompson, J (2017) A framework for the investigation of pleiotropy in two-sample summary data Mendelian randomization. Wiley-Blackwell Statistics in Medicine 36, 17831802.
Bycroft, C, Freeman, C, Petkova, D, Band, G, Elliott, LT, Sharp, K, Motyer, A, Vukcevic, D, Delaneau, O, O'Connell, J, Cortes, A, Welsh, S, McVean, G, Leslie, S, Donnelly, P and Marchini, J (2017) Genome-wide genetic data on ~500000 UK Biobank participants. BioRxiv, 166298.
Cherry, N and Kiernan, K (1976) Personality scores and smoking behaviour. A longitudinal study. British Journal of Preventive & Social Medicine 30, 123131.
Davey Smith, G (2011) Use of genetic markers and gene-diet interactions for interrogating population-level causal influences of diet on health. Genes & Nutrition 6, 2743.
Davey Smith, G and Ebrahim, S (2003) ‘Mendelian randomization’: can genetic epidemiology contribute to understanding environmental determinants of disease? International Journal of Epidemiology 32, 122.
Davey Smith, G and Hemani, G (2014) Mendelian randomization: genetic anchors for causal inference in epidemiological studies. Human Molecular Genetics 23, R89R98.
Fluharty, M, Taylor, AE, Grabski, M and Munafò, MR (2017) The association of cigarette smoking with depression and anxiety: a systematic review. Nicotine & Tobacco Research 19, 313.
Gage, SH, Davey Smith, G, Ware, JJ, Flint, J, Munafò, MR and Koifman, R (2016) G = E: what GWAS can tell us about the environment. PLoS Genetics 12, e1005765.
Gage, SH, Jones, HJ, Taylor, AE, Burgess, S, Zammit, S and Munafò, MR (2017) Investigating causality in associations between smoking initiation and schizophrenia using Mendelian randomization. Scientific Reports 7, 40653.
Gale, CR, Hagenaars, SP, Davies, G, Hill, WD, Liewald, DCM, Cullen, B, Penninx, BW, International Consortium for Blood Pressure GWAS CCA and LG, Boomsma, DI, Pell, J, McIntosh, AM, Smith, DJ, Deary, IJ and Harris, SE (2016) Pleiotropy between neuroticism and physical and mental health: findings from 108 038 men and women in UK Biobank. Translational Psychiatry 6, e791.
Haas, SA and Schaefer, DR (2014) With a little help from my friends? Asymmetrical social influence on adolescent smoking initiation and cessation. Journal of Health and Social Behavior 55, 126143.
Hakulinen, C, Hintsanen, M, Munafò, MR, Virtanen, M, Kivimäki, M, Batty, GD and Jokela, M (2015) Personality and smoking: individual-participant meta-analysis of nine cohort studies. Addiction 110, 18441852.
Hartwig, FP and Davies, NM (2016) Why internal weights should be avoided (not only) in MR-Egger regression. International Journal of Epidemiology 45, 16761678.
Holmes, MV, Ala-Korpela, M and Davey Smith, G (2017) Mendelian randomization in cardiometabolic disease: challenges in evaluating causality. Nature Reviews Cardiology 14, 577590.
Kendler, KS, Neale, MC, Kessler, RC, Heath, AC and Eaves, LJ (1993) A longitudinal twin study of personality and major depression in women. Archives of General Psychiatry 50, 853862.
Kendler, KS, Neale, MC, Sullivan, P, Corey, LA, Gardner, CO and Prescott, CA (1999) A population-based twin study in women of smoking initiation and nicotine dependence. Psychological Medicine 29, 299308.
Khantzian, EJ (1985) The self-medication hypothesis of addictive disorders: focus on heroin and cocaine dependence. American Journal of Psychiatry 142, 12591264.
Khantzian, EJ (1997) The self-medication hypothesis of substance use disorders: a reconsideration and recent applications. Harvard Review of Psychiatry 4, 231244.
Kobus, K (2003) Peers and adolescent smoking. Addiction 98, 3755.
Lawlor, DA, Tilling, K and Davey Smith, G (2017) Triangulation in aetiological epidemiology. International Journal of Epidemiology 45, 18661886.
Linnér, RK, Biroli, P, Kong, E, Meddens, SFW, Wedow, R, Fontana, MA, Lebreton, M, Abdellaoui, A, Hammerschlag, AR, Nivard, MG, Okbay, A, Rietveld, CA, Timshel, PN, Tino, SP, Trzaskowski, M, de Vlaming, R, Zünd, CL, Bao, Y, Buzdugan, L, Caplin, AH, Chen, C-Y, Eibich, P, Fontanillas, P, Gonzalez, JR, Joshi, PK, Karhunen, V, Kleinman, A, Levin, RZ, Lill, CM, Meddens, GA, Muntané, G, Sanchez-Roige, S, van Rooij, FJ, Taskesen, E, Wu, Y, Zhang, F, Team 23andMe Research, Consortium Eqtl, Consortium, IC, Consortium, PG, Consortium, SSGA, Auton, A, Boardman, JD, Clark, DW, Conlin, A, Dolan, CC, Fischbacher, U, Groenen, PJ, Harris, KM, Hasler, G, Hofman, A, Ikram, MA, Jain, S, Karlsson, R, Kessler, RC, Kooyman, M, MacKillop, J, Männikkö, M, Morcillo-Suarez, C, McQueen, MB, Schmidt, KM, Smart, MC, Sutter, M, Thurik, AR, Uitterlinden, AG, White, J, de Wit, H, Yang, J, Bertram, L, Boomsma, D, Esko, T, Fehr, E, Hinds, DA, Johannesson, M, Kumari, M, Laibson, D, Magnusson, PK, Meyer, MN, Navarro, A, Palmer, AA, Pers, TH, Posthuma, D, Schunk, D, Stein, MB, Svento, R, Tiemeier, H, Timmers, PR, Turley, P, Ursano, RJ, Wagner, GG, Wilson, JF, Gratten, J, Lee, JJ, Cesarini, D, Benjamin, DJ, Koellinger, P and Beauchamp, JP (2018) Genome-wide study identifies 611 loci associated with risk tolerance and risky behaviors. BioRxiv, 261081.
Lo, M-T, Hinds, DA, Tung, JY, Franz, C, Fan, C-C, Wang, Y, Smeland, OB, Schork, A, Holland, D, Kauppi, K, Sanyal, N, Escott-Price, V, Smith, DJ, O'Donovan, M, Stefansson, H, Bjornsdottir, G, Thorgeirsson, TE, Stefansson, K, McEvoy, LK, Dale, AM, Andreassen, OA and Chen, C-H (2017) Genome-wide analyses for personality traits identify six genomic loci and show correlations with psychiatric disorders. Nature Genetics 49, 152156.
Malouff, JM, Thorsteinsson, EB and Schutte, NS (2006) The five-factor model of personality and smoking: a meta-analysis. Journal of Drug Education 36, 4758.
Mitchell, R, Hemani, G, Dudding, T and Paternoster, L (2017) UK Biobank Genetic Data: MRC-IEU Quality Control, Version 1. doi: https://doi.org/10.5523/bris.3074krb6t2frj29yh2b03×3wxj.
Munafò, MR and Araya, R (2010) Cigarette smoking and depression: a question of causation. British Journal of Psychiatry 196, 425426.
Munafò, MR, Zetteler, JI and Clark, TG (2007) Personality and smoking status: a meta-analysis. Nicotine & Tobacco Research 9, 405413.
Munafò, MR, Tilling, K, Taylor, AE, Evans, DM and Davey Smith, G (2018) Collider scope: when selection bias can substantially influence observed associations. International Journal of Epidemiology 47, 226235.
Neale, BM, Sullivan, PF and Kendler, KS (2005) A genome scan of neuroticism in nicotine dependent smokers. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics 132B, 6569.
Okbay, A, Baselmans, BML, De Neve, J-E, Turley, P, Nivard, MG, Fontana, MA, Meddens, SFW, Linnér, RK, Rietveld, CA, Derringer, J, Gratten, J, Lee, JJ, Liu, JZ, de Vlaming, R, Ahluwalia, TS, Buchwald, J, Cavadino, A, Frazier-Wood, AC, Furlotte, NA, Garfield, V, Geisel, MH, Gonzalez, JR, Haitjema, S, Karlsson, R, van der Laan, SW, Ladwig, K-H, Lahti, J, van der Lee, SJ, Lind, PA, Liu, T, Matteson, L, Mihailov, E, Miller, MB, Minica, CC, Nolte, IM, Mook-Kanamori, D, van der Most, PJ, Oldmeadow, C, Qian, Y, Raitakari, O, Rawal, R, Realo, A, Rueedi, R, Schmidt, B, Smith, AV, Stergiakouli, E, Tanaka, T, Taylor, K, Wedenoja, J, Wellmann, J, Westra, H-J, Willems, SM, Zhao, W, Amin, N, Bakshi, A, Boyle, PA, Cherney, S, Cox, SR, Davies, G, Davis, OSP, Ding, J, Direk, N, Eibich, P, Emeny, RT, Fatemifar, G, Faul, JD, Ferrucci, L, Forstner, A, Gieger, C, Gupta, R, Harris, TB, Harris, JM, Holliday, EG, Hottenga, J-J, De Jager, PL, Kaakinen, MA, Kajantie, E, Karhunen, V, Kolcic, I, Kumari, M, Launer, LJ, Franke, L, Li-Gao, R, Koini, M, Loukola, A, Marques-Vidal, P, Montgomery, GW, Mosing, MA, Paternoster, L, Pattie, A, Petrovic, KE, Pulkki-Råback, L, Quaye, L, Räikkönen, K, Rudan, I, Scott, RJ, Smith, JA, Sutin, AR, Trzaskowski, M, Vinkhuyzen, AE, Yu, L, Zabaneh, D, Attia, JR, Bennett, DA, Berger, K, Bertram, L, Boomsma, DI, Snieder, H, Chang, SC, Cucca, F, Deary, IJ, van Duijn, CM, Eriksson, JG, Bültmann, U, de Geus, EJ, Groenen, PJ, Gudnason, V, Hansen, T, Hartman, CA, Haworth, CM, Hayward, C, Heath, AC, Hinds, DA, Hyppönen, E, Iacono, WG, Järvelin, MR, Jöckel, KH, Kaprio, J, Kardia, SL, Keltikangas-Järvinen, L, Kraft, P, Kubzansky, LD, Lehtimäki, T, Magnusson, PK, Martin, NG, McGue, M, Metspalu, A, Mills, M, de Mutsert, R, Oldehinkel, AJ, Pasterkamp, G, Pedersen, NL, Plomin, R, Polasek, O, Power, C, Rich, SS, Rosendaal, FR, den Ruijter, HM, Schlessinger, D, Schmidt, H, Svento, R, Schmidt, R, Alizadeh, BZ, Sørensen, TI, Spector, TD, Starr, JM, Stefansson, K, Steptoe, A, Terracciano, A, Thorsteinsdottir, U, Thurik, AR, Timpson, NJ, Tiemeier, H, Uitterlinden, AG, Vollenweider, P, Wagner, GG, Weir, DR, Yang, J, Conley, DC, Smith, GD, Hofman, A, Johannesson, M, Laibson, DI, Medland, SE, Meyer, MN, Pickrell, JK, Esko, T, Krueger, RF, Beauchamp, JP, Koellinger, PD, Benjamin, DJ, Bartels, M and Cesarini, D (2016) Genetic variants associated with subjective well-being, depressive symptoms, and neuroticism identified through genome-wide analyses. Nature Genetics 48, 624633.
Sallis, H, Steer, C, Paternoster, L, Davey Smith, G and Evans, J (2014) Perinatal depression and omega-3 fatty acids: a Mendelian randomisation study. Journal of Affective Disorders 166, 124131.
Smith, DJ, Nicholl, BI, Cullen, B, Martin, D, Ul-Haq, Z, Evans, J, Gill, JMR, Roberts, B, Gallacher, J, Mackay, D, Hotopf, M, Deary, I, Craddock, N and Pell, JP (2013) Prevalence and characteristics of probable major depression and bipolar disorder within UK Biobank: cross-sectional study of 172,751 participants. PLoS ONE 8, e75362.
Sudlow, C, Gallacher, J, Allen, N, Beral, V, Burton, P, Danesh, J, Downey, P, Elliott, P, Green, J, Landray, M, Liu, B, Matthews, P, Ong, G, Pell, J, Silman, A, Young, A, Sprosen, T, Peakman, T, Collins, R, Clayton, D, McKeigue, P, Willett, W, Blot, W, Colditz, G, Folsom, A, Henderson, B, Stampfer, M, Collins, F, Manolio, T, Doll, R, Peto, R, Ollier, W, Sprosen, T, Peakman, T, Burton, P, Hansell, A, Fortier, I, Manolio, T, Khoury, M, Hattersley, A, McCarthy, M, Collins, R, Elliott, P, Peakman, T, Liu, B, Young, H, Crowe, F, Benson, V, Spencer, E, Clarke, R, Shipley, M, Lewington, S, Youngman, L, Collins, R, Pell, J, Valentine, J, Inskip, H, Downey, P, Peakman, T, Manolio, T, Barbour, V, Manolio, T and Collins, R (2015) UK biobank: an open access resource for identifying the causes of a wide range of complex diseases of middle and old age. PLoS Medicine 12, e1001779.
Taylor, AE, Fluharty, ME, Bjørngaard, JH, Gabrielsen, ME, Skorpen, F, Marioni, RE, Campbell, A, Engmann, J, Mirza, SS, Loukola, A, Laatikainen, T, Partonen, T, Kaakinen, M, Ducci, F, Cavadino, A, Husemoen, LLN, Ahluwalia, TS, Jacobsen, RK, Skaaby, T, Ebstrup, JF, Mortensen, EL, Minica, CC, Vink, JM, Willemsen, G, Marques-Vidal, P, Dale, CE, Amuzu, A, Lennon, LT, Lahti, J, Palotie, A, Räikkönen, K, Wong, A, Paternoster, L, Wong, AP-Y, Horwood, LJ, Murphy, M, Johnstone, EC, Kennedy, MA, Pausova, Z, Paus, T, Ben-Shlomo, Y, Nohr, EA, Kuh, D, Kivimaki, M, Eriksson, JG, Morris, RW, Casas, JP, Preisig, M, Boomsma, DI, Linneberg, A, Power, C, Hyppönen, E, Veijola, J, Jarvelin, M-R, Korhonen, T, Tiemeier, H, Kumari, M, Porteous, DJ, Hayward, C, Romundstad, PR, Davey Smith, G and Munafò, MR (2014) Investigating the possible causal association of smoking with depression and anxiety using Mendelian randomisation meta-analysis: the CARTA consortium. BMJ Open 4, e006141.
Terracciano, A and Costa, PT Jr (2004) Smoking and the five-factor model of personality. Addiction 99, 472481.
Tobacco and Genetics Consortium (2010) Genome-wide meta-analyses identify multiple loci associated with smoking behavior. Nature Genetics 42, 411417.
van den Berg, SM, de Moor, MHM, Verweij, KJH, Krueger, RF, Luciano, M, Arias Vasquez, A, Matteson, LK, Derringer, J, Esko, T, Amin, N, Gordon, SD, Hansell, NK, Hart, AB, Seppälä, I, Huffman, JE, Konte, B, Lahti, J, Lee, M, Miller, M, Nutile, T, Tanaka, T, Teumer, A, Viktorin, A, Wedenoja, J, Abdellaoui, A, Abecasis, GR, Adkins, DE, Agrawal, A, Allik, J, Appel, K, Bigdeli, TB, Busonero, F, Campbell, H, Costa, PT, Davey Smith, G, Davies, G, de Wit, H, Ding, J, Engelhardt, BE, Eriksson, JG, Fedko, IO, Ferrucci, L, Franke, B, Giegling, I, Grucza, R, Hartmann, AM, Heath, AC, Heinonen, K, Henders, AK, Homuth, G, Hottenga, J-J, Iacono, WG, Janzing, J, Jokela, M, Karlsson, R, Kemp, JP, Kirkpatrick, MG, Latvala, A, Lehtimäki, T, Liewald, DC, Madden, PAF, Magri, C, Magnusson, PKE, Marten, J, Maschio, A, Mbarek, H, Medland, SE, Mihailov, E, Milaneschi, Y, Montgomery, GW, Nauck, M, Nivard, MG, Ouwens, KG, Palotie, A, Pettersson, E, Polasek, O, Qian, Y, Pulkki-Råback, L, Raitakari, OT, Realo, A, Rose, RJ, Ruggiero, D, Schmidt, CO, Slutske, WS, Sorice, R, Starr, JM, St Pourcain, B, Sutin, AR, Timpson, NJ, Trochet, H, Vermeulen, S, Vuoksimaa, E, Widen, E, Wouda, J, Wright, MJ, Zgaga, L, Porteous, D, Minelli, A, Palmer, AA, Rujescu, D, Ciullo, M, Hayward, C, Rudan, I, Metspalu, A, Kaprio, J, Deary, IJ, Räikkönen, K, Wilson, JF, Keltikangas-Järvinen, L, Bierut, LJ, Hettema, JM, Grabe, HJ, Penninx, BWJH, van Duijn, CM, Evans, DM, Schlessinger, D, Pedersen, NL, Terracciano, A, McGue, M, Martin, NG and Boomsma, DI (2016) Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies for extraversion: findings from the genetics of personality consortium. Behavior Genetics 46, 170182.
World Health Organisation (2002) The World Health Report 2002 – Reducing Risks, Promoting Healthy Life. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization.
Wray, NR, Ripke, S, Mattheisen, M, Trzaskowski, M, Byrne, EM, Abdellaoui, A, Adams, MJ, Agerbo, E, Air, TM, Andlauer, TMF, Bacanu, S-A, Bækvad-Hansen, M, Beekman, AFT, Bigdeli, TB, Binder, EB, Blackwood, DRH, Bryois, J, Buttenschøn, HN, Bybjerg-Grauholm, J, Cai, N, Castelao, E, Christensen, JH, Clarke, T-K, Coleman, JIR, Colodro-Conde, L, Couvy-Duchesne, B, Craddock, N, Crawford, GE, Crowley, CA, Dashti, HS, Davies, G, Deary, IJ, Degenhardt, F, Derks, EM, Direk, N, Dolan, CV, Dunn, EC, Eley, TC, Eriksson, N, Escott-Price, V, Kiadeh, FHF, Finucane, HK, Forstner, AJ, Frank, J, Gaspar, HA, Gill, M, Giusti-Rodríguez, P, Goes, FS, Gordon, SD, Grove, J, Hall, LS, Hannon, E, Hansen, CS, Hansen, TF, Herms, S, Hickie, IB, Hoffmann, P, Homuth, G, Horn, C, Hottenga, J-J, Hougaard, DM, Hu, M, Hyde, CL, Ising, M, Jansen, R, Jin, F, Jorgenson, E, Knowles, JA, Kohane, IS, Kraft, J, Kretzschmar, WW, Krogh, J, Kutalik, Z, Lane, JM, Li, Y, Li, Y, Lind, PA, Liu, X, Lu, L, MacIntyre, DJ, MacKinnon, DF, Maier, RM, Maier, W, Marchini, J, Mbarek, H, McGrath, P, McGuffin, P, Medland, SE, Mehta, D, Middeldorp, CM, Mihailov, E, Milaneschi, Y, Milani, L, Mill, J, Mondimore, FM, Montgomery, GW, Mostafavi, S, Mullins, N, Nauck, M, Ng, B, Nivard, MG, Nyholt, DR, O'Reilly, PF, Oskarsson, H, Owen, MJ, Painter, JN, Pedersen, CB, Pedersen, MG, Peterson, RE, Pettersson, E, Peyrot, WJ, Pistis, G, Posthuma, D, Purcell, SM, Quiroz, JA, Qvist, P, Rice, JP, Riley, BP, Rivera, M, Saeed Mirza, S, Saxena, R, Schoevers, R, Schulte, EC, Shen, L, Shi, J, Shyn, SI, Sigurdsson, E, Sinnamon, GBC, Smit, JH, Smith, DJ, Stefansson, H, Steinberg, S, Stockmeier, CA, Streit, F, Strohmaier, J, Tansey, KE, Teismann, H, Teumer, A, Thompson, W, Thomson, PA, Thorgeirsson, TE, Tian, C, Traylor, M, Treutlein, J, Trubetskoy, V, Uitterlinden, AG, Umbricht, D, Van der Auwera, S, van Hemert, AM, Viktorin, A, Visscher, PM, Wang, Y, Webb, BT, Weinsheimer, SM, Wellmann, J, Willemsen, G, Witt, SH, Wu, Y, Xi, HS, Yang, J, Zhang, F, Arolt, V, Baune, BT, Berger, K, Boomsma, DI, Cichon, S, Dannlowski, U, de Geus, ECJ, DePaulo, JR, Domenici, E, Domschke, K, Esko, T, Grabe, HJ, Hamilton, SP, Hayward, C, Heath, AC, Hinds, DA, Kendler, KS, Kloiber, S, Lewis, G, Li, QS, Lucae, S, Madden, PFA, Magnusson, PK, Martin, NG, McIntosh, AM, Metspalu, A, Mors, O, Mortensen, PB, Müller-Myhsok, B, Nordentoft, M, Nöthen, MM, O'Donovan, MC, Paciga, SA, Pedersen, NL, Penninx, BWJH, Perlis, RH, Porteous, DJ, Potash, JB, Preisig, M, Rietschel, M, Schaefer, C, Schulze, TG, Smoller, JW, Stefansson, K, Tiemeier, H, Uher, R, Völzke, H, Weissman, MM, Werge, T, Winslow, AR, Lewis, CM, Levinson, DF, Breen, G, Børglum, AD and Sullivan, PF (2018) Genome-wide association analyses identify 44 risk variants and refine the genetic architecture of major depression. Nature Genetics 50, 668681.
Yang, J, Lee, SH, Goddard, ME and Visscher, PM (2011) GCTA: a tool for genome-wide complex trait analysis. American Journal of Human Genetics 88, 7682.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Psychological Medicine
  • ISSN: 0033-2917
  • EISSN: 1469-8978
  • URL: /core/journals/psychological-medicine
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Type Description Title
WORD
Supplementary materials

Sallis et al. supplementary material
Sallis et al. supplementary material 1

 Word (40 KB)
40 KB

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed