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Cognitive functioning in chronic fatigue syndrome: a meta-analysis

  • S. J. Cockshell (a1) and J. L. Mathias (a1)
Abstract
Background

Cognitive problems are commonly reported in persons with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and are one of the most disabling symptoms of this condition. A number of cognitive deficits have been identified, although the findings are inconsistent and hindered by methodological differences. The current study therefore conducted a meta-analysis of research examining cognitive functioning in persons with CFS in order to identify the pattern and magnitude of any deficits that are associated with this condition.

Method

A comprehensive search of the PubMed and PsycINFO databases for studies that examined cognitive functioning in CFS between 1988 and 2008 identified 50 eligible studies. Weighted Cohen's d effect sizes, 95% confidence intervals and fail-safe Ns were calculated for each cognitive score.

Results

Evidence of cognitive deficits in persons with CFS was found primarily in the domains of attention, memory and reaction time. Deficits were not apparent on tests of fine motor speed, vocabulary, reasoning and global functioning.

Conclusions

Persons with CFS demonstrate moderate to large impairments in simple and complex information processing speed and in tasks requiring working memory over a sustained period of time.

Copyright
Corresponding author
*Address for correspondence: Dr J. L. Mathias, School of Psychology, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide SA 5005, Australia (Email: jane.mathias@psychology.adelaide.edu.au)
Linked references
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This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

* JHMM Vercoulen , E Bazelmans , CMA Swanink , JMD Galama , JFM Fennis , JWM van der Meer , G Bleijenberg (1998). Evaluating neuropsychological impairment in chronic fatigue syndrome. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology 20, 144156.

FM Wolf (1986). Meta-Analysis: Quantitative Methods for Research Synthesis. Sage Publications: Beverly Hills.

KK Zakzanis (2001). Statistics to tell the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth: formulae, illustrative numerical examples, and heuristic interpretation of effect size analyses for neuropsychological researchers. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology 16, 653667.

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Psychological Medicine
  • ISSN: 0033-2917
  • EISSN: 1469-8978
  • URL: /core/journals/psychological-medicine
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