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The epidemiology of traumatic event exposure worldwide: results from the World Mental Health Survey Consortium

  • C. Benjet (a1), E. Bromet (a2), E. G. Karam (a3) (a4) (a5), R. C. Kessler (a6), K. A. McLaughlin (a7), A. M. Ruscio (a8), V. Shahly (a6), D. J. Stein (a9), M. Petukhova (a6), E. Hill (a6), J. Alonso (a10), L. Atwoli (a11), B. Bunting (a12), R. Bruffaerts (a13), J. M. Caldas-de-Almeida (a14), G. de Girolamo (a15), S. Florescu (a16), O. Gureje (a17), Y. Huang (a18), J. P. Lepine (a19), N. Kawakami (a20), Viviane Kovess-Masfety (a21), M. E. Medina-Mora (a1), F. Navarro-Mateu (a22), M. Piazza (a23), J. Posada-Villa (a24), K. M. Scott (a25), A. Shalev (a26), T. Slade (a27), M. ten Have (a28), Y. Torres (a29), M. C. Viana (a30), Z. Zarkov (a31) and K. C. Koenen (a32)...
Abstract
Background

Considerable research has documented that exposure to traumatic events has negative effects on physical and mental health. Much less research has examined the predictors of traumatic event exposure. Increased understanding of risk factors for exposure to traumatic events could be of considerable value in targeting preventive interventions and anticipating service needs.

Method

General population surveys in 24 countries with a combined sample of 68 894 adult respondents across six continents assessed exposure to 29 traumatic event types. Differences in prevalence were examined with cross-tabulations. Exploratory factor analysis was conducted to determine whether traumatic event types clustered into interpretable factors. Survival analysis was carried out to examine associations of sociodemographic characteristics and prior traumatic events with subsequent exposure.

Results

Over 70% of respondents reported a traumatic event; 30.5% were exposed to four or more. Five types – witnessing death or serious injury, the unexpected death of a loved one, being mugged, being in a life-threatening automobile accident, and experiencing a life-threatening illness or injury – accounted for over half of all exposures. Exposure varied by country, sociodemographics and history of prior traumatic events. Being married was the most consistent protective factor. Exposure to interpersonal violence had the strongest associations with subsequent traumatic events.

Conclusions

Given the near ubiquity of exposure, limited resources may best be dedicated to those that are more likely to be further exposed such as victims of interpersonal violence. Identifying mechanisms that account for the associations of prior interpersonal violence with subsequent trauma is critical to develop interventions to prevent revictimization.

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Copyright
Corresponding author
* Address for correspondence: C. Benjet, Dirección de Investigaciones Epidemiológicas y Psicosociales, Instituto Nacional de Psiquiatría Ramón de la Fuente, Calzada México-Xochimilco 101, San Lorenzo Huipulco, México D.F., 14370, Mexico. (Email: cbenjet@imp.edu.mx)
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