Agartz, I, Sedvall, GC, Terenius, L, Kulle, B, Frigessi, A, Hall, H, Jönsson, EG (2006). BDNF gene variants and brain morphology in schizophrenia. American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics 141, 513–523.
Badner, JA, Gershon, ES (2002). Meta-analysis of whole-genome linkage scans of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Molecular Psychiatry 7, 405–411.
Bearden, CE, Soares, JC, Klunder, AD, Nicoletti, M, Dierschke, N, Hayashi, KM, Narr, KL, Brambilla, P, Sassi, RB, Axelson, D, Ryan, N, Birmaher, B, Thompson, PM (2008). Three-dimensional mapping of hippocampal anatomy in adolescents with bipolar disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 47, 515–525.
Boks, MP, Leask, S, Vermunt, JK, Kahn, RS (2007). The structure of psychosis revisited: the role of mood symptoms. Schizophrenia Research 93, 178–185.
Braff, D, Schork, NJ, Gottesman, II (2007 a). Endophenotyping schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry 164, 705–707.
Braff, DL, Freedman, R, Schork, NJ, Gottesman, II (2007 b). Deconstructing schizophrenia: an overview of the use of endophenotypes in order to understand a complex disorder. Schizophrenia Bulletin 33, 21–32.
Bramon, E, Croft, RJ, McDonald, C, Virdi, GK, Gruzelier, JG, Baldeweg, T, Sham, PC, Frangou, S, Murray, RM (2004). Mismatch negativity in schizophrenia: a family study. Schizophrenia Research 67, 1–10.
Bramon, E, Dempster, E, Frangou, S, McDonald, C, Schoenberg, P, MacCabe, JH, Walshe, M, Sham, P, Collier, D, Murray, RM (2006). Is there any association between the COMT gene and P300 endophenotypes? European Psychiatry 21, 70–73.
Bramon, E, Sham, PC (2001). The common genetic liability between schizophrenia and bipolar disorder: a review. Current Psychiatry Reports 3, 332–337.
Breen, G, Prata, D, Osborne, S, Munro, J, Sinclair, M, Li, T, Staddon, S, Dempster, D, Sainz, R, Arroyo, B, Kerwin, RW, St Clair, D, Collier, D (2006). Association of the dysbindin gene with bipolar affective disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry 163, 1636–1638.
Broome, MR, Woolley, JB, Tabraham, P, Johns, LC, Bramon, E, Murray, GK, Pariante, C, McGuire, PK, Murray, RM (2005). What causes the onset of psychosis? Schizophrenia Research 79, 23–34.
Burdick, KE, Goldberg, TE, Funke, B, Bates, JA, Lencz, T, Kucherlapati, R, Malhotra, AK (2007). DTNBP1 genotype influences cognitive decline in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research 89, 169–172.
Cannon, TD (2005). The inheritance of intermediate phenotypes for schizophrenia. Current Opinion in Psychiatry 18, 135–140.
Cannon, TD, Keller, MC (2006). Endophenotypes in the genetic analyses of mental disorders. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology 2, 267–290.
Cardno, AG, Rijsdijk, FV, Sham, PC, Murray, RM, McGuffin, P (2002). A twin study of genetic relationships between psychotic symptoms. American Journal of Psychiatry 159, 539–545.
Chakos, MH, Schobel, SA, Gu, H, Gerig, G, Bradford, D, Charles, C, Lieberman, JA (2005). Duration of illness and treatment effects on hippocampal volume in male patients with schizophrenia. British Journal of Psychiatry 186, 26–31.
Chen, X, Wang, X, O'Neill, AF, Walsh, D, Kendler, KS (2004). Variants in the catechol-o-methyltransferase (COMT) gene are associated with schizophrenia in Irish high-density families. Molecular Psychiatry 9, 962–967.
Cho, HJ, Meira-Lima, I, Cordeiro, Q, Michelon, L, Sham, P, Vallada, H, Collier, DA (2005). Population-based and family-based studies on the serotonin transporter gene polymorphisms and bipolar disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Molecular Psychiatry 10, 771–781.
Chua, SE, Cheung, C, Cheung, V, Tsang, JT, Chen, EY, Wong, JC, Cheung, JP, Yip, L, Tai, KS, Suckling, J, McAlonan, GM (2007). Cerebral grey, white matter and CSF in never-medicated, first-episode schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research 89, 12–21.
Church, SM, Cotter, D, Bramon, E, Murray, RM (2002). Does schizophrenia result from developmental or degenerative processes? Journal of Neural Transmission 63 (Suppl.), S129–S147.
Craddock, N, O'Donovan, MC, Owen, MJ (2006). Genes for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder? Implications for psychiatric nosology. Schizophrenia Bulletin 32, 9–16.
Craddock, N, Owen, MJ (2007). Rethinking psychosis: the disadvantages of a dichotomous classification now outweigh the advantages. World Psychiatry 6, 84–91.
Craddock, N, Owen, MJ, O'Donovan, MC (2006). The catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT) gene as a candidate for psychiatric phenotypes: evidence and lessons. Molecular Psychiatry 11, 446–458.
Crespo-Facorro, B, Roiz-Santiáñez, R, Pelayo-Terán, JM, Pérez-Iglesias, R, Carrasco-Marín, E, Mata, I, González-Mandly, A, Jorge, R, Vázquez-Barquero, JL (2007). Low-activity allele of catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMTL) is associated with increased lateral ventricles in patients with first episode non-affective psychosis. Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry 31, 1514–1518.
Dean, K, Bramon, E, Murray, RM (2003). The causes of schizophrenia: neurodevelopment and other risk factors. Journal of Psychiatric Practice 9, 442–454.
DeLisi, LE (2008). The concept of progressive brain change in schizophrenia: implications for understanding schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin 34, 312–321.
Dempster, E, Toulopoulou, T, McDonald, C, Bramon, E, Walshe, M, Filbey, F, Wickham, H, Sham, PC, Murray, RM, Collier, DA (2005). Association between BDNF Val66 Met genotype and episodic memory. American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics 134, 73–75.
Dubertret, C, Hanoun, N, Adès, J, Hamon, M, Gorwood, P (2005). Family-based association study of the 5-HT transporter gene and schizophrenia. International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology 8, 87–92.
Dutta, R, Greene, T, Addington, J, McKenzie, K, Phillips, M, Murray, RM (2007). Biological, life course, and cross-cultural studies all point toward the value of dimensional and developmental ratings in the classification of psychosis. Schizophrenia Bulletin 33, 868–876.
Egan, MF, Goldberg, TE, Kolachana, BS, Callicott, JH, Mazzanti, CM, Straub, RE, Goldman, D, Weinberger, DR (2001). Effect of COMT Val108/158 Met genotype on frontal lobe function and risk for schizophrenia. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 98, 6917–6922.
Endicott, J, Spitzer, RL (1978). A diagnostic interview: the schedule for affective disorders and schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry 35, 837–844.
Fan, JB, Sklar, P (2005). Meta-analysis reveals association between serotonin transporter gene STin2 VNTR polymorphism and schizophrenia. Molecular Psychiatry 10, 928–938.
Farmer, A, Elkin, A, McGuffin, P (2007). The genetics of bipolar affective disorder. Current Opinion in Psychiatry 20, 8–12.
Frangou, S, Sharma, T, Sigmudsson, T, Barta, P, Pearlson, G, Murray, RM (1997). The Maudsley Family Study. 4. Normal planum temporale asymmetry in familial schizophrenia. A volumetric MRI study. British Journal of Psychiatry 170, 328–333.
Funke, B, Malhotra, AK, Finn, CT, Plocik, AM, Lake, SL, Lencz, T, DeRosse, P, Kane, JM, Kucherlapati, R (2005). COMT genetic variation confers risk for psychotic and affective disorders: a case control study. Behavioral and Brain Functions (http://www.behavioralandbrainfunctions.com/content/pdf/1744-9081-1-19.pdf). Accessed 28 July 2008.
Gelernter, J, Kranzler, H, Cubells, JF (1997). Serotonin transporter protein (SLC6A4) allele and haplotype frequencies and linkage disequilibria in African- and European-American and Japanese populations and in alcohol-dependent subjects. Human Genetics 101, 243–246.
Georgieva, L, Dimitrova, A, Ivanov, D, Nikolov, I, Williams, NM, Grozeva, D, Zaharieva, I, Toncheva, D, Owen, MJ, Kirov, G, O'Donovan, MC (2008). Support for neuregulin 1 as a susceptibility gene for bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Biological Psychiatry 64, 419–427.
Gottesman, II, Gould, TD (2003). The endophenotype concept in psychiatry: etymology and strategic intentions. American Journal of Psychiatry 160, 636–645.
Gruber, O, Falkai, P, Schneider-Axmann, T, Schwab, SG, Wagner, M, Maier, W (2008). Neuregulin-1 haplotype HAPICE is associated with lower hippocampal volumes in schizophrenic patients and in non-affected family members. Journal of Psychiatric Research 43, 1–6.
Hajek, T, Carrey, N, Alda, M (2005). Neuroanatomical abnormalities as risk factors for bipolar disorder. Bipolar Disorders 7, 393–403.
Halliday, GM (2001). A review of the neuropathology of schizophrenia. Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology 28, 64–65.
Harrison, PJ, Weinberger, DR (2005). Schizophrenia genes, gene expression, and neuropathology: on the matter of their convergence. Molecular Psychiatry 10, 40–68.
Ho, BC, Andreasen, NC, Dawson, JD, Wassink, TH (2007). Association between brain-derived neurotrophic factor Val66Met gene polymorphism and progressive brain volume changes in schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry 164, 1890–1899.
Ho, BC, Milev, P, O'Leary, DS, Librant, A, Andreasen, NC, Wassink, TH (2006). Cognitive and magnetic resonance imaging brain morphometric correlates of brain-derived neurotrophic factor Val66Met gene polymorphism in patients with schizophrenia and healthy volunteers. Archives of General Psychiatry 63, 731–740.
Hoda, F, Nicholl, D, Bennett, P, Arranz, M, Aitchison, KJ, al-Chalabi, A, Kunugi, H, Vallada, H, Leigh, PN, Chaudhuri, KR, Collier, DA (1996). No association between Parkinson's disease and low-activity alleles of catechol O-methyltransferase. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 228, 780–784.
Ikeda, M, Iwata, N, Suzuki, T, Kitajima, T, Yamanouchi, Y, Kinoshita, Y, Ozaki, N (2006). No association of serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4) with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder in Japanese patients: association analysis based on linkage disequilibrium. Journal of Neural Transmission 113, 899–905.
Ikeda, M, Takahashi, N, Saito, S, Aleksic, B, Watanabe, Y, Nunokawa, A, Yamanouchi, Y, Kitajima, T, Kinoshita, Y, Kishi, T, Kawashima, K, Hashimoto, R, Ujike, H, Inada, T, Someya, T, Takeda, M, Ozaki, N, Iwata, N (2008). Failure to replicate the association between NRG1 and schizophrenia using Japanese large sample. Schizophrenia Research 101, 1–8.
Isohanni, M, Lauronen, E, Moilanen, K, Isohanni, I, Kemppainen, L, Koponen, H, Miettunen, J, Mäki, P, Räsänen, S, Veijola, J, Tienari, P, Wahlberg, KE, Murray, GK (2005). Predictors of schizophrenia: evidence from the Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort and other sources. British Journal of Psychiatry 48 (Suppl.), S4–S7.
Joo, EJ, Lee, KY, Jeong, SH, Ahn, YM, Koo, YJ, Kim, YS (2006). The dysbindin gene (DTNBP1) and schizophrenia: no support for an association in the Korean population. Neuroscience Letters 407, 101–106.
Joo, EJ, Lee, KY, Jeong, SH, Chang, JS, Ahn, YM, Koo, YJ, Kim, YS (2007). Dysbindin gene variants are associated with bipolar I disorder in a Korean population. Neuroscience Letters 418, 272–275.
Kanazawa, T, Glatt, SJ, Kia-Keating, B, Yoneda, H, Tsuang, MT (2007). Meta-analysis reveals no association of the Val66Met polymorphism of brain-derived neurotrophic factor with either schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. Psychiatric Genetics 17, 165–170.
Kempton, MJ, Geddes, JR, Ettinger, U, Williams, SC, Grasby, PM (2008). Meta-analysis, database, and meta-regression of 98 structural imaging studies in bipolar disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry 65, 1017–1032.
Ketter, TA, Wang, PW, Becker, OV, Nowakowska, C, Yang, Y (2004). Psychotic bipolar disorders: dimensionally similar to or categorically different from schizophrenia? Journal of Psychiatric Research 38, 47–61.
Kumari, V, Cooke, M (2006). Use of magnetic resonance imaging in tracking the course and treatment of schizophrenia. Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics 6, 1005–1016.
Kwon, OB, Longart, M, Vullhorst, D, Hoffman, DA, Buonanno, A (2005). Neuregulin-1 reverses long-term potentiation at CA1 hippocampal synapses. Journal of Neuroscience 225, 9378–9383.
Law, A (2003). Schizophrenia, IV: neuregulin-1 in the human brain. American Journal of Psychiatry 160, 1392.
Lawrie, SM, Abukmeil, SS (1998). Brain abnormality in schizophrenia. A systematic and quantitative review of volumetric magnetic resonance imaging studies. British Journal of Psychiatry 172, 110–120.
Lawrie, SM, Hall, J, McIntosh, AM, Cunningham-Owens, DG, Johnstone, EC (2008). Neuroimaging and molecular genetics of schizophrenia: pathophysiological advances and therapeutic potential. British Journal of Pharmacology 153 (Suppl.), S120–S124.
Li, D, Collier, DA, He, L (2006). Meta-analysis shows strong positive association of the neuregulin 1 (NRG1) gene with schizophrenia. Human Molecular Genetics 15, 1995–2002.
Lieberman, JA (1999). Is schizophrenia a neurodegenerative disorder? A clinical and neurobiological perspective. Biological Psychiatry 46, 729–739.
Lieberman, JA, Tollefson, GD, Charles, C, Zipursky, R, Sharma, T, Kahn, RS, Keefe, RS, Green, AI, Gur, RE, McEvoy, J, Perkins, D, Hamer, RM, Gu, H, Tohen, M; HGDH Study Group (2005). Antipsychotic drug effects on brain morphology in first-episode psychosis. Archives of General Psychiatry 62, 361–370.
Maier, W (2008). Common risk genes for affective and schizophrenic psychoses. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience 2 (Suppl.), S37–S40.
Malaspina, D (2006). Schizophrenia: a neurodevelopmental or a neurodegenerative disorder. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 67, e07.
Mansour, HA, Talkowski, ME, Wood, J, Pless, L, Bamne, M, Chowdari, KV, Allen, M, Bowden, CL, Calabrese, J, El-Mallakh, RS, Fagiolini, A, Faraone, SV, Fossey, MD, Friedman, ES, Gyulai, L, Hauser, P, Ketter, TA, Loftis, JM, Marangell, LB, Miklowitz, DJ, Nierenberg, AA, Patel, J, Sachs, GS, Sklar, P, Smoller, JW, Thase, ME, Frank, E, Kupfer, DJ, Nimgaonkar, VL (2005). Serotonin gene polymorphisms and bipolar 1 disorder: focus on the serotonin transporter. Annals of Medicine 37, 590–602.
Martorell, L, Costas, J, Valero, J, Gutierrez-Zotes, A, Phillips, C, Torres, M, Brunet, A, Garrido, G, Carracedo, A, Guillamat, R, Vallès, V, Guitart, M, Labad, A, Vilella, E (2008). Analyses of variants located in estrogen metabolism genes (ESR1, ESR2, COMT and APOE) and schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research 100, 308–315.
Massana, G, Salgado-Pineda, P, Junqué, C, Pérez, M, Baeza, I, Pons, A, Massana, J, Navarro, V, Blanch, J, Morer, A, Mercader, JM, Bernardo, M (2005). Volume changes in gray matter in first-episode neuroleptic-naive schizophrenic patients treated with risperidone. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology 25, 111–117.
Mata, I, Arranz, MJ, Patiño, A, Lai, T, Beperet, M, Sierrasesumaga, L, Clark, D, Perez-Nievas, F, Richards, L, Ortuño, F, Sham, P, Kerwin, RW (2004). Serotonergic polymorphisms and psychotic disorders in populations from North Spain. American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics 126B, 88–94.
Mata, I, Perez-Iglesias, R, Roiz-Santiañez, R, Tordesillas-Gutierrez, D, Gonzalez-Mandly, A, Luis Vazquez-Barquero, J, Crespo-Facorro, B (2009). A neuregulin 1 variant is associated with increased lateral ventricle volume in patients with first-episode schizophrenia. Biological Psychiatry 65, 535–540.
McDonald, C, Grech, A, Toulopoulou, T, Schulze, K, Chapple, B, Sham, P, Walshe, M, Sharma, T, Sigmundsson, T, Chitnis, X, Murray, RM (2002). Brain volumes in familial and non-familial schizophrenic probands and their unaffected relatives. American Journal of Medical Genetics (Neuropsychiatric Genetics) 114, 616–625.
McDonald, C, Marshall, N, Sham, PC, Bullmore, ET, Schulze, K, Chapple, B, Bramon, E, Filbey, F, Quraishi, S, Walshe, M, Murray, RM (2006). Regional brain morphometry in patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder and their unaffected relatives. American Journal of Psychiatry 163, 478–487.
McDonald, C, Zanelli, J, Rabe-Hesketh, S, Ellison-Wright, I, Sham, P, Kalidindi, S, Murray, RM, Kennedy, N (2004). Meta-analysis of magnetic resonance imaging brain morphometry studies in bipolar disorder. Biological Psychiatry 56, 411–417.
Molina, V, Reig, S, Sanz, J, Palomo, T, Benito, C, Sánchez, J, Pascau, J, Desco, M (2007). Changes in cortical volume with olanzapine in chronic schizophrenia. Pharmacopsychiatry 40, 135–139.
Morgan, KD, Dazzan, P, Orr, KG, Hutchinson, G, Chitnis, X, Suckling, J, Lythgoe, D, Pollock, SJ, Rossell, S, Shapleske, J, Fearon, P, Morgan, C, David, A, McGuire, PK, Jones, PB, Leff, J, Murray, RM (2007). Grey matter abnormalities in first-episode schizophrenia and affective psychosis. British Journal of Psychiatry 51 (Suppl.), S111–S116.
Munafò, MR, Bowes, L, Clark, TG, Flint, J (2005). Lack of association of the COMT (Val158/108 Met) gene and schizophrenia: a meta-analysis of case–control studies. Molecular Psychiatry 10, 765–770.
Murray, RM, Sham, P, Van Os, J, Zanelli, J, Cannon, M, McDonald, C (2004). A developmental model for similarities and dissimilarities between schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Schizophrenia Research 71, 405–416.
Neves-Pereira, M, Cheung, JK, Pasdar, A, Zhang, F, Breen, G, Yates, P, Sinclair, M, Crombie, C, Walker, N, St Clair, DM (2005). BDNF gene is a risk factor for schizophrenia in a Scottish population. Molecular Psychiatry 10, 208–212.
Neves-Pereira, M, Mundo, E, Muglia, P, King, N, Macciardi, F, Kennedy, JL (2002). The brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene confers susceptibility to bipolar disorder: evidence from a family-based association study. American Journal of Human Genetics 71, 651–655.
Nunokawa, A, Watanabe, Y, Muratake, T, Kaneko, N, Koizumi, M, Someya, T (2007). No associations exist between five functional polymorphisms in the catechol-O-methyltransferase gene and schizophrenia in a Japanese population. Neuroscience Research 58, 291–296.
Ohnishi, T, Hashimoto, R, Mori, T, Nemoto, K, Moriguchi, Y, Iida, H, Noguchi, H, Nakabayashi, T, Hori, H, Ohmori, M, Tsukue, R, Anami, K, Hirabayashi, N, Harada, S, Arima, K, Saitoh, O, Kunugi, H (2006). The association between the Val158Met polymorphism of the catechol-O-methyl transferase gene and morphological abnormalities of the brain in chronic schizophrenia. Brain 129, 399–410.
Peper, JS, Brouwer, RM, Boomsma, DI, Kahn, RS, Hulshoff Pol, HE (2007). Genetic influences on human brain structure: a review of brain imaging studies in twins. Human Brain Mapping 28, 464–473.
Peralta, V, Cuesta, MJ (2007). A dimensional and categorical architecture for the classification of psychotic disorders. World Psychiatry 6, 100–101.
Pfefferbaum, A, Sullivan, EV, Swan, GE, Carmelli, D (2000). Brain structure in men remains highly heritable in the seventh and eighth decades of life. Neurobiology of Aging 21, 63–74.
Prasad, KM, Keshavan, MS (2008). Structural cerebral variations as useful endophenotypes in schizophrenia: do they help construct ‘extended endophenotypes’? Schizophrenia Bulletin 34, 774–790.
Prata, DP, Breen, G, Munro, J, Sinclair, M, Osborne, S, Li, T, Kerwin, R, St Clair, D, Collier, DA (2006). Bipolar 1 disorder is not associated with the RGS4, PRODH, COMT and GRK3 genes. Psychiatric Genetics 16, 229–230.
Reveley, AM, Reveley, MA, Chitkara, B, Clifford, C (1984). The genetic basis of cerebral ventricular volume. Psychiatry Research 13, 261–266.
Rijsdijk, FV, van Haren, NE, Picchioni, MM, McDonald, C, Toulopoulou, T, Hulshoff Pol, HE, Kahn, RS, Murray, R, Sham, PC (2005). Brain MRI abnormalities in schizophrenia: same genes or same environment? Psychological Medicine 35, 1399–1409.
Riley, B, Kendler, KS (2006). Molecular genetic studies of schizophrenia. European Journal of Human Genetics 14, 669–680.
Rosa, A, Cuesta, MJ, Fatjó-Vilas, M, Peralta, V, Zarzuela, A, Fañanás, L (2006). The Val66Met polymorphism of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene is associated with risk for psychosis: evidence from a family-based association study. American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics 141, 135–138.
Saleem, Q, Ganesh, S, Vijaykumar, M, Reddy, YC, Brahmachari, SK, Jain, S (2000). Association analysis of 5HT transporter gene in bipolar disorder in the Indian population. American Journal of Medical Genetics (Neuropsychiatric Genetics) 96, 170–172.
Sand, PG, Eichhammer, P, Langguth, B, Hajak, G (2006). COMT association data in schizophrenia: new caveats. Biological Psychiatry 60, 663–664.
Sanders, AR, Duan, J, Levinson, DF, Shi, J, He, D, Hou, C, Burrell, GJ, Rice, JP, Nertney, DA, Olincy, A, Rozic, P, Vinogradov, S, Buccola, NG, Mowry, BJ, Freedman, R, Amin, F, Black, DW, Silverman, JM, Byerley, WF, Crowe, RR, Cloninger, CR, Martinez, M, Gejman, PV (2008). No significant association of 14 candidate genes with schizophrenia in a large European ancestry sample: implications for psychiatric genetics. American Journal of Psychiatry 165, 497–506.
Scherk, H, Falkai, P (2006). Effects of antipsychotics on brain structure. Current Opinion in Psychiatry 19, 145–150.
Schulze, K, McDonald, C, Frangou, S, Sham, P, Grech, A, Toulopoulou, T, Walshe, M, Sharma, T, Sigmundsson, T, Taylor, M, Murray, RM (2003). Hippocampal volume in familial and nonfamilial schizophrenic probands and their unaffected relatives. Biological Psychiatry 53, 562–570.
Seidman, LJ, Faraone, SV, Goldstein, JM, Kremen, WS, Horton, NJ, Makris, N, Toomey, R, Kennedy, D, Caviness, VS, Tsuang, MT (2002). Left hippocampal volume as a vulnerability indicator for schizophrenia: a magnetic resonance imaging morphometric study of nonpsychotic first-degree relatives. Archives of General Psychiatry 59, 839–849.
Seidman, LJ, Wencel, HE (2003). Genetically mediated brain abnormalities in schizophrenia. Current Psychiatry Report 5, 135–144.
Shenton, ME, Dickey, CC, Frumin, M, McCarley, RW (2001). A review of MRI findings in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research 49, 1–52.
Shi, J, Gershon, ES, Liu, C (2008). Genetic associations with schizophrenia: meta-analyses of 12 candidate genes. Schizophrenia Research 104, 96–107.
Sklar, P, Gabriel, SB, McInnis, MG, Bennett, P, Lim, YM, Tsan, G, Schaffner, S, Kirov, G, Jones, I, Owen, M, Craddock, N, DePaulo, JR, Lander, ES (2002). Family-based association study of 76 candidate genes in bipolar disorder: BDNF is a potential risk locus. Brain-derived neutrophic factor. Molecular Psychiatry 7, 579–593.
Steen, RG, Mull, C, McClure, R, Hamer, RM, Lieberman, JA (2006). Brain volume in first-episode schizophrenia: systematic review and meta-analysis of magnetic resonance imaging studies. British Journal of Psychiatry 188, 510–518.
Stefanis, N, Frangou, S, Yakeley, J, Sharma, T, O'Connell, P, Morgan, K, Sigmundsson, T, Taylor, M, Murray, RM (1999). Hippocampal volume reduction in schizophrenia: effects of genetic risk and pregnancy and birth complications. Biological Psychiatry 46, 697–702.
Stefansson, H, Sarginson, J, Kong, A, Yates, P, Steinthorsdottir, V, Gudfinnsson, E, Gunnarsdottir, S, Walker, N, Petursson, H, Crombie, C, Ingason, A, Gulcher, JR, Stefansson, K, St Clair, D (2003). Association of neuregulin 1 with schizophrenia confirmed in a Scottish population. American Journal of Human Genetics 72, 83–87.
Stefansson, H, Sigurdsson, E, Steinthorsdottir, V, Bjornsdottir, S, Sigmundsson, T, Ghosh, S, Brynjolfsson, J, Gunnarsdottir, S, Ivarsson, O, Chou, TT, Hjaltason, O, Birgisdottir, B, Jonsson, H, Gudnadottir, VG, Gudmundsdottir, E, Bjornsson, A, Ingvarsson, B, Ingason, A, Sigfusson, S, Hardardottir, H, Harvey, RP, Lai, D, Zhou, M, Brunner, D, Mutel, V, Gonzalo, A, Lemke, G, Sainz, J, Johannesson, G, Andresson, T, Gudbjartsson, D, Manolescu, A, Frigge, ML, Gurney, ME, Kong, A, Gulcher, JR, Petursson, H, Stefansson, K (2002). Neuregulin 1 and susceptibility to schizophrenia. American Journal of Human Genetics 71, 877–892.
Strasser, HC, Lilyestrom, J, Ashby, ER, Honeycutt, NA, Schretlen, DJ, Pulver, AE, Hopkins, RO, Depaulo, JR, Potash, JB, Schweizer, B, Yates, KO, Kurian, E, Barta, PE, Pearlson, GD (2005). Hippocampal and ventricular volumes in psychotic and nonpsychotic bipolar patients compared with schizophrenia patients and community control subjects: a pilot study. Biological Psychiatry 57, 633–639.
Styner, M, Lieberman, JA, McClure, RK, Weinberger, DR, Jones, DW, Gerig, G (2005). Morphometric analysis of lateral ventricles in schizophrenia and healthy controls regarding genetic and disease-specific factors. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 102, 4872–4877.
Szeszko, PR, Lipsky, R, Mentschel, C, Robinson, D, Gunduz-Bruce, H, Sevy, S, Ashtari, M, Napolitano, B, Bilder, RM, Kane, JM, Goldman, D, Malhotra, AK (2005). Brain-derived neurotrophic factor Val66Met polymorphism and volume of the hippocampal formation. Molecular Psychiatry 10, 631–636.
Taylor, WD, Züchner, S, Payne, ME, Messer, DF, Doty, TJ, MacFall, JR, Beyer, JL, Krishnan, KR (2007). The COMT Val158Met polymorphism and temporal lobe morphometry in healthy adults. Psychiatry Research 155, 173–177.
Tunbridge, EM, Harrison, PJ, Weinberger, DR (2006). Catechol-o-methyltransferase, cognition, and psychosis: Val158Met and beyond. Biological Psychiatry 60, 141–151.
Walterfang, M, Wood, SJ, Velakoulis, D, Pantelis, C (2006). Neuropathological, neurogenetic and neuroimaging evidence for white matter pathology in schizophrenia. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews 30, 918–948.
Wang, PW, Ketter, TA (2000). Biology and recent brain imaging studies in affective psychoses. Current Psychiatry Reports 2, 298–304.
Weickert, CS, Straub, RE, McClintock, BW, Matsumoto, M, Hashimoto, R, Hyde, TM, Herman, MM, Weinberger, DR, Kleinman, JE (2004). Human dysbindin (DTNBP1) gene expression in normal brain and in schizophrenic prefrontal cortex and midbrain. Archives of General Psychiatry 61, 544–555.
Whitworth, AB, Kemmler, G, Honeder, M, Kremser, C, Felber, S, Hausmann, A, Walch, T, Wanko, C, Weiss, EM, Stuppaeck, CH, Fleischhacker, WW (2005). Longitudinal volumetric MRI study in first- and multiple-episode male schizophrenia patients. Psychiatry Research 140, 225–237.
Wickham, H, Murray, RM (1997). Can biological markers identify endophenotypes predisposing to schizophrenia? International Review of Psychiatry 9, 355–364.
Williams, HJ, Glaser, B, Williams, NM, Norton, N, Zammit, S, MacGregor, S, Kirov, GK, Owen, MJ, O'Donovan, MC (2005). No association between schizophrenia and polymorphisms in COMT in two large samples. American Journal of Psychiatry 162, 1736–1738.
Williams, HJ, Owen, MJ, O'Donovan, MC (2007). Is COMT a susceptibility gene for schizophrenia? Schizophrenia Bulletin 33, 635–641.
Williams, NM, Preece, A, Spurlock, G, Norton, N, Williams, HJ, Zammit, S, O'Donovan, MC, Owen, MJ (2003). Support for genetic variation in neuregulin 1 and susceptibility to schizophrenia. Molecular Psychiatry 8, 485–487.
Wood, SJ, Pantelis, C, Velakoulis, D, Yücel, M, Fornito, A, McGorry, PD (2008). Progressive changes in the development toward schizophrenia: studies in subjects at increased symptomatic risk. Schizophrenia Bulletin 34, 322–329.
Wood, SJ, Velakoulis, D, Smith, DJ, Bond, D, Stuart, GW, McGorry, PD, Brewer, WJ, Bridle, N, Eritaia, J, Desmond, P, Singh, B, Copolov, D, Pantelis, C (2001). A longitudinal study of hippocampal volume in first episode psychosis and chronic schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research 52, 37–46.
Wright, IC, Rabe-Hesketh, S, Woodruff, PW, David, AS, Murray, RM, Bullmore, ET (2000). Meta-analysis of regional brain volumes in schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry 157, 16–25.