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Diagnostic alterations for post-traumatic stress disorder: examining data from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication and National Survey of Adolescents

  • Jon D. Elhai (a1), Julian D. Ford (a2), Kenneth J. Ruggiero (a3) and B. Christopher Frueh (a4)

Two alternative models of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) appear to represent the disorder's latent structure better than the traditional Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV) three-factor PTSD model. The present study examines the impact of using these structural models for the diagnosis of lifetime PTSD while retaining the DSM-IV PTSD's six-symptom diagnostic requirement.


Data were gathered from large-scale, epidemiological datasets collected with adults (National Comorbidity Survey Replication) and adolescents (National Survey of Adolescents). Two alternative, empirically supported four-factor models of PTSD were compared with the DSM-IV three-factor PTSD diagnostic model.


Results indicated that the diagnostic alterations resulted in substantially improved structural validity, downward adjustments of PTSD's lifetime prevalence (roughly 1 percentage point decreases in adults, 1–2.5 percentage point decreases in adolescents), and equivalent psychiatric co-morbidity and sociodemographic associations.


Implications for modifying PTSD diagnostic criteria in future editions of DSM are discussed.

Corresponding author
*Address for correspondence: J. D. Elhai, Ph.D., Disaster Mental Health Institute, The University of South Dakota, 414 East Clark Street – SDU 114, Vermillion, South Dakota57069-2390, USA. (Email:
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Psychological Medicine
  • ISSN: 0033-2917
  • EISSN: 1469-8978
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