Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa

Cognitive processing in bipolar disorder conceptualized using the Interactive Cognitive Subsystems (ICS) model

  • C. L. Lomax (a1), P. J. Barnard (a2) and D. Lam (a3)
Abstract
Background

There are few theoretical proposals that attempt to account for the variation in affective processing across different affective states of bipolar disorder (BD). The Interacting Cognitive Subsystems (ICS) framework has been recently extended to account for manic states. Within the framework, positive mood state is hypothesized to tap into an implicational level of processing, which is proposed to be more extreme in states of mania.

Method

Thirty individuals with BD and 30 individuals with no history of affective disorder were tested in euthymic mood state and then in induced positive mood state using the Question–Answer task to examine the mode of processing of schemas. The task was designed to test whether individuals would detect discrepancies within the prevailing schemas of the sentences.

Results

Although the present study did not support the hypothesis that the groups differ in their ability to detect discrepancies within schemas, we did find that the BD group was significantly more likely than the control group to answer questions that were consistent with the prevailing schemas, both before and after mood induction.

Conclusions

These results may reflect a general cognitive bias, that individuals with BD have a tendency to operate at a more abstract level of representation. This may leave an individual prone to affective disturbance, although further research is required to replicate this finding.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Cognitive processing in bipolar disorder conceptualized using the Interactive Cognitive Subsystems (ICS) model
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Cognitive processing in bipolar disorder conceptualized using the Interactive Cognitive Subsystems (ICS) model
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Cognitive processing in bipolar disorder conceptualized using the Interactive Cognitive Subsystems (ICS) model
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
Corresponding author
*Address for correspondence: Dr C. L. Lomax, Department of Psychology, Institute of Psychiatry, LondonSE5 8AF, UK. (Email: c.lomax@iop.kcl.ac.uk)
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

CE Bearden , KM Hoffman , TD Cannon (2001). The neuropsychology and neuroanatomy of bipolar affective disorder: a critical review. Bipolar Disorder 3, 106150.

P Bech , OJ Rafaelsen , P Kramp , TG Bolwig (1978). The Mania Rating Scale: scale construction and inter-observer agreement. Neuropharmacology 17, 430431.

AT Beck , CH Ward , M Mendelsohn , J Mock , J Erbaugh (1961). An inventory for measuring depression. Archives of General Psychiatry 4, 561571.

DB Double (1990). The factor structure of manic rating scales. Journal of Affective Disorders 18, 113119.

LL Judd , HS Akiskal , PJ Schlettler , J Endicott , J Maser , DA Solomon , JA Rice , MB Keller (2002). The long-term natural history of the weekly symptomatic status of bipolar 1 disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry 59, 530537.

D Lam , E Watkins , P Hayward , J Bright , K Wright , N Kerr , G Perr-Davis , P Sham (2003). A randomized controlled study of cognitive therapy of relapse prevention for bipolar affective disorder: outcome of the first year. Archives of General Psychiatry 60, 145152.

D Lam , K Wright , N Smith (2004). Dysfunctional assumptions in bipolar disorder. Journal of Affective Disorders 79, 193199.

M Martin (1990). On the induction of mood. Clinical Psychology Review 10, 669697.

ES Paykel , R Morris , H Hayhurst , J Scott (2006). Sub-syndromal and syndromal symptoms in the longitudinal course of bipolar disorder. British Journal of Psychiatry 189, 118123.

MJ Power , R Katz , P McGuffin , CF Duggan , DH Lam , AT Beck (1994). The Dysfunctional Attitude Scale (DAS): a comparison of forms A and B and proposal for a new sub-scaled version. Journal of Research in Personality 28, 263276.

JD Teasdale (1999). Emotional processing, three modes of mind, and the prevention of relapse in depression. Behaviour Research and Therapy 37, S53S77.

D Watson , LA Clark , A Tellegen (1988). Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: the PANAS scales. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 54, 10631070.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Psychological Medicine
  • ISSN: 0033-2917
  • EISSN: 1469-8978
  • URL: /core/journals/psychological-medicine
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords:

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 2
Total number of PDF views: 30 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 510 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 28th May 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.