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Evolution of neuropsychological dysfunction during the course of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder

  • K. E. Lewandowski (a1), B. M. Cohen (a1) and D. Öngur (a1)

Neurocognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia (SZ), bipolar (BD) and related disorders represents a core feature of these illnesses, possibly a marker of underlying pathophysiology. Substantial overlap in domains of neuropsychological deficits has been reported among these disorders after illness onset. However, it is unclear whether deficits follow the same longitudinal pre- and post-morbid course across diagnoses. We examine evidence for neurocognitive dysfunction as a core feature of all idiopathic psychotic illnesses, and trace its evolution from pre-morbid and prodromal states through the emergence of overt psychosis and into chronic illness in patients with SZ, BD and related disorders.


Articles reporting on neuropsychological functioning in patients with SZ, BD and related disorders before and after illness onset were reviewed. Given the vast literature on these topics and the present focus on cross-diagnostic comparisons, priority was given to primary data papers that assessed cross-diagnostic samples and recent meta-analyses.


Patients with SZ exhibit dysfunction preceding the onset of illness, which becomes more pronounced in the prodrome and early years following diagnosis, then settles into a stable pattern. Patients with BD generally exhibit typical cognitive development pre-morbidly, but demonstrate deficits by first episode that are amplified with worsening symptoms and exacerbations.


Neuropsychological deficits represent a core feature of SZ and BD; however, their onset and progression differ between diagnostic groups. A lifetime perspective on the evolution of neurocognitive deficits in SZ and BD reveals distinct patterns, and may provide a useful guide to the examination of the pathophysiological processes underpinning these functions across disorders.

Corresponding author
*Address for correspondence: Dr K. E. Lewandowski, AB347, McLean Hospital, 115 Mill Street, Belmont, MA02478, USA. (Email:
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This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

HE Becker , DH Nieman , S Wiltink , PM Dingemans , JR van de Fliert , E Velthorst , L de Haan , TA van Amelsvoort , DH Linszen (2010). Neurocognitive functioning before and after the first psychotic episode: does psychosis result in cognitive deterioration? Psychological Medicine. Published online: 5 February 2010. doi:10.1017/S0033291710000048.

M Lenzenweger , R Dworkin (1998). Origins and Development of Schizophrenia: Advances in Experimental Psychopathology. American Psychological Association: Washington, DC.

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Psychological Medicine
  • ISSN: 0033-2917
  • EISSN: 1469-8978
  • URL: /core/journals/psychological-medicine
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