Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
×
Home

Disrupted salience network functional connectivity and white-matter microstructure in persons at risk for psychosis: findings from the LYRIKS study

  • C. Wang (a1), F. Ji (a1), Z. Hong (a1), J. S. Poh (a1), R. Krishnan (a1), J. Lee (a2) (a3), G. Rekhi (a2), R. S. E. Keefe (a4), R. A. Adcock (a4) (a5), S. J. Wood (a6) (a7), A. Fornito (a8), O. Pasternak (a9), M. W. L. Chee (a1) and J. Zhou (a1) (a10)...

Abstract

Background

Salience network (SN) dysconnectivity has been hypothesized to contribute to schizophrenia. Nevertheless, little is known about the functional and structural dysconnectivity of SN in subjects at risk for psychosis. We hypothesized that SN functional and structural connectivity would be disrupted in subjects with At-Risk Mental State (ARMS) and would be associated with symptom severity and disease progression.

Method

We examined 87 ARMS and 37 healthy participants using both resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging. Group differences in SN functional and structural connectivity were examined using a seed-based approach and tract-based spatial statistics. Subject-level functional connectivity measures and diffusion indices of disrupted regions were correlated with CAARMS scores and compared between ARMS with and without transition to psychosis.

Results

ARMS subjects exhibited reduced functional connectivity between the left ventral anterior insula and other SN regions. Reduced fractional anisotropy (FA) and axial diffusivity were also found along white-matter tracts in close proximity to regions of disrupted functional connectivity, including frontal-striatal-thalamic circuits and the cingulum. FA measures extracted from these disrupted white-matter regions correlated with individual symptom severity in the ARMS group. Furthermore, functional connectivity between the bilateral insula and FA at the forceps minor were further reduced in subjects who transitioned to psychosis after 2 years.

Conclusions

Our findings support the insular dysconnectivity of the proximal SN hypothesis in the early stages of psychosis. Further developed, the combined structural and functional SN assays may inform the prognosis of persons at-risk for psychosis.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Disrupted salience network functional connectivity and white-matter microstructure in persons at risk for psychosis: findings from the LYRIKS study
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Disrupted salience network functional connectivity and white-matter microstructure in persons at risk for psychosis: findings from the LYRIKS study
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Disrupted salience network functional connectivity and white-matter microstructure in persons at risk for psychosis: findings from the LYRIKS study
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution licence (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Corresponding author

*Address for correspondence: Dr J. Zhou, Center for Cognitive Neuroscience, Neuroscience & Behavioral Disorders Program, Duke-NUS Medical School, 8 College Road, #06-15, Singapore 169857, Singapore. (Email: helen.zhou@duke-nus.edu.sg)

References

Hide All
Allen, P, Luigjes, J, Howes, OD, Egerton, A, Hirao, K, Valli, I, Kambeitz, J, Fusar-Poli, P, Broome, M, McGuire, P (2012). Transition to psychosis associated with prefrontal and subcortical dysfunction in ultra high-risk individuals. Schizophrenia Bulletin 38, 12681276.
Bloemen, OJ, de Koning, MB, Schmitz, N, Nieman, DH, Becker, HE, de Haan, L, Dingemans, P, Linszen, DH, van Amelsvoort, TA (2010). White-matter markers for psychosis in a prospective ultra-high-risk cohort. Psychological Medicine 40, 12971304.
Boksman, K, Theberge, J, Williamson, P, Drost, DJ, Malla, A, Densmore, M, Takhar, J, Pavlosky, W, Menon, RS, Neufeld, RW (2005). A 4.0-T fMRI study of brain connectivity during word fluency in first-episode schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research 75, 247263.
Bracht, T, Horn, H, Strik, W, Federspiel, A, Razavi, N, Stegmayer, K, Wiest, R, Dierks, T, Muller, TJ, Walther, S (2014). White matter pathway organization of the reward system is related to positive and negative symptoms in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research 153, 136142.
Buchsbaum, MS, Friedman, J, Buchsbaum, BR, Chu, KW, Hazlett, EA, Newmark, R, Schneiderman, JS, Torosjan, Y, Tang, C, Hof, PR, Stewart, D, Davis, KL, Gorman, J (2006). Diffusion tensor imaging in schizophrenia. Biological Psychiatry 60, 11811187.
Carletti, F, Woolley, JB, Bhattacharyya, S, Perez-Iglesias, R, Fusar Poli, P, Valmaggia, L, Broome, MR, Bramon, E, Johns, L, Giampietro, V, Williams, SC, Barker, GJ, McGuire, PK (2012). Alterations in white matter evident before the onset of psychosis. Schizophrenia Bulletin 38, 11701179.
Chudasama, Y, Robbins, TW (2006). Functions of frontostriatal systems in cognition: comparative neuropsychopharmacological studies in rats, monkeys and humans. Biological Psychology 73, 1938.
Cortese, S, Imperati, D, Zhou, J, Proal, E, Klein, RG, Mannuzza, S, Ramos-Olazagasti, MA, Milham, MP, Kelly, C, Castellanos, FX (2013). White matter alterations at 33-year follow-up in adults with childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Biological Psychiatry 74, 591598.
Cox, RW (1996). AFNI: software for analysis and visualization of functional magnetic resonance neuroimages. Computers and Biomedical Research 29, 162173.
Craig, AD (2009). How do you feel – now? The anterior insula and human awareness. Nature Reviews Neuroscience 10, 5970.
Dandash, O, Fornito, A, Lee, J, Keefe, RS, Chee, MW, Adcock, RA, Pantelis, C, Wood, SJ, Harrison, BJ (2014). Altered striatal functional connectivity in subjects with an at-risk mental state for psychosis. Schizophrenia Bulletin 40, 904913.
Edward Roberts, R, Curran, HV, Friston, KJ, Morgan, CJ (2014). Abnormalities in white matter microstructure associated with chronic ketamine use. Neuropsychopharmacology 39, 329338.
Federspiel, A, Begre, S, Kiefer, C, Schroth, G, Strik, WK, Dierks, T (2006). Alterations of white matter connectivity in first episode schizophrenia. Neurobiology of Disease 22, 702709.
Fornito, A, Harrison, BJ, Goodby, E, Dean, A, Ooi, C, Nathan, PJ, Lennox, BR, Jones, PB, Suckling, J, Bullmore, ET (2013). Functional dysconnectivity of corticostriatal circuitry as a risk phenotype for psychosis. JAMA Psychiatry 70, 11431151.
Fornito, A, Yucel, M, Patti, J, Wood, SJ, Pantelis, C (2009). Mapping grey matter reductions in schizophrenia: an anatomical likelihood estimation analysis of voxel-based morphometry studies. Schizophrenia Research 108, 104113.
Fornito, A, Zalesky, A, Pantelis, C, Bullmore, ET (2012). Schizophrenia, neuroimaging and connectomics. NeuroImage 62, 22962314.
Fox, MD, Snyder, AZ, Vincent, JL, Corbetta, M, Van Essen, DC, Raichle, ME (2005). The human brain is intrinsically organized into dynamic, anticorrelated functional networks. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 102, 96739678.
Fusar-Poli, P (2012). Voxel-wise meta-analysis of fMRI studies in patients at clinical high risk for psychosis. Journal of Psychiatry and Neuroscience 37, 106112.
Fusar-Poli, P, Bonoldi, I, Yung, AR, Borgwardt, S, Kempton, MJ, Valmaggia, L, Barale, F, Caverzasi, E, McGuire, P (2012). Predicting psychosis: meta-analysis of transition outcomes in individuals at high clinical risk. Archives of General Psychiatry 69, 220229.
Fusar-Poli, P, Howes, OD, Allen, P, Broome, M, Valli, I, Asselin, MC, Grasby, PM, McGuire, PK (2010). Abnormal frontostriatal interactions in people with prodromal signs of psychosis: a multimodal imaging study. Archives of General Psychiatry 67, 683691.
Greicius, MD, Srivastava, G, Reiss, AL, Menon, V (2004). Default-mode network activity distinguishes Alzheimer's disease from healthy aging: evidence from functional MRI. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 101, 46374642.
Habets, P, Marcelis, M, Gronenschild, E, Drukker, M, van Os, J, Genetic, R, Outcome of P (2011). Reduced cortical thickness as an outcome of differential sensitivity to environmental risks in schizophrenia. Biological Psychiatry 69, 487494.
Honey, GD, Pomarol-Clotet, E, Corlett, PR, Honey, RA, McKenna, PJ, Bullmore, ET, Fletcher, PC (2005). Functional dysconnectivity in schizophrenia associated with attentional modulation of motor function. Brain 128, 25972611.
Hong, Z, Ng, KK, Sim, SK, Ngeow, MY, Zheng, H, Lo, JC, Chee, MW, Zhou, J (2015). Differential age-dependent associations of gray matter volume and white matter integrity with processing speed in healthy older adults. NeuroImage 123, 4250.
Hoptman, MJ, Nierenberg, J, Bertisch, HC, Catalano, D, Ardekani, BA, Branch, CA, Delisi, LE (2008). A DTI study of white matter microstructure in individuals at high genetic risk for schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research 106, 115124.
Hua, K, Zhang, J, Wakana, S, Jiang, H, Li, X, Reich, DS, Calabresi, PA, Pekar, JJ, van Zijl, PC, Mori, S (2008). Tract probability maps in stereotaxic spaces: analyses of white matter anatomy and tract-specific quantification. NeuroImage 39, 336347.
Jafri, MJ, Pearlson, GD, Stevens, M, Calhoun, VD (2008). A method for functional network connectivity among spatially independent resting-state components in schizophrenia. NeuroImage 39, 16661681.
Jenkinson, M, Beckmann, CF, Behrens, TE, Woolrich, MW, Smith, SM (2012). Fsl. NeuroImage 62, 782790.
Jiang, L, Xu, Y, Zhu, XT, Yang, Z, Li, HJ, Zuo, XN (2015). Local-to-remote cortical connectivity in early- and adulthood-onset schizophrenia. Translational Psychiatry 5, e566.
Jovicich, J, Marizzoni, M, Bosch, B, Bartres-Faz, D, Arnold, J, Benninghoff, J, Wiltfang, J, Roccatagliata, L, Picco, A, Nobili, F, Blin, O, Bombois, S, Lopes, R, Bordet, R, Chanoine, V, Ranjeva, JP, Didic, M, Gros-Dagnac, H, Payoux, P, Zoccatelli, G, Alessandrini, F, Beltramello, A, Bargallo, N, Ferretti, A, Caulo, M, Aiello, M, Ragucci, M, Soricelli, A, Salvadori, N, Tarducci, R, Floridi, P, Tsolaki, M, Constantinidis, M, Drevelegas, A, Rossini, PM, Marra, C, Otto, J, Reiss-Zimmermann, M, Hoffmann, KT, Galluzzi, S, Frisoni, GB (2014). Multisite longitudinal reliability of tract-based spatial statistics in diffusion tensor imaging of healthy elderly subjects. NeuroImage 101, 390403.
Karlsgodt, KH, Niendam, TA, Bearden, CE, Cannon, TD (2009). White matter integrity and prediction of social and role functioning in subjects at ultra-high risk for psychosis. Biological Psychiatry 66, 562569.
Kelly, AM, Uddin, LQ, Biswal, BB, Castellanos, FX, Milham, MP (2008). Competition between functional brain networks mediates behavioral variability. NeuroImage 39, 527537.
Klauser, P, Zhou, J, Lim, JK, Poh, JS, Zheng, H, Tng, HY, Krishnan, R, Lee, J, Keefe, RS, Adcock, RA, Wood, SJ, Fornito, A, Chee, MW (2015). Lack of evidence for regional brain volume or cortical thickness abnormalities in youths at clinical high risk for psychosis: findings from the longitudinal youth at risk study. Schizophrenia Bulletin 41, 12851293.
Krolak-Salmon, P, Henaff, MA, Isnard, J, Tallon-Baudry, C, Guenot, M, Vighetto, A, Bertrand, O, Mauguiere, F (2003). An attention modulated response to disgust in human ventral anterior insula. Annals of Neurology 53, 446453.
Kubicki, M, McCarley, R, Westin, CF, Park, HJ, Maier, S, Kikinis, R, Jolesz, FA, Shenton, ME (2007). A review of diffusion tensor imaging studies in schizophrenia. Journal of Psychiatric Research 41, 1530.
Kunimatsu, N, Aoki, S, Kunimatsu, A, Yoshida, M, Abe, O, Yamada, H, Masutani, Y, Kasai, K, Yamasue, H, Ohtsu, H, Ohtomo, K (2008). Tract-specific analysis of the superior occipitofrontal fasciculus in schizophrenia. Psychiatry Research 164, 198205.
Kurth, F, Zilles, K, Fox, PT, Laird, AR, Eickhoff, SB (2010). A link between the systems: functional differentiation and integration within the human insula revealed by meta-analysis. Brain Structure and Function 214, 519534.
Laroi, F, Luhrmann, TM, Bell, V, Christian, WA Jr, Deshpande, S, Fernyhough, C, Jenkins, J, Woods, A (2014). Culture and hallucinations: overview and future directions. Schizophrenia Bulletin 40 (Suppl. 4), S213S220.
Le Bihan, D (2003). Looking into the functional architecture of the brain with diffusion MRI. Nature Reviews Neuroscience 4, 469480.
Lee, DY, Smith, GN, Su, W, Honer, WG, Macewan, GW, Lapointe, JS, Vertinsky, AT, Vila-Rodriguez, F, Kopala, LC, Lang, DJ (2012). White matter tract abnormalities in first-episode psychosis. Schizophrenia Research 141, 2934.
Leech, R, Kamourieh, S, Beckmann, CF, Sharp, DJ (2011). Fractionating the default mode network: distinct contributions of the ventral and dorsal posterior cingulate cortex to cognitive control. Journal of Neuroscience 31, 32173224.
Li, HJ, Xu, Y, Zhang, KR, Hoptman, MJ, Zuo, XN (2015). Homotopic connectivity in drug-naive, first-episode, early-onset schizophrenia. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines 56, 432443.
Li, J, Kale Edmiston, E, Chen, K, Tang, Y, Ouyang, X, Jiang, Y, Fan, G, Ren, L, Liu, J, Zhou, Y, Jiang, W, Liu, Z, Xu, K, Wang, F (2014). A comparative diffusion tensor imaging study of corpus callosum subregion integrity in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Psychiatry Research 221, 5862.
Liang, M, Zhou, Y, Jiang, T, Liu, Z, Tian, L, Liu, H, Hao, Y (2006). Widespread functional disconnectivity in schizophrenia with resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. Neuroreport 17, 209213.
Liao, Y, Tang, J, Fornito, A, Liu, T, Chen, X, Chen, H, Xiang, X, Wang, X, Hao, W (2012). Alterations in regional homogeneity of resting-state brain activity in ketamine addicts. Neuroscience Letters 522, 3640.
Liu, X, Lai, Y, Wang, X, Hao, C, Chen, L, Zhou, Z, Yu, X, Hong, N (2013). Reduced white matter integrity and cognitive deficit in never-medicated chronic schizophrenia: a diffusion tensor study using TBSS. Behavioural Brain Research 252, 157163.
Liu, X, Lai, Y, Wang, X, Hao, C, Chen, L, Zhou, Z, Yu, X, Hong, N (2014). A combined DTI and structural MRI study in medicated-naive chronic schizophrenia. Magnetic Resonance Imaging 32, 18.
Mamah, D, Barch, DM, Repovs, G (2013). Resting state functional connectivity of five neural networks in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Journal of Affective Disorders 150, 601609.
Mamah, D, Conturo, TE, Harms, MP, Akbudak, E, Wang, L, McMichael, AR, Gado, MH, Barch, DM, Csernansky, JG (2010). Anterior thalamic radiation integrity in schizophrenia: a diffusion-tensor imaging study. Psychiatry Research 183, 144150.
McGuire, P, Sato, JR, Mechelli, A, Jackowski, A, Bressan, RA, Zugman, A (2015). Can neuroimaging be used to predict the onset of psychosis? Lancet Psychiatry 2, 11171122.
Menon, V, Uddin, LQ (2010). Saliency, switching, attention and control: a network model of insula function. Brain Structure and Function 214, 655667.
Mesulam, MM, Mufson, EJ (1982). Insula of the old world monkey. I. Architectonics in the insulo-orbito-temporal component of the paralimbic brain. Journal of Comparative Neurology 212, 122.
Minzenberg, MJ, Laird, AR, Thelen, S, Carter, CS, Glahn, DC (2009). Meta-analysis of 41 functional neuroimaging studies of executive function in schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry 66, 811822.
Mutschler, I, Wieckhorst, B, Kowalevski, S, Derix, J, Wentlandt, J, Schulze-Bonhage, A, Ball, T (2009). Functional organization of the human anterior insular cortex. Neuroscience Letters 457, 6670.
Oertel-Knochel, V, Linden, DE (2011). Cerebral asymmetry in schizophrenia. Neuroscientist 17, 456467.
Oh, JS, Kubicki, M, Rosenberger, G, Bouix, S, Levitt, JJ, McCarley, RW, Westin, CF, Shenton, ME (2009). Thalamo-frontal white matter alterations in chronic schizophrenia: a quantitative diffusion tractography study. Human Brain Mapping 30, 38123825.
Palaniyappan, L, Liddle, PF (2012). Does the salience network play a cardinal role in psychosis? An emerging hypothesis of insular dysfunction. Journal of Psychiatry and Neuroscience 37, 1727.
Palaniyappan, L, Simmonite, M, White, TP, Liddle, EB, Liddle, PF (2013). Neural primacy of the salience processing system in schizophrenia. Neuron 79, 814828.
Pasternak, O, Sochen, N, Gur, Y, Intrator, N, Assaf, Y (2009). Free water elimination and mapping from diffusion MRI. Magnetic Resonance in Medicine 62, 717730.
Pasternak, O, Westin, CF, Bouix, S, Seidman, LJ, Goldstein, JM, Woo, TU, Petryshen, TL, Mesholam-Gately, RI, McCarley, RW, Kikinis, R, Shenton, ME, Kubicki, M (2012). Excessive extracellular volume reveals a neurodegenerative pattern in schizophrenia onset. Journal of Neuroscience 32, 1736517372.
Perez-Iglesias, R, Tordesillas-Gutierrez, D, Barker, GJ, McGuire, PK, Roiz-Santianez, R, Mata, I, de Lucas, EM, Quintana, F, Vazquez-Barquero, JL, Crespo-Facorro, B (2010). White matter defects in first episode psychosis patients: a voxelwise analysis of diffusion tensor imaging. NeuroImage 49, 199204.
Peters, BD, Schmitz, N, Dingemans, PM, van Amelsvoort, TA, Linszen, DH, de Haan, L, Majoie, CB, den Heeten, GJ (2009). Preliminary evidence for reduced frontal white matter integrity in subjects at ultra-high-risk for psychosis. Schizophrenia Research 111, 192193.
Pettersson-Yeo, W, Allen, P, Benetti, S, McGuire, P, Mechelli, A (2011). Dysconnectivity in schizophrenia: where are we now? Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews 35, 11101124.
Power, JD, Barnes, KA, Snyder, AZ, Schlaggar, BL, Petersen, SE (2012). Spurious but systematic correlations in functional connectivity MRI networks arise from subject motion. NeuroImage 59, 21422154.
Power, JD, Barnes, KA, Snyder, AZ, Schlaggar, BL, Petersen, SE (2013). Steps toward optimizing motion artifact removal in functional connectivity MRI; a reply to Carp. NeuroImage 76, 439441.
Price, G, Bagary, MS, Cercignani, M, Altmann, DR, Ron, MA (2005). The corpus callosum in first episode schizophrenia: a diffusion tensor imaging study. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry 76, 585587.
Sabb, FW, van Erp, TG, Hardt, ME, Dapretto, M, Caplan, R, Cannon, TD, Bearden, CE (2010). Language network dysfunction as a predictor of outcome in youth at clinical high risk for psychosis. Schizophrenia Research 116, 173183.
Saze, T, Hirao, K, Namiki, C, Fukuyama, H, Hayashi, T, Murai, T (2007). Insular volume reduction in schizophrenia. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience 257, 473479.
Schmidt, A, Lenz, C, Smieskova, R, Harrisberger, F, Walter, A, Riecher-Rossler, A, Simon, A, Lang, UE, McGuire, P, Fusar-Poli, P, Borgwardt, SJ (2015). Brain diffusion changes in emerging psychosis and the impact of state-dependent psychopathology. Neuro-Signals 23, 7183.
Schmidt, A, Palaniyappan, L, Smieskova, R, Simon, A, Riecher-Rossler, A, Lang, UE, Fusar-Poli, P, McGuire, P, Borgwardt, SJ (2016). Dysfunctional insular connectivity during reward prediction in patients with first-episode psychosis. Journal of Psychiatry and Neuroscience 41, 150234.
Seeley, WW, Menon, V, Schatzberg, AF, Keller, J, Glover, GH, Kenna, H, Reiss, AL, Greicius, MD (2007). Dissociable intrinsic connectivity networks for salience processing and executive control. Journal of Neuroscience 27, 23492356.
Shim, G, Oh, JS, Jung, WH, Jang, JH, Choi, CH, Kim, E, Park, HY, Choi, JS, Jung, MH, Kwon, JS (2010). Altered resting-state connectivity in subjects at ultra-high risk for psychosis: an fMRI study. Behavioral and Brain Functions 6, 58.
Smith, SM, Jenkinson, M, Johansen-Berg, H, Rueckert, D, Nichols, TE, Mackay, CE, Watkins, KE, Ciccarelli, O, Cader, MZ, Matthews, PM, Behrens, TE (2006). Tract-based spatial statistics: voxelwise analysis of multi-subject diffusion data. NeuroImage 31, 14871505.
Song, J, Desphande, AS, Meier, TB, Tudorascu, DL, Vergun, S, Nair, VA, Biswal, BB, Meyerand, ME, Birn, RM, Bellec, P, Prabhakaran, V (2012). Age-related differences in test-retest reliability in resting-state brain functional connectivity. PLoS ONE 7, e49847.
Takahashi, T, Wood, SJ, Soulsby, B, Tanino, R, Wong, MT, McGorry, PD, Suzuki, M, Velakoulis, D, Pantelis, C (2009). Diagnostic specificity of the insular cortex abnormalities in first-episode psychotic disorders. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry 33, 651657.
Tang, J, Liao, Y, Zhou, B, Tan, C, Liu, T, Hao, W, Hu, D, Chen, X (2010). Abnormal anterior cingulum integrity in first episode, early-onset schizophrenia: a diffusion tensor imaging study. Brain Research 1343, 199205.
Tognin, S, Pettersson-Yeo, W, Valli, I, Hutton, C, Woolley, J, Allen, P, McGuire, P, Mechelli, A (2013). Using structural neuroimaging to make quantitative predictions of symptom progression in individuals at ultra-high risk for psychosis. Front Psychiatry 4, 187.
Tu, PC, Hsieh, JC, Li, CT, Bai, YM, Su, TP (2012). Cortico-striatal disconnection within the cingulo-opercular network in schizophrenia revealed by intrinsic functional connectivity analysis: a resting fMRI study. NeuroImage 59, 238247.
Uddin, LQ (2015). Salience processing and insular cortical function and dysfunction. Nature Reviews Neuroscience 16, 5561.
United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (2008). World drug report 2008. United Nations Publication 1, 273280.
Van der Werf, YD, Jolles, J, Witter, MP, Uylings, HB (2003). Contributions of thalamic nuclei to declarative memory functioning. Cortex 39, 10471062.
von Hohenberg, CC, Pasternak, O, Kubicki, M, Ballinger, T, Vu, MA, Swisher, T, Green, K, Giwerc, M, Dahlben, B, Goldstein, JM, Woo, TU, Petryshen, TL, Mesholam-Gately, RI, Woodberry, KA, Thermenos, HW, Mulert, C, McCarley, RW, Seidman, LJ, Shenton, ME (2014). White matter microstructure in individuals at clinical high risk of psychosis: a whole-brain diffusion tensor imaging study. Schizophrenia Bulletin 40, 895903.
Wager, TD, Barrett, LF (2004). From affect to control: functional specialization of the insula in motivation and regulation. Published online at PsycExtra (http://www.apa.org/pubs/databases/psycextra).
Wang, F, Sun, Z, Cui, L, Du, X, Wang, X, Zhang, H, Cong, Z, Hong, N, Zhang, D (2004). Anterior cingulum abnormalities in male patients with schizophrenia determined through diffusion tensor imaging. American Journal of Psychiatry 161, 573575.
Welch, KA, McIntosh, AM, Job, DE, Whalley, HC, Moorhead, TW, Hall, J, Owens, DG, Lawrie, SM, Johnstone, EC (2011). The impact of substance use on brain structure in people at high risk of developing schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin 37, 10661076.
Williamson, P (2007). Are anticorrelated networks in the brain relevant to schizophrenia? Schizophrenia Bulletin 33, 9941003.
Wilmsmeier, A, Ohrmann, P, Suslow, T, Siegmund, A, Koelkebeck, K, Rothermundt, M, Kugel, H, Arolt, V, Bauer, J, Pedersen, A (2010). Neural correlates of set-shifting: decomposing executive functions in schizophrenia. Journal of Psychiatry and Neuroscience 35, 321329.
Wood, SJ, Reniers, RL, Heinze, K (2013). Neuroimaging findings in the at-risk mental state: a review of recent literature. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry/Revue Canadienne de Psychiatrie 58, 1318.
Wotruba, D, Michels, L, Buechler, R, Metzler, S, Theodoridou, A, Gerstenberg, M, Walitza, S, Kollias, S, Rossler, W, Heekeren, K (2014). Aberrant coupling within and across the default mode, task-positive, and salience network in subjects at risk for psychosis. Schizophrenia Bulletin 40, 10951104.
Yaakub, SN, Dorairaj, K, Poh, JS, Asplund, CL, Krishnan, R, Lee, J, Keefe, RS, Adcock, RA, Wood, SJ, Chee, MW (2013). Preserved working memory and altered brain activation in persons at risk for psychosis. American Journal of Psychiatry 170, 12971307.
Yang, Z, Xu, Y, Xu, T, Hoy, CW, Handwerker, DA, Chen, G, Northoff, G, Zuo, XN, Bandettini, PA (2014). Brain network informed subject community detection in early-onset schizophrenia. Scientific Reports 4, 5549.
Yung, AR, McGorry, PD, McFarlane, CA, Jackson, HJ, Patton, GC, Rakkar, A (1996). Monitoring and care of young people at incipient risk of psychosis. Schizophrenia Bulletin 22, 283303.
Yung, AR, Yuen, HP, McGorry, PD, Phillips, LJ, Kelly, D, Dell'Olio, M, Francey, SM, Cosgrave, EM, Killackey, E, Stanford, C, Godfrey, K, Buckby, J (2005). Mapping the onset of psychosis: the comprehensive assessment of at-risk mental states. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry 39, 964971.
Zhou, J, Greicius, MD, Gennatas, ED, Growdon, ME, Jang, JY, Rabinovici, GD, Kramer, JH, Weiner, M, Miller, BL, Seeley, WW (2010). Divergent network connectivity changes in behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia and Alzheimer's disease. Brain 133, 13521367.
Zhou, J, Seeley, WW (2014). Network dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease and frontotemporal dementia: implications for psychiatry. Biological Psychiatry 75, 565573.
Zhou, Y, Liang, M, Tian, L, Wang, K, Hao, Y, Liu, H, Liu, Z, Jiang, T (2007). Functional disintegration in paranoid schizophrenia using resting-state fMRI. Schizophrenia Research 97, 194205.
Zuo, XN, Ehmke, R, Mennes, M, Imperati, D, Castellanos, FX, Sporns, O, Milham, MP (2012). Network centrality in the human functional connectome. Cerebral Cortex 22, 18621875.
Zuo, XN, Xing, XX (2014). Test-retest reliabilities of resting-state FMRI measurements in human brain functional connectomics: a systems neuroscience perspective. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews 45, 100118.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Psychological Medicine
  • ISSN: 0033-2917
  • EISSN: 1469-8978
  • URL: /core/journals/psychological-medicine
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Type Description Title
WORD
Supplementary materials

Wang supplementary material
Wang supplementary material 1

 Word (7.3 MB)
7.3 MB

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed