Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 250
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Lamster, Fabian Nittel, Clara Rief, Winfried Mehl, Stephanie and Lincoln, Tania 2017. The impact of loneliness on paranoia: An experimental approach. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, Vol. 54, p. 51.

    Aaltonen, Kari Näätänen, Petri Heikkinen, Martti Koivisto, Maaria Baryshnikov, Ilya Karpov, Boris Oksanen, Jorma Melartin, Tarja Suominen, Kirsi Joffe, Grigori Paunio, Tiina and Isometsä, Erkki 2016. Differences and similarities of risk factors for suicidal ideation and attempts among patients with depressive or bipolar disorders. Journal of Affective Disorders, Vol. 193, p. 318.

    Abu-Akel, A. Reniers, R. L. E. P. and Wood, S. J. 2016. Visual-spatial processing and working-memory load as a function of negative and positive psychotic-like experiences. Cognitive Neuropsychiatry, p. 1.

    Abu-Akel, Ahmad M. Apperly, Ian A. Wood, Stephen J. and Hansen, Peter C. 2016. Autism and psychosis expressions diametrically modulate the right temporoparietal junction. Social Neuroscience, p. 1.

    Abu-Akel, Ahmad Apperly, Ian A. Wood, Stephen J. Hansen, Peter C. and Mevorach, Carmel 2016. Autism Tendencies and Psychosis Proneness Interactively Modulate Saliency Cost. Schizophrenia Bulletin, p. sbw066.

    Albacete, Auria Contreras, Fernando Bosque, Clara Gilabert, Ester Albiach, Ángela Menchón, José M. Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto and Ayesa-Arriola, Rosa 2016. Counterfactual Reasoning in Non-psychotic First-Degree Relatives of People with Schizophrenia. Frontiers in Psychology, Vol. 7,

    ALEMANY, S. MOYA, J. IBÁÑEZ, M. I. VILLA, H. MEZQUITA, L. ORTET, G. GASTÓ, C. FAÑANÁS, L. and ARIAS, B. 2016. Research Letter: Childhood trauma and the rs1360780 SNP of FKBP5 gene in psychosis: a replication in two general population samples. Psychological Medicine, Vol. 46, Issue. 01, p. 221.

    Berna, Fabrice Göritz, Anja S. Schröder, Johanna Martin, Brice Cermolacce, Michel Allé, Mélissa C. Danion, Jean-Marie Cuervo-Lombard, Christine V. and Moritz, Steffen 2016. Self-disorders in individuals with attenuated psychotic symptoms: Contribution of a dysfunction of autobiographical memory. Psychiatry Research, Vol. 239, p. 333.

    Broyd, Samantha J. Greenwood, Lisa-marie van Hell, Hendrika H. Croft, Rodney J. Coyle, Hannah Lee-Bates, Ben Todd, Juanita Johnstone, Stuart J. Michie, Patricia T. and Solowij, Nadia 2016. Mismatch Negativity and P50 Sensory Gating in Abstinent Former Cannabis Users. Neural Plasticity, Vol. 2016, p. 1.

    Broyd, Samantha J. Michie, Patricia T. Bruggemann, Jason van Hell, Hendrika H. Greenwood, Lisa-marie Croft, Rodney J. Todd, Juanita Lenroot, Rhoshel and Solowij, Nadia 2016. Schizotypy and auditory mismatch negativity in a non-clinical sample of young adults. Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging, Vol. 254, p. 83.

    Collin, G. de Nijs, J. Hulshoff Pol, H.E. Cahn, W. and van den Heuvel, M.P. 2016. Connectome organization is related to longitudinal changes in general functioning, symptoms and IQ in chronic schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research, Vol. 173, Issue. 3, p. 166.

    Davidson, Charlie A. Hoffman, Lesa and Spaulding, William D. 2016. Schizotypal personality questionnaire – brief revised (updated): An update of norms, factor structure, and item content in a large non-clinical young adult sample. Psychiatry Research, Vol. 238, p. 345.

    DeRosse, Pamela Ikuta, Toshikazu Karlsgodt, Katherine H. Peters, Bart D. Gopin, Chaya B. Szeszko, Philip R. and Malhotra, Anil K. 2016. White Matter Abnormalities Associated With Subsyndromal Psychotic-Like Symptoms Predict Later Social Competence in Children and Adolescents. Schizophrenia Bulletin, p. sbw062.

    Galletly, Cherrie Clark, Levina McFarlane, Alexander Searle, Amelia Sawyer, Michael Sim, Malcolm Baghurst, Peter and van Hooff, Miranda 2016. Childhood lead exposure, childhood trauma, substance use and subclinical psychotic experiences–a longitudinal cohort study. Psychiatry Research, Vol. 239, p. 54.

    Garzitto, Marco Picardi, Angelo Fornasari, Livia Gigantesco, Antonella Sala, Michela Fagnani, Corrado Stazi, Maria Antonietta Ciappolino, Valentina Fabbro, Franco Altamura, Alfredo Carlo and Brambilla, Paolo 2016. Normative data of the Magical Ideation Scale from childhood to adulthood in an Italian cohort. Comprehensive Psychiatry, Vol. 69, p. 78.

    Gomez-Pilar, Javier Martín-Santiago, Oscar Suazo, Vanessa de Azua, Sonia Ruiz Haidar, Mahmoud Karim Gallardo, Ricardo Poza, Jesús Hornero, Roberto and Molina, Vicente 2016. Association between electroencephalographic modulation, psychotic-like experiences and cognitive performance in the general population. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, Vol. 70, Issue. 7, p. 286.

    Janssens, Mayke Boyette, Lindy-Lou Heering, Henriëtte D. Bartels-Velthuis, Agna A. and Lataster, Tineke 2016. Developmental course of subclinical positive and negative psychotic symptoms and their associations with genetic risk status and impairment. Schizophrenia Research, Vol. 174, Issue. 1-3, p. 177.

    Jansson, Lennart and Nordgaard, Julie 2016. The Psychiatric Interview for Differential Diagnosis.

    Jaya, Edo S. Ascone, Leonie and Lincoln, Tania M. 2016. Social Adversity and Psychosis: The Mediating Role of Cognitive Vulnerability. Schizophrenia Bulletin, p. sbw104.

    Knežević, Goran Lazarević, Ljiljana B. Bosnjak, Michael Purić, Danka Petrović, Boban Teovanović, Predrag Opačić, Goran and Bodroža, Bojana 2016. Towards a personality model encompassing a Disintegration factor separate from the Big Five traits: A meta-analysis of the empirical evidence. Personality and Individual Differences, Vol. 95, p. 214.


Evidence that three dimensions of psychosis have a distribution in the general population

  • N. C. STEFANIS (a1), M. HANSSEN (a1), N. K. SMIRNIS (a1), D. A. AVRAMOPOULOS (a1), I. K. EVDOKIMIDIS (a1), C. N. STEFANIS (a1), H. VERDOUX (a1) and J. VAN OS (a1)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 01 February 2002

Background. The aims of the study were: first to examine, using clinical symptoms of patients as a template, whether the correlated but independent dimensions of positive, negative and depressive symptoms that have been identified in clinical psychosis, also have a distribution as non-clinical experiences in the general population; and second, to establish to what degree population variation in experience of positive and negative features of psychosis is actually independent of experience of depression.

Method. In a representative population sample of 932 young men, we measured experiences of positive, negative and depressive features of psychosis, using a 40-item self-report instrument. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to compare the fit of hypothesized one-, two- and three-factor solutions.

Results. A three-factor model of separate depressive, positive and negative dimensions provided a better fit to the data than either a two-factor or unidimensional model. All three dimensions were correlated with each other, but also showed good discriminant validity in relation to established scales, confirming their relative independence.

Conclusion. The data suggest that the correlated dimensions of clinical psychosis also have a distribution in the general population, and that depressive symptoms may form an integral part of psychosis-like experiences in the general population.

Corresponding author
Address for correspondence: Professor J. Van Os, Department of Psychiatry and Neuropsychology, Maastricht University, PO Box 616 (PAR 45), 6200 MD Maastricht, The Netherlands.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Psychological Medicine
  • ISSN: 0033-2917
  • EISSN: 1469-8978
  • URL: /core/journals/psychological-medicine
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *