Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 6
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Gaebel, Wolfgang and Zäske, Harald 2011. Coercive Treatment in Psychiatry.

    Tan, Eric J. Yelland, Gregory W. and Rossell, Susan L. 2016. Characterising receptive language processing in schizophrenia using word and sentence tasks. Cognitive Neuropsychiatry, Vol. 21, Issue. 1, p. 14.

    Grant, Paul M. and Beck, Aaron T. 2010. Asocial beliefs as predictors of asocial behavior in schizophrenia. Psychiatry Research, Vol. 177, Issue. 1-2, p. 65.

    Premkumar, Preethi Onwumere, Juliana Wilson, Daniel Sumich, Alexander Castro, Antonio Kumari, Veena and Kuipers, Elizabeth 2014. Greater positive schizotypy relates to reduced N100 activity during rejection scenes. Neuropsychologia, Vol. 61, p. 280.

    Premkumar, Preethi Ettinger, Ulrich Inchley-Mort, Sophie Sumich, Alexander Williams, Steven C.R. Kuipers, Elizabeth and Kumari, Veena 2012. Neural processing of social rejection: The role of schizotypal personality traits. Human Brain Mapping, Vol. 33, Issue. 3, p. 695.

    de Sousa, Paulo Spray, Amy Sellwood, William and Bentall, Richard P. 2015. ‘No man is an island’. Testing the specific role of social isolation in formal thought disorder. Psychiatry Research, Vol. 230, Issue. 2, p. 304.


Evaluation sensitivity as a moderator of communication disorder in schizophrenia

  • P. M. Grant (a1) and A. T. Beck (a1)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 20 April 2009

Communication disturbance (thought disorder) is a central feature of schizophrenia that predicts poor functioning. We investigated the hypothesis that memory and attention deficits interact with beliefs about the gravity of being rejected (i.e. evaluation sensitivity) to produce the symptoms of communication disorder.


Seventy-four individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia or schizo-affective disorder completed a battery of tests assessing neurocognition (attention, working and verbal memory, abstraction), symptomatology (positive, negative and affective), functioning, and dysfunctional beliefs.


Patients with communication deviance (n=33) performed more poorly on the neurocognitive tests and reported a greater degree of sensitivity to rejection than patients with no thought disorder (n=41). In a logistic regression analysis, evaluation sensitivity moderated the relationship between cognitive impairment and the presence of communication disorder. This finding was independent of hallucinations, delusions, negative symptoms, depression and anxiety.


We propose that negative appraisals about acceptance instigate communication anomalies in individuals with a pre-existing diathesis for imperfect speech production.

Corresponding author
*Address for correspondence: P. M. Grant, Ph.D., Room 2032, 3535 Market Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104-3309, USA. (Email:
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

A Agresti (2007). Introduction to Categorical Data Analysis, 2nd edn.Wiley: Hoboken, NJ.

NC Andreasen (1983). The Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms (SAPS). University of Iowa: Iowa City.

NC Andreasen , S Arndt , R Alliger , D Miller , M Flaum (1995). Symptoms of schizophrenia. Methods, meanings and mechanisms. Archives of General Psychiatry 52, 341351.

AT Beck (1976). Cognitive Therapy and the Emotional Disorders. Meridian: New York.

AT Beck , RA Steer , GK Brown , A Weissman (1991). Factor analysis of the Dysfunctional Attitude Scale in a clinical population. Psychological Assessment 3, 478483.

KR Blankstein , ZV Segal (2001). Cognitive assessment. In Handbook of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapies (ed. K. S. Dobson ), pp. 4085. Guilford Press: New York.

AS Cohen , NM Docherty (2005). Effects of positive affect on speech disorder in schizophrenia. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 193, 839842.

NM Docherty (1996). Affective reactivity of symptoms as a process discriminator in schizophrenia. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 184, 535541.

NM Docherty (2005). Cognitive impairments and disordered speech in schizophrenia: thought disorder, disorganization, and communication failure perspectives. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 114, 269278.

NM Docherty , M DeRosa , NC Andreasen (1996). Communication disturbances in schizophrenia and mania. Archives of General Psychiatry 53, 358364.

NM Docherty , IM Evans , WH Sledge , JP Seibyl , JH Krystal (1994). Affective reactivity of language in schizophrenia. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 182, 98102.

NM Docherty , SW Gordinier , MJ Hall , LP Cutting (1999). Communication disturbances in relatives beyond the age of risk for schizophrenia and their associations with symptoms in patients. Schizophrenia Bulletin 25, 851862.

NM Docherty , SW Gordinier , MJ Hall , ME Dombrowski (2004). Referential communication disturbances in the speech of nonschizophrenic siblings of schizophrenia patients. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 113, 399405.

NM Docherty , MJ Hall , SW Gordinier (1998). Affective reactivity of speech in schizophrenia patients and their nonschizophrenic relatives. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 107, 461467.

SE Fienberg (1991). The Analysis of Cross-Classified Categorical Data. The MIT Press: Cambridge, MA.

DC Glahn , TD Cannon , RE Gur , JD Ragland , RC Gur (2000). Working memory constrains abstraction in schizophrenia. Biological Psychiatry 47, 3442.

RC Gur , JL Jaggi , JD Ragland , SM Resnick , D Shtasel , L Muenz , RE Gur (1993). Effects of memory processing on regional brain activation: cerebral blood flow in normal subjects. International Journal of Neuroscience 72, 3144.

RE Gur , VL Nimgaonkar , L Almsay , ME Calkins , JD Ragland , MF Pogue-Geile , S Kanes , J Blangero , RC Gur (2007). Neurocognitive endophenotypes in a multiplex multigenerational family study of schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry 164, 813819.

G Haddock , M Wolfenden , I Lowens , N Tarrier , R Bentall (1995). Effect of emotional salience on thought disorder in patients with schizophrenia. British Journal of Psychiatry 167, 618620.

M Harrow , J Marengo , C McDonald (1986). The early course of schizophrenic thought disorder. Schizophrenia Bulletin 12, 208224.

J Jaccard (2001). Interaction Effects in Logistic Regression. Sage Publications: London.

J Kerns , H Berenbaum (2003). The relationship between formal thought disorder and executive functioning component processes. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 112, 339352.

JG Kerns (2007 b). Verbal communication impairments and cognitive control components in people with schizophrenia. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 116, 279289.

JG Kerns , TM Becker (2008). Communication disturbances, working memory, and emotion in people with elevated disorganized schizotypy. Schizophrenia Research 100, 172180.

JG Kerns , H Berenbaum (2002). Cognitive impairments associated with formal thought disorder in people with schizophrenia. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 111, 211224.

EI Knudsen (2007). Fundamental components of attention. Annual Review of Neuroscience 30, 5778.

HC Kraemer , E Stice , A Kazdin , D Offord , D Kupfer (2001). How do risk factors work together? Mediators, moderators, and independent, overlapping, and proxy risk factors. American Journal of Psychiatry 158, 848856.

WJM Levelt (1989). Speaking: From Intention to Articulation. MIT Press: Cambridge, MA.

PF Liddle (1987). The symptoms of chronic schizophrenia: a re-examination of the positive–negative dichotomy. British Journal of Psychiatry 151, 145151.

JIJ Nurnberger , MC Blehar , CA Kaufmann , C York-Cooler , SG Simpson , J Harkavy-Friedman , JB Severe , D Malaspina , T Reich (1994). Diagnostic interview for genetic studies: rationale, unique features, and training: NIMH Genetics Initiative. Archives of General Psychiatry 51, 849859; discussion 863–864.

WA Phillips , SM Silverstein (2003). Convergence of biological and psychological perspectives on cognitive coordination in schizophrenia. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 26, 6582; discussion 82–137.

NA Rector (2004). Dysfunctional attitudes and symptom expression in schizophrenia: differential associations with paranoid delusions and negative symptoms. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy: An International Quarterly 18, 163173.

IS Rosenfarb , MJ Goldstein , J Mintz , KH Nuechterlein (1995). Expressed emotion and subclinical psychopathology observable within the transactions between schizophrenic patients and their family members. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 104, 259267.

IS Rosenfarb , KH Nuechterlein , MJ Goldstein , KL Subotnik (2000). Neurocognitive vulnerability, interpersonal criticism, and the emergence of unusual thinking by schizophrenic patients during family transactions. Archives of General Psychiatry 57, 11741179.

A Shimkunas (1972). Demand for intimate self-disclosure and pathological verbalizations in schizophrenia. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 80, 197205.

JS Strauss , WT Carpenter (1974). The prediction of outcome in schizophrenia II: Relationships between prediction and outcome variables. Archives of General Psychiatry 31, 3742.

D Titone , DL Levy (2004). Lexical competition and spoken word identification in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research 68, 7585.

D Titone , DL Levy , PS Holzman (2000). Contextual insensitivity in schizophrenic language processing: evidence from lexical ambiguity. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 109, 761767.

D Titone , M Libben , M Niman , L Ranbom , DL Levy (2007). Conceptual combination in schizophrenia: contrasting property and relational interpretations. Journal of Neurolinguistics 20, 92110.

PJ Uhlhaas , SM Silverstein , WA Phillips , PG Lovell (2004). Evidence for impaired visual context processing in schizotypy with thought disorder. Schizophrenia Research 68, 249260.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Psychological Medicine
  • ISSN: 0033-2917
  • EISSN: 1469-8978
  • URL: /core/journals/psychological-medicine
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *