Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 69
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Long, Jianxiong Huang, Guifeng Liang, Baoyun Ling, Weijun Guo, Xiaojing Jiang, Juan and Su, Li 2016. The dopamine beta-hydroxylase gene polymorphism rs1611114 is associated with schizophrenia in the Chinese Zhuang but not Chinese Han population. Molecular Genetics and Genomics,

    Stefanowicz, Jacek Słowiński, Tomasz Wróbel, Martyna Zofia Herold, Franciszek Gomółka, Anna Edyta Wesołowska, Anna Jastrzębska-Więsek, Magdalena Partyka, Anna Andres-Mach, Marta Czuczwar, Stanisław Jerzy Łuszczki, Jarogniew Jacek Zagaja, Mirosław Siwek, Agata Nowak, Gabriel Żołnierek, Maria Bączek, Tomasz Ulenberg, Szymon Belka, Mariusz and Turło, Jadwiga 2016. Synthesis and biological investigation of new equatorial (β) stereoisomers of 3-aminotropane arylamides with atypical antipsychotic profile. Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry,

    Yin, Aiping Wei, Xuehong Cao, Yexia and Li, Huiqing 2016. High-quality molybdenum disulfide nanosheets with 3D structure for electrochemical sensing. Applied Surface Science, Vol. 385, p. 63.

    Gangadhar, B.N. and Rao, N.P. 2015. Brain Mapping.

    Park, Sung Jin Jeong, Jaehoon Park, Young-Un Park, Kyung-Sun Lee, Haeryun Lee, Namgyu Kim, Sung-Mo Kuroda, Keisuke Nguyen, Minh Dang Kaibuchi, Kozo and Park, Sang Ki 2015. Disrupted-in-schizophrenia-1 (DISC1) Regulates Endoplasmic Reticulum Calcium Dynamics. Scientific Reports, Vol. 5, p. 8694.

    Walters, Seth H. Robbins, Elaine M. and Michael, Adrian C. 2015. Modeling the Kinetic Diversity of Dopamine in the Dorsal Striatum. ACS Chemical Neuroscience, Vol. 6, Issue. 8, p. 1468.

    Fitzgerald, Paul J. 2014. Is elevated norepinephrine an etiological factor in some cases of schizophrenia?. Psychiatry Research, Vol. 215, Issue. 3, p. 497.

    Pedersen, Cort A. 2014. Schizophrenia and alcohol dependence: Diverse clinical effects of oxytocin and their evolutionary origins. Brain Research, Vol. 1580, p. 102.

    Rao, Naren P and Remington, Gary 2014. Targeting the dopamine receptor in schizophrenia: investigational drugs in Phase III trials. Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy, Vol. 15, Issue. 3, p. 373.

    Sun, Haofan Chao, Jie Zuo, Xiaolei Su, Shao Liu, Xingfen Yuwen, Lihui Fan, Chunhai and Wang, Lianhui 2014. Gold nanoparticle-decorated MoS2 nanosheets for simultaneous detection of ascorbic acid, dopamine and uric acid. RSC Advances, Vol. 4, Issue. 52, p. 27625.

    Feifel, David and Shilling, Paul D. 2013. Animal Models for the Study of Human Disease.

    Rao, Naren P and Remington, Gary 2013. Investigational drugs for schizophrenia targeting the dopamine receptor: Phase II trials. Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs, Vol. 22, Issue. 7, p. 881.

    Suh, Junghyup Foster, David J. Davoudi, Heydar Wilson, Matthew A. and Tonegawa, Susumu 2013. Impaired Hippocampal Ripple-Associated Replay in a Mouse Model of Schizophrenia. Neuron, Vol. 80, Issue. 2, p. 484.

    Jones, Carrie K Byun, Nellie and Bubser, Michael 2012. Muscarinic and Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Agonists and Allosteric Modulators for the Treatment of Schizophrenia. Neuropsychopharmacology, Vol. 37, Issue. 1, p. 16.

    Jucaite, Aurelija and Nyberg, Svante 2012. Targets and Emerging Therapies for Schizophrenia.

    Kuepper, Rebecca Morrison, Paul D. van Os, Jim Murray, Robin M. Kenis, Gunter and Henquet, Cécile 2012. ¿Media la dopamina los efectos psicóticos del Cannabis? Revisión e integración de los hallazgos a través de disciplinas. Psiquiatría Biológica, Vol. 19, p. 49.

    MacDonald, Kai and Feifel, David 2012. Oxytocin in schizophrenia: a review of evidence for its therapeutic effects.. Acta Neuropsychiatrica, Vol. 24, Issue. 03, p. 130.

    Keshavan, Matcheri S. Nasrallah, Henry A. and Tandon, Rajiv 2011. Schizophrenia, “Just the Facts” 6. Moving ahead with the schizophrenia concept: From the elephant to the mouse. Schizophrenia Research, Vol. 127, Issue. 1-3, p. 3.

    Sherin, Jonathan E. and Marder, Stephen R. 2011. Schizophrenia.

    Udawela, Madhara Scarr, Elizabeth Hannan, Anthony J. Thomas, Elizabeth A. and Dean, Brian 2011. Phospholipase C beta 1 expression in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex from patients with schizophrenia at different stages of illness. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, Vol. 45, Issue. 2, p. 140.


Does dopamine play a role in schizophrenia?1

  • Arvid Carlsson (a1)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 01 July 2009

Inhibition of central dopamine functions appears to be a common basic property of antipsychotic drugs. The mesolimbic and nigrostriatal portions of the dopaminergic system are probably the main targets of these drugs for the mental and the extrapyramidal actions respectively.

Dopaminergic hyperfunction, induced by amphetamines or dopa, may lead to a disturbance mimicking paranoid schizophrenia, lending further support for a key role of dopamine in mental functions.

While a primary disturbance in dopamine function in schizophrenia cannot be ruled out, the intimate relationship between dopaminergic and other neuronal systems must be emphasized. The possible involvement of other amine, aminoacid or peptide transmitters in schizophrenia cannot be disregarded.

Corresponding author
2Address for correspondence: Dr Arvid Carlsson, Department of Pharmacology, University of Goteborg, Sweden.
Hide All

A modified version of the 16th Geoffrey Vickers lecture delivered in February 1977, under the auspices of the Mental Health Research Trust.

Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

G. K. Aghajanian & B. S. Bunney (1973). Central dopaminergic neurons: neurophysiological identification and responses to drugs. In Frontiers in Catecholamine Research (ed. S. H. Snyder and E. Usdin ), pp. 643648. Pergamon Press: New York.

G. K. Aghajanian & B. S. Bunney (1977). Dopamine auto-receptors: pharmacological characterization by micro-iontophoretic single cell recording studies. Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology 297, 18.

S. Ahlenius & J. Engel (1971 a). Effects of small doses of haloperidol on timing behaviour (Letters to the Editor). Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology 23, 301302.

S. Ahlenius & J. Engel (1971 b). Behavioural effects of haloperidol after tyrosine hydroxylase inhibition. European Journal of Pharmacology 15, 187192.

S. Ahlenius & J. Engel (1973). On the interaction between pimozide and α-methyl-tyrosine. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology 25, 172174.

S. Ahlenius & J. Engel (1977). Potentiation by α-methyltyrosine of the suppression of food-reinforced lever-pressing behaviour induced by antipsychotic drugs. Acta Pharmacologica el Toxicologica 40, 115125.

S. Ahlenius , A. Carlsson & J. Engel (1975). Antagonism by baclophen of the d-amphetamine-induced disruption of a successive discrimination in the rat. Journal of Neural Transmission 36, 327333.

N.-E. Andén (1972). Dopamines turnover in the corpus striatum and the limbic system after treatment with neuroleptic and anti-acetylcholine drugs. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology 24, 905906.

N.-E. Andén (1973). Catecholaminereceptor mechanisms in vertebrates. In Frontiers in Catecholamine Research (ed. S. H. Snyder and E. Usdin ) pp. 661665. Pergamon Press: New York.

N.-E. Andén & G. Stock (1973). Effect of clozapine on the turnover of dopamine in the corpus striatum and in the limbic system. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology 25, 346348.

N.-E. Andén , B.-E. Roos & B. Werdinius (1964). Effects of chlorpromazine, haloperidol and reserpine on the levels of phenolic acids in rabbit corpus striatum. Life Sciences 3, 149158.

N.-E. Andén , S. G. Butcher , H. Corrodi , K. Fuxe & U. Ungerstedt (1970). Receptor activity and turnover of dopamine and noradrenaline after neuroleptics. European Journal of Pharmacology 11, 303314.

N.-E. Andén , H. Corrodi & K. Fuxe (1972). Effect of neuroleptic drugs on central catecholamine turnover assessed using tyrosine- and dopamine-β-hydroxylase inhibitors. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology 24, 177182.

G. Bartholini (1975). Differential effect of neuroleptic drugs on dopamine turnover in the extrapyramidal and limbic system. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology 28, 429433.

G. Bartholini , W. Haefely , M. Jalfre , H. H. Keller & A. Pletscher (1972). Effects of clozapine on cerebral catecholaminergic neurone systems. British Journal of Pharmacology 46, 736740.

G. Bartholini , H. Stadler , M. Gadea-Ciria & K. G. Lloyd (1976). The use of the push-pull cannula to estimate the dynamics of acetylcholine and catecholamines within various brain areas. Neuropharmacology 15, 515519.

B. Biswas & A. Carlsson (1977 a). The effect of intracerebro-ventricularly administered GABA on brain monoaminemetabolism. Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology 299, 4146.

A. Björklund & O. Lindvall (1975). Dopamine in dendrites of substantia nigra neurons: suggestions for a role in dentritic terminals. Brain Research 83, 531537.

M. B. Bowers Jr & A. Rozitis (1974). Regional differences in homovanillic acid concentration after acute and chronic administration of antipsychotic drugs. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology 26, 743745.

B. S. Bunney & G. K. Aghajanian (1976). d-Amphetamine-induced inhibition of central dopaminergic neurons: mediation by a striato-nigral feedback pathway. Science 192, 391393.

H. R. Bürki , W. Ruch & H. Asper (1975). Effects of clozapine, thioridazine, perlapine and haloperidol on the metabolism of the biogenic amines in the brain of the rat. Psychopharmacologia (Berlin) 41, 2733.

A. Carlsson (1975). Antipsychotic drugs and catecholamine synapses. In Catecholamines and Schizophrenia (ed. S. W. Matthysse and S. Kety ), pp. 5764. Pergamon Press: Oxford.

A. Carlsson & M. Lindqvist (1963). Effect of chlorpromazine or haloperidol on formation of 3-methoxytyramine and normetanephrine in mouse brain. Acta Pharmacologica et Toxicologica 20, 140144.

J. Christiansen & R. F. Squires (1974). Antagonistic effects of apomorphine and haloperidol on rat striatal synaptosomal tyrosine hydroxylase, Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology 26, 367368.

Y. C. Clement-Cormier , J. W. Kebabian , G. L. Petzold & P. Greengard (1974). Dopamine-sensitive adenylate cyclase in mammalian brain: a possible site of action of antipsychotic drugs. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 71, 11131117.

H. Corrodi & L. C. F. Hanson (1966). Central effects of an inhibitor of tyrosine hydroxylation. Psychopharmacologia (Berlin) 10, 116125.

J. Cott , A. Carlsson , J. Engel & M. Lindqvist (1976). Suppression of ethanol-induced locomotor stimulation by GABA-like drugs. Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology 295, 203209.

I. Creese , D. R. Burt & S. H. Snyder (1976). Dopamine receptor binding predicts clinical and pharmacological potencies of antischizophrenic drugs. Science 192, 481483.

M. Da Prada & A. Pletscher (1966). Acceleration of cerebral dopamine turn-over by chlorpromazine. Experientia 22, 465466.

H. L. Felger (1965). Depressed hospitalized psychiatric patients treated with chlorprothixene concentrate. Journal of New Drugs 5, 240248.

A. Forsman , E. Mártensson , G. Nyberg & R. Öhman (1974). A gas chromatographic method for determining haloperidol. Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology 286, 113124.

S. Gershon , L. J. Heikimian , A. Floyd Jr & L. E. Hollister (1967). Methyl-p-tyrosine (AMT) in schizophrenia. Psychopharmacologia (Berlin) 11, 189194.

M. Goldstein , B. Anagnoste & C. Shirron (1973). The effect of trivastal, haloperidol and dibutyryl cyclic AMP on 14C dopamine synthesis in rat striatum. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology 25, 348351.

F. K. Goodwin , D. L. Murphy , H. K. H. Brodie & W. E. Bunney (1971). Levodopa alterations in behaviour. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 12, 383396.

A. R. Green (1977). Repeated chlorpromazine administration increases a behavioural response of rats to 5-hydroxy-tryptamine receptor stimulation. British Journal of Pharmacology 59, 367371.

P. M. Groves , C. J. Wilson , S. J. Young & G. V. Rebec (1975). Self-inhibition by dopaminergic neurons. Science 190, 522529.

J. Hyttel (1974). Effect of neuroleptics on the disappearance rate of 14C labelled catecholamines formed from 14C tyrosine in mouse brain. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology 26, 588596.

D. M. Jackson , N.-E. Andén & A. Dahlström (1975). A functional effect of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens and in some other dopamine-rich parts of the rat brain. Psychopharmacologia (Berlin) 45, 139149.

F. Javoy , Y. Agid , D. Bouvet & J. Glowinski (1974). Changes in neostriatal dopamine metabolism after carbachol or atropine microinjections into the substantia nigra. Brain Research 68, 253260.

J. W. Kebabian & P. Greengard (1971). Dopamine-sensitive edenyl cyclase: possible role in synaptic transmission. Science 174, 13461349.

W. Kehr , A. Carlsson , M. Lindqvist , T. Magnusson & C. Atack (1972). Evidence for a receptor-mediated feedback control of striatal tyrosine hydroxylase activity. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology 24, 744747.

W. Kehr , A. Carlsson & M. Lindqvist (1977). Catecholamine synthesis in rat brain after axotomy: interaction between apomorphine and haloperidol. Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology 297, 111117.

H. Ladinsky , S. Consolo , S. Bianchi , R. Samanin & D. Ghezzi (1975). Cholinergic-dopaminergic interaction in the striatum: the effect of 6-hydroxydopamine or pimozide treatment on the increased striatal acetylcholine levels induced by apomorphine, piribedil and d-amphetamine. Brain Research 84, 221226.

R. M. Macleod & J. E. Lehmeyer (1974). Studies on the mechanism of the dopamine-mediated inhibition of prolactin secretion. Endocrinology 94, 10771085.

T. Magnusson , A. Carlsson , G. H. Fisher , D. Chang & K. Folkers (1976). Effect of synthetic substance p on monoaminergic mechanisms in brain. Journal of Neural Transmission 38, 8993.

P. L. McGeer , D. S. Grewaal & E. G. McGeer (1974). Influence of non-cholinergic drugs on rat striatal acetylcholine levels. Brain Research 80, 211217.

H. Y. Meltzer & M. Stahl (1976). The dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia: a review. Schizophrenia Bulletin 2, 1976.

R. J. Miller , A. S. Horn & L. L. Iversen (1975). Effect of butaclamol on dopamine-sensitive adenylate cyclase in rat striatum. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology 27, 212213.

I. Möller-Nielsen , B. Fjalland , V. Pedersen & M. Nymark (1974). Pharmacology of neuroleptics upon repeated administration. Psychopharmacologia (Berlin) 34, 95104.

H. Nybäck & G. Sedvall (1970). Further studies on the accumulation and disappearance of catecholamines formed from tyrosine-14C in mouse brain. European Journal of Pharmacology 10, 193205.

R. Öhman , M. Larsson , I. M. Nilsson , J. Engel & A. Carlsson (1977). Neurometabolic and behavioural effects of haloperidol in relation to drug levels in serum and brain. Nauyn–Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology (in the press.)

R. O'Keefe , D. F. Sharman & M. Vogt (1970). Effect of drugs used in psychoses on cerebral dopamine metabolism. British Journal of Pharmacology 38, 287304.

A. J. J. Pijnenburg , G. N. Woodruff & J. M. van Rossum (1973). Ergometrine induced locomotor activity following intracerebral injection into the nucleus accumbens. Brain Research 59, 289302.

D. Powell , S. E. Leeman , G. W. Tregear , H. D. Niall & J. T. Potts (1973). Radioimmunoassay for substance P. Nature New Biology 241, 252254.

B.-E. Roos (1965). Effects of certain tranquillizers on the level of homovanillic acid in the corpus striatum. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology 17, 820821.

C. J. Schaar & J. A. Clemens (1974). The role of catecholamines in the release of anterior pituitary prolactin in vitro. Endocrinology 95, 12021212.

P. Seeman & T. Lee (1975). Antipsychotic drugs: direct correlation between clinical potency and presynaptic action on dopamine neurons. Science 188, 12171219.

R. C. Smith & J. M. Davis (1976). Behavioural evidence for supersensitivity after chronic administration of haloperidol, clozapine, and thioridazine. Life Sciences 19, 725732.

H. Stadler , K. G. Lloyd , M. Gadea-Ciria & G. Bartholini (1973). Enhanced striatal acetylcholine release by chlor-promazine and its reversal by apomorphine. Brain Research 55, 476480.

R. J. Stawarz , H. Hill , S. E. Robinson , P. Settler , J. V. Dingell & F. Sulser (1975). On the significance of the increase in homovanillic acid (HVA) caused by antipsychotic drugs in corpus striatum and limbic forebrain. Psychopharmacologia (Berlin) 43, 125130.

U. Strömbom (1977). Antagonism by haloperidol of locomotor depression induced by small doses of apomorphine. Journal of Neural Transmission 40, 191194.

M. Trabucchi , D. L. Cheney , G. Racagni & E. Costa (1975). In vivo inhibition of striatal acetylcholine turnover by L-dopa, apomorphine and (+)-amphetamine. Brain Research 85, 130134.

J. Wålinder , A. Skott , A. Carlsson & B.-E. Roos (1976). Potentiation by metyrosine of thioridazine effects in chronic schizophrenics. Archives of General Psychiatry (Chicago) 33, 501505.

J. R. Walters & R. H. Roth (1976). Dopaminergic neurons: an in vivo system for measuring drug interactions with presynaptic receptors. Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology 296, 514.

F. A. Wiesel & G. Sedvall (1975). Effect of antipsychotic drugs on homovanillic acid levels in striatum and olfactory tubercle of the rat. European Journal of Pharmacology 30, 364367.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Psychological Medicine
  • ISSN: 0033-2917
  • EISSN: 1469-8978
  • URL: /core/journals/psychological-medicine
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *